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Book No. Accession 

! CAUF0RNIAM4 frwfltf 'gi; 

F979.471 f ffe^ 244120 


FORM 3-J27 5000 IO-4S 









S. H. Willey, C. L. Anderson, Ed. Martin, W. H. Hobbs, 



Personal Notices of Prominent Citizens. 

San Francisco, 106 Leidesdorff Street : 

Wallace W. Elliott & Co., Publishers. 



F f979.471 H629 

History of Santa Cruz 
County, California : 
1879. , 


Court $ouse, |anta ^ruz.^al 

Table of Contents. 

Historical and Biographical. 

Anderson, C. L., Climate, Botany and Geology, -J- 1 

Adam Rev,. Article on Missions 6 

Appeal tn {'. S. Government 9 

Agricultural Association 49 

Area oi State '''- 

Acres and Productions ot the State iw 

Aptos Village I 5 . 

" Hotef. J? 

Anchor House • To 

Alzino, Francisco 2d 

Adams, David L '-'_ 

Arano, Joseph 7o 

" Francisco n 

Anthony, Elihu 29 

Aldridge, Frank ^ 

Amador, Jose Maria 94 

Daubinbiss, John. 
Devoll, Phillip H. 
Drussel, Daniel . . 

Elegant Residences. 
Episcopal Church. - 

Ely's Block 

Elliott, E 

Ely, William 

Bathing Facilities 67 

Banks of Santa Cruz. 

" Watsonville 

Battle of Salinas 

Bay of Monterey Found and Named, 

Baptist Church 

Botany of Santa Cruz and Vicinity. 

Beautiful Scene 

Baldwin's Article on Dairying 

Baldwin & Wilder's Dairy, Description of. 

First Church Dedicated * 

" Saw Mill ll 

" Tan Yard n 

" County Safe 30 

" Miniug Pick 2.) 

" Cast Iron Plow 29 

" Foundry 29 

" Grist Mill 12 

" Vessel built 14 

" Protestant Worship 23 

" School in Santa Cruz 20 

" Lime Kiln 28 

" Grant of Ranches. ' 

Foreigners begin to come 8 

to be feared. 

Lumber Business -£ 

Lime " ~), 

List of Forest Trees *j> 

" ■' County Officers * < 

" " Governors of California 10j> 

Loma Prieta °* 

Land Titles - *>! 

Livery Business ™ 

Lorenzo • i Ml 

Libraries ' 

Lewis House - i£ 

Local Item '*, 

Lodtmann, E. & J ') 

Lynch, S..T f. 

Lee, Julius J*/ 

Lewis, Alexander 8r 

. . ,„- Sugar Manufacture 51 

Bolsa-del-Pajaro Ranch » 5 , 

Beautiful Valley °° 

Big Trees of Santa Cruz £' 

" " California 5 * 

Blackburn as Alcalde. 
Blackburn, William.. 

Baldwin, Alfred 

L. K 

Bennett, Vardman . . . 
Bailey, F. E„ Dr.... 

Bausch, Henry 

Bowie, Adam 

Bagnall.J.D ;"' 

Burton, John A 

Birleiu, William 

Bradley, Richmond 

California in Transition 

Camp Capitola 

Changeful Scenes 


Condition of Agriculture in 1832 >> 

California Grist Mill ? 

:: S:::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::| 

Classification of Duties ■'* 

Capitals of California ■« 

Cotton Hall ™ 

California Powder Works *« 

County Statistics S. 

Corralitos Ranch j£J 

School 6o 

Village o5 

Catholic Orphan Asylum. •»> 

Church of Pajaro Valley ^U 

" Santa Cruz o« 

" " Watsonville 93 

Coal Mines 

Calaveras Big Trees 

City of Santa Cruz 

" Government of Santa Cruz 

Court House 

Churches of Santa Cruz 

" " Watsonville 

Congregational Church 

Caaaday. Geo 

Craig, A 

Chace, J. D 

Forest Trees of Santa Cruz 43 

Flowering Plants 44 

Fruits and Vines 48 

Fishing and Hunting 52 

Flour Mills 70 

Fogs 42 

Felton Village ' j- 

Fire Department, Watsonville 72 

Felton and Santa Cruz R. R 76 

Flag raised at Monterey 31 

Farnham, Thos. J 10 

Ford, John 

General History of Santa Cruz County 1 

" Arrest , » 

Geology of Santa Cruz County 46 

Geological Fonnatious 4li 

General Remarks on Geology 47 

" Description of the County 48 

Green Valley °,5 

'< " School "5 

Gas and Water in Santa Cruz 68 

Gas Works of Watsonville 73 

I inner Bros. Mill 74 

Gagnon, Michael r 9 J 

Ground, Charles Jl 

Grover, S. F ™ 

Grover, J. L *} 

Grover, D. W ol 

Garratt, R. M w 

Monterey Bay Searched for * 

" " Not Recognized - 

" " Visited Again " 

" " Discovered at Last . - 

Mission of Santa Cruz '} 

" Daily Life Z 

Murdered Missionary ' 

Men of the Transition Period ]1 

Malaria *;* 

Mineral Springs *' 

Mortality Table *' 

Manufacturing Establishments *J 

Maraposa Grove. . 
Merced ' 

Mixed Society , . . 
Methodist Church 


Mansion House . . . 

Martin, J. E., Dr ■ «J 

Martin, Ed., Hon °< 

Mahoney, M. W., Rev 93 

McCarthy, Timothy £> 

McNeeley, A °° 

McAllister, Patrick »j 

Moreland, Samuel °j* 

Meder, Moses A ■ ■ *j 

Matteson, Jolin S. 

Deeline of the Missions 

Duties Collected in 1839 

Dairying in 8anta Cruz County 

" Remarks on ■• - ■ •■ ■■"■/. 

Description of Pajaro Valley, by Ed. Martin... 
" " Watsonville " 

" •' Santa Cruz City 

•• " " " County. 

Discovery <>f Gold - 

How Santa Cruz was Named - 

Humiliation 10 

Homes in Santa Cruz 06 

Humidity 43 

Healthfuluesa of Watsonville j»o 

Holy Cross School *>9 

Hotels of Santa Cruz "8 

" Watsonville 7* 

Hobbs, W. H., Article on Schools «1 

Hecox, Adna A 1» 

Hilin, F. A., Hon »i 

Hagemanu. F °~ 

Hardv, William « 

Hall, a H J4 

Hodson, J. R *! 

Hutchings, L. S £; 

Harkins, James •*•■ 

Hablitos. Marino M 

Introductory } 

Indians \'±*\ i 

Independence of Mexico Contemplated 

Influence of Climate on Health. 

Meyrick & Co 71 

Names of Missions 5 

" Forest Trees 4.* 

Notes on the Missions 6 

Natural Bridge 51 

Newspapers of Santa Cruz 78 

Nichol, B. C 75 

Independent Order o 

f OcldFellowB 70 

Kirby, R. C 

Karner, Zadoc 

Kennedy, Thomas 

Kiihlitz, Chas 

Kittridge, F. M., Dr 

Letter to President Tyler. 


Object of Missions. ' 

Organization of Missions 7 

Old' Village of Branciforte "6 

Ocean Villa %$ 

Odd Fellows Hall ' J» 

Officers of Santa Cruz County ' ' 

" " Watsonville 73 

Official Vote of the State in 1870 102 

Period of Discovery 1 

" " the Missions ■' 

Pajaro River Discovered '- 

Plow used in 1832 ;> 

Productions of Santa Cruz 48 

Pajaro Landing 5& 

Productions of Pajaro Valley ™> 

Prominent Citizens of Pajaro Valley. . »» 

Pioneers of Pajaro Valley 5b 

Pioneer Women of Santa Cruz 71 

Pleasure Resorts 07 

Public Buildings j» 

Pacific Oceau House 6b 

Pope's Hotel 68 

Private Residences of Santa Cruz 71 

" " " Watsonville 73 

Public Schools of Watsonville 7* 

Personal Notices of Citizens of Santa Cruz 87 

" " Watsonville.... 81 


property Statistics of State. 

porter C. K. & B. F 

pope, H. W 

outer, John Thomas 

eck, W. E 88 


Kemaina of old Mission Church 

Redwood Forest 


Race Track 

Railroad Communication 


Roman Catholic Church JJ M 

Real Estate Jl 

Residences of Santa Cruz Jl 

Reading Room of Watsonville '- 

Railroads J6 

Roache School °n 

Recorder °U 

Roache, Alex P yu 

San Lorenzo Pound and Named 

Success in Cultivation 

Secularization of the Missions. . 

Specimen Proclamation. 

Sutter's Diary and Mill 

Wind Currents 

WatsiHLville Described. 
" Beach.. . . 


Water Works. 
Daily Recorder, 


Younger, C. B JJo 

Young, J. S « 

" Wesley P 8J 



:::::::: \ 

., 10 


Santa Cruz County, how situated 41 

Salubrity 42 

Sea Bathing 4 £ 

Sea Mosses 4^ 

Situation of Pajaro Valley 54 

Sal-si-puedes Ranch 54 

San Andreas " 55 

Santa Cruzfor Homos and Health 45 

" " City Described 67 

" Railroad 76 

" " Brewery 70 

Sea Side Home 84 

St Patrick's Church 96 

South Pacific Coast Railroad 73 

Statistics of the County 53 

Schools of Santa Cruz County 61 

School Statistics 69 

" census 63 

" of the Holy Cross 69 

Statistics of School Property 63 

" " Finances 64 

School of Green Valley 65 

" Koaclie District 80 

" Union " 66 

" Watsonville 73 

" Corralitos 65 

St. Charles Hotel 68 

Street Cars of Santa Cruz 68 

School Bnildiugs of Santa Crnz 68 

Society, Past and Present 94 

Soda Works 70 

Scott & Co., Livery 68 

Sunny Side 74 

Santa Cruz Courier 79 

" " Sentinel 78 

" " Local Item 79 

Sutter, John A 40 

Spence, David 8 

Sweet, Paul 11 

St. Clair, Truitt 12 

Sawiu, R. H 27 

Spreckles, Glaus 84 

Simpson, J. F. . . 70 

Stoesser, Otto 88 

Struve, H. C 90 

St. Paul, Gustave de 90 

Schmidt, Peter A. 91 

Stewart, M. M 93 

Steinmitz, Clias 81 

Anthony, E 

Anthony, E Mrs 

Daubiubiss, John 

Daubinbiss, Mrs. S. C 

Heeox, A. A 

Kirby R. C 

Meder.M. A ** 

RoxaB, Justiniano * 

Sutter, John A 40 


Central and Southern California 2 

Geological Formations 41 

State of California 1 

Wind Currents 41 

Outline Map 3 

Tannery of C. K. & B. F. Porter 74 

" R. C. Kirby 26 

Temperance Societies 70 

Tuolumne Grove 59 

Tulare " 60 

Trees and Shrubs in State Capitol 35 

Trevothen, William 12 

Tarleton, Thus. H 74 

Tresconey, Alberto 30 

Union School 66 

Unity Church 70 

University of State 97 


Vine Hill 

Village of Branciforte. 

" Soquel 


... 52 
... 52 
... 66 
... 74 
... 71 

j ' Lorenzo 71 

'• Watsouville 72 

'• Aptos 75 

Vallejo, Gen. M. G 95 

... 1 

... 51 


Huteliins, Lyman S 

Hodson'a Photograph Gallery. 
Harkins, James 

List of Illustrations. 

Anthony, E 90 

Aldridge, Frank 82 

Arano, Joseph 60 

Adams, D. L 52 

Anchor Hotel 60 

Aptos Hotel 64 

Anderson, Dr. C. L 48 

Baldwin, Levi K., Residence.* 8 

" " Dairy Ranch 12 

" & Wilder, Upper Dairy Ranch 12 

" Alfred 70 

Bailey, Dr. F. E 70 

Bliss, Geo. H 50 

Blackburn Homestead 4 

Bloch, Joseph 54 

Burtou, John A 78 

Birlem, William 78 

Bowie, Adam 76 

Bliss, M. B 96 

Bagnall, J. D 92 

Bridal Veil Falls 102 

Bay View School House 1 

Big Tiees Near Felton 57 

California Grist Mill, 1832 5 

California Fruit 48 

Caleveras Big Trees, Sequoir Gigantia 5S 

Camp Capitola "34 

Catholic Church, Santa Cruz 6 

Cope, William T 28 

Catioon, E. B 86 

Casaday, George 74 

Corralitos School House 98 

Chace, J. D. 48 

Corcoran, James 42 

California Powder Works 24 

Courier Office 54 

Coffin, H 48 

City Stable 31} 

Court House ] 

Catholic Orphan Asylum 90 

Drussel, Daniel 90 

Devoll, P H (U> 

Daubinhiss, John 26 

Elliott, B 68 

Ely Block 54 

Kirby, R. C. Residence * 

" " Tannery '* 

Karner, Z . „ 

Kittredge, A. M., Mrs 4° 

Kuhlitz, Charles |» 

Kennedy, Thomas, Stable > z 




Lynch, S. J 

Lodtmann, E. & J 
Lee, Julius 

Wiiluy, S, H„ History of Santa Cruz. 
Warm licit 

Ford, John 

Garratt, II. M, 

Grover & Co. Mill 

Gaffey, M. V 

Green Valley School House. 


Lewis House 72 

Local Item Block 6b 

Light House 6b 

Myrick & Co 71 

Meder, M. A 30 

Matteson, J. S "* 

McNeely, Archibald 74 

Moreland, S., Mrs 80 

McCarty, Timothy 96 

Mineral Spring 60 

Martin, Ed 28 

Martin, Dr. E. J 82 

Monterey in 1848 33 

Nichols, B. C 60 

Noble, Augustus 52 

Natural Bridge. 12 

Orphan Asylum and Church 90 

Ocean Villa 50 

Plow used in 1832 5 

Portsmouth Square 32 

Porter's Tannery and Residence 58 

Pope,H. W 20 

Palace Saloon 54 

Pajaronian Office 84 

Pacific Ocean House 18 


H I'. A, 

V. . . . 

Richards, A. M. Mrs.. 

Roache, A. P 

Roache School House. 

Sea Side Home 70 

St. Charles Hotel 54 

Struve, H. C, Residence 90 

Ranch 90 

Schmitt, P. H 7S 

Snodgrass, Thomas 84 

Snodgrass Block S4 

Stoesser, Otto, Block 84 

Stewart. M. M 92 

School of the Holy Cross 6 

Scott & Co., Livery Stable 36 

Simpson, James F 42 

Steiumitz, Charles 70 

Sylvar, ) 100 

Santa Cruz Flour Mdl 42 

Santa Cruz Soda Works 48 

Spreckels, C, Residence 62 

Spreckles, C.. Hotel 64 

Santa Cruz, Aptos and Soqui-1 Combination 102 

Sentinel Office 54 

Santa Cruz City 102 

Santa Cruz High School 1 

State I lapitol Building 2 

Steamer State of California 104 

State House San Jose, 1849 34 

Sutter's Mill 36 

State University Building 97 

Transcript < Iffice ^4 

Trescouy, Alberto 52 

Tarleton, Thomas S 52 

Tuolumne Big Tree 60 

Union School House 9S 

Vallejo, (it-11., Residence, IS4S. 


Wilder, D. 1'.. Residence 10 

Wilder, D. D., Dairy Ranch 12 

Wilson, Martha, Mrs 88 

Winkle, II '•" 68 

Widemnuu, J, I.. 30 

Watsouville Schools ^ l * 



Younger. C. H '" 

YoUUg, .1. S 

Young w. r 16 


The historical matter for this work has been mainly furnished 
bv Rev S. H. Willey D. D., C. L. Anderson, M. D., Hon. Ed. 
Martin, W. H. Hobbs, and Rev. Mr. Adam, who were recom- 
mended as representative citizens, and acknowledged to be 
thoroughly posted on the various subjects assigned them. We 
are under obligations for the able and impartial manner m winch 
they have represented the various important features of he 
county To their contributions have been added Hems selected 
from the various newspapers, or furnished by different citizens, 
to whom we are under obligation. We have been in """T-- 
unable to give proper credit for articles found floating about or 
sent to us and have therefore transferred them boldly to these 
columns. All history is made up from the statements and rec- 
ords of others. There can be no originality in the facts of 

^Tolhis we have added several subjects not strictly belonging 
to the county, but like General Sutter's narrative, explanatory 
rftheeariy matters in which every pioneer was inseparably 

"design of this publication is, to represent by pictures the 
mos Important featuL of Santa Cruz county as preserved n. 
residences, farms, and business. It is conceded tha .every hand 
some residence, good business block, or improved form * a 
mTnument to the taste and prosperity of the community m 
wh!l they are situated, and no written description can ade- 
Tuately portray them to the world. Our task has bed to 
endtvorto reproduce these features; to make history by p.ctares 

"£ tr^nltefrom errors. Few persons without actual 
experence can comprehend the care and pains necessary to com- 
PlXsucW work. Every picture has to be made from fresh, 
net and original designs, and to pass through various processe 
bv^ffei-ent persons before completion. In order to arrive at 
accuracy Z our sketches we have required the written approval 

but attempts to reproduce works of nature, or art, on paper, and 
are always subjects of adverse criticism. 

We hope our efforts to represent Santa Cruz county may 
cause its inhabitants to understand more fully its resources; to 
know more about its grand scenery, heakng springs hue vine- 
yards, broad productive wheat fields, mild and healthful climate, 
variously productive soils, excellent public and private school 
fine churches, superior bathing facilities and m fact every Wed 
requisite for desirable residence, the truth of which need only be 
known to attract attention from everywhere. 

Though California has been celebrated in books, newspapers 
and magazines for a score of years, it is still comparatively un- 
known m its realities. It is still looked upon as a land of big 
beets of rough miners, of millionairs, of pistols, hoodlums, 
Chinese, large fruit, high prices, and abounding m dangers to 

Ttttr our sincere wish and conscientious aim to make, 
work that citizens of Santa Cruz county may eel proud to show 
to their friends, or the many people who yearly visit the county 
in search of health, pleasure or profit. 

We especially desire to return thanks to the editors and pub- 
lishers of the various newspapers of the county, who have at aU 
times aided usby giving access to the files of then --^2' 
from which we have made numerous and extended selection* 
wTalso are under obligations for their cordial supper and 
patronage-they being among the first to encourage us by 
orders for their buildings to be represented m this work. 

To many oldsettlers, whose years of honorable toil have tans- 
fcrred the wild lands into harvest-laden fields, we acknowledge 
our obligations for historical and biographical incidents con- 
nected with the early history of the county. 

Our thanks arc due to the citizens of Santa Cruz county for 
the cordial good feeling manifested toward our enterprise. In 
an experience of years we never found a more hospitable, or 
L g tic p pie Ian the citizens of Santa Cruz county, and 
have received from them that aid and support which can only 
be expected among prosperous and *^£j******. 



BY s. h. willey, d.d 


The writing of the following historical sketch has been a very 
pleasant task. And yet I am aware that it is imperfectly done. 
My readers who were most familiar with the early days will see 
how much more I might have said. 

But I have sought information from all sources. I have asked 
publicly that it should be sent to me. And all this material I 
have interwoven in the narrative in proportion to the space al- 
lotted me. 

I have sought to give special fullness to the narrative of the 
Mission period of Santa Cruz, before the facts of that curious 
phase of life are altogether lost, and also to the transition-period 
from the Mexican, to what we call the American type and style 
of civilization. 

I have brought down the history in this way to the time 
when California became a State of the American Union, and 
Santa Cruz county was organized as it now is. This leaves the 
more modern history of affairs to those who write the individual 
biographies and the history of the industries of the county. 


The early history of Santa Cruz county is identified with that 
of the entire country around Monterey Bay. 

Its wood-crowned mountains attracted the attention of Juan 
Rodoriguez Cabrillo on his first voyage of exploration up this 
coast in 1542, only fifty years after Columbus discovered 

The mountains he had seen along the coast to the southward 
were bare, and when he gets sight of these wood-ci-owned ranges 
he makes note of the fact, and says he is at the time near the 
thirty-seventh parallel of latitude. 

Just this glimpse of this section of country is given us in the 
journal of the first explorer, and we see no more of it for thirty- 
six years. 

Then the next explorer, Sir Francis Drake, sailing along the 
same track observes these same wooded mountains. 

Then there is another silence concerning this region, of twenty- 
four years, when Viscayno comes, exploring more carefully, and 
searching for harbors. 

It is he who finds Monterey bay. He gets here, December 
16, 1602. His object was to find a port where the ships com- 
ing from the Phillipine Islands to Acapulco, a trade which had 
then been established some thirty years, might put in, and pro- 
vide themselves with wood, water, masts and other things of 
absolute necessity, 

Viscayno gave the name of Monterey to this bay. On the 
next day after he anchored near the site of the present town of 
Monterey, religious worship was held " under a large oak by the 

The description they give of the harbor says:" "Near the 
shore are an infinite number of very large pines, straight and 
smooth, fit for masts and yards, likewise oaks of a prodigious 
size for building ships." " Here likewise are rose trees, white 
thorns, firs, willows and poplars; large clear lakes and fine 
pastures and arable lands." 

Viscayno leaves on the 3d of January 1603, and then follows 
a long silence of more than a hundred and sixty years, during 
which no record speaks of this region of country. 

Then we find it approached by land. A great zeal for mis- 
sions had sprung up, and then prevailed in Mexico for Chris- 
tianizing the regions at the North. The glowing descriptions of 
the old navigators who touched here more than a hundred and 
fifty years before were revived, and now came into existence a 
desire both in Spain and Mexico, to enter in and possess the land. 

Two divisions of the expedition reached San Diego nearly at 
the same time. One by sea and the other by land, up the pen- 
insula of Lower California. 

They were there together and founded the first of the Missions 
of Upper California on the 16th day of July, 1769. But their 
zeal was too great to allow them to wait at that southernmost 
border of the promised land. They set then- faces northward. 


They had read of Viscayno, and his glowing description of 
the country around the bay he named " Monterey." They pro- 
posed to set out at once to find it by land. 

The expedition left San Diego July 14th, 1769, and was com- 
posed of Governor Portala, Captain Revera, with twenty-seven 
soldiers with leathern jackets, and Lieutenant P. Fages with 
seven volunteers of Catalonia, besides Engineer Constanzio, and 
fifteen Christian Indians, from Lower California. 

Fathers Crespi and Gomez accompanied them for then* spirit- 
ual consolation, and to keep a diary of their expedition. Owing 
to Father Crespi's diary, the principal incidents of this first 
journey by land up this coast are known to us. They kept near 
the sea-shore most of the way. They were constantly passing 
ranchareas of Indians, whom they greeted as well as they knew 
how, and they were not molested by them. It was late in Sep- 
tember, when they came in sight of the bay of Monterey, the 
very bay they were in search of, but they did not recognize it! 

Father Crespi and the Commandante, ascend a hill and look 
down upon it. 




Th ev recognize Point Pinos, and New Year s Point as described 
by ! ,,Lra, but they do not recogniaa the bay as V-^"-** 
of « Monterey I » His certainly very strange that they dint 
but for some reason they did not seem to have thought of Ha 
being the very spot they were in search of! 

The description of it by which they were guided was of corn, 
one given by those coining into the bay by water It .nay not 
have been detailed or definite, or suited to guide those seeking it 

^ittny rate, the soldiers explored Point Pinos on both sides 
and vet never recognized the place. 

The were all half of a mind to give up the search and go back. 

But the resolution to proceed on still further prevailed and so 
they resumed their march. We trace them now step by step. 
They cross the Salinas River. They pass several lagoons. 1 hey 
descend into the Pajaro Valley and camp near the bank of the 

They name the river " Pajaro " because they find here an im- 
mense bird killed, stuffed with hay, measuring nine feet and three 
inches from tip to tip of the wings spread out. Here too, not 
far from the river they make note of finding the deer. 


Moreover, in this valley they meet with an encampment of 
Indian? numbering, as they say, five hundred. 

The Indians had no notice of the arrival of strangers in then- 
land and were alarmed. Some took to their arms; some ran to 
and fro shouting. The women fell to weeping bitterly. Sar- 
geant Ortega alights from his horse and approaches them, mak- 
ing signs of peace. 

He picked up from the ground, arrows, and little flags which 
they had set, and they clapped then- hands in sign of approba- 

They were asked for something to eat. The women hastened 
to their huts and began to pound seeds and make a kind of paste. 

But when the Fathers returned to the same spot the next day, 
they found only smoking remains of the Indian's camp, the In- 
dians themselves having set fire to it and gone away. 


They described the banks of the Pajaro River as they found 
them in the fall of 1709, thickly covered with trees. They 
speak particularly of the redwood, calling it " palo Colorado " on 
account of its color. Father Orespi says the trees are very high, 
and think they resemble the cedar of Lebanon, save that the 
wood has no odor. The leaves, too, he says, are different, and 
the wood is very brittle. 

They stopped near a lake where there was a great deal of 
pasture, and they saw a number of cranes. They rested there 
three days, on account of the sick. 

On the 17th of October, they move on again, walking all the 
time through good land, at a distance of some three miles from 
the sea. 


At the end of that day's journey, they come to the river 
known t<» us as the San Lorenzo, They propose to cross it, not 
farfromthesea. They find the banks steep. They were thickly 
grown with a forest of willows, cottonwood and sycamore, so 
thick that they had to cut fc n eir way through. 

"It was one of tin- largest rivers," Father <' 

Irespi says. | 

i that we met with, on our journey." The river was ffity-four 
fet til a" the point where they forded, and the water reached 
the belly of their horses. 

-We camped," says Father Orespi, "on the nor h side o ft 1,, 
river and we had a great deal of work to cut down trees to 
?;tSi. £ our beasts." -Not far ^ "- 
we saw a fertile spot where the grass was not burnt and it was 
pleasure to see the pasture, and the variety of herW^ 
bushes of Castile." " We did not see near the river, nor during 
our iourney any Indians." 

The next day about eight o'clock in the morning they move on 



"After proceeding about five hundred steps," Father Creapi 
says, "we passed a large stream of running water which had ite 
source among high hills, and passing through a table-land fur- 
nishes ample facility for irrigation. This creek they called "Santa 
Cruz," and it appears to be that which we know as Major s Mill 


And so the little stream gave its name to the city. 

Perhaps Justiniano Roxas who died in Santa Cruz in 1875, at 
the great age of one hundred and twenty-three years, saw this 
first party of white men that ever visited this region. He must 
have been then about sixteen or seventeen years old. 

The company remained some sixteen days near the bay. Long 
enough to get a very fail idea of the climate. The sky was clear 
and there was no fog. 

They push on northward until they discover San Francisco 
bay and reach the Golden Gate itself. 

We will not follow them thither, but on November 1!>, we 
find them passing New Year's Point on their return. On the 
21st they are at Laguna creek where they kill a multitude of 
wild geese. The day following we find them again fording the 
San Lorenzo, going southward. They stop at Soquel and call it 
"the rosary of St, Septaerine." 


Towards the end of November, we find them tarrying around 
Monterey again, not vwn now knowing that they were looking 
on the very harbor they were in search of ! They even think it 
possible that the harbor that Viscayno found a hundred and six- 
ty-six years before, and described in such glowing terms, may be 
rilled with sand, and for that reason they cannot find it. They 
erect a large cross near Point Pinos and place a writing at the 
foot of it, describing their hardships and disappointments, in case 
the vessel called the San Jose should anchor in that vicinity, and 
any of those on board should discover the cross and find the 

Finally after many hardships on the 24th day of January, 
1770, half dead with hunger they arrive at San Diego, after an 
absence of six months. 

They have accomplished that long and exceedingly laborious 

journey, they have twice passed and looked upon the very bay 
they were in search of, not knowing it ' 


The next time Monterey bay was searched for it was found. 
It was in that same year 1770. Two parties sei out from San 
Diego to find it, one by land, the other by water. Thev find the 
bay this time, reaching it very nearly together. 


On the third day of Juno, 1770, they take possession of the 
land in the name of the King of Spain. 

On the same day Father Junipero begins his mission, by erect- 
ing a cross, hanging bells from a tree and saying mass under the 
same venerable rock where Viseayno's party celebrated it in 
1002, one hundred and sixty-eight years before, 


Now begins the history of the Mission-period in the vicinity 
of Monterey bay. Five years later, in 1775, Father Palon, on 
his way at the time from San Francisco to Monterey passes 
Santa Cruz, and describes it thus: 

After crossing the creek of Santa Cruz, we forded the river 
San Lorenzo, which is pretty large and deep, the water reaching 
to the stirrups. The banks were covered with sycamore, cotton- 
wood and willow trees, and near the crossing close to the hills 
there are many redwood trees. 

This place is tit not only for a town, but for a city, without 
wanting any of the things necessary. With good land, water, 
pasture, wood and timber just within reach, and in great abund- 
ance, and close to Monterey bay. The town could be put a 
quarter of a league distant from the sea, with all the said con- 
veniences. Through the woods of this river I saw the huts of 
some Indians, though they did not show themselves. 

What has already taken place here sufficiently confirms the 
discernment and good judgment of Father Palon. 


It was not till twenty-two years after the first visit of the 
Spaniards to this locality in search of Monterey bay, that Santa 
Cruz Mission was founded. 

The benighted Indians at various points, all the way from ban 
Die^o up the coast had been provided with missions, but those 
around Aptos and Santa Cruz were not reached. The tune came 
when it was determined to commence a mission here. 

It was on the 25th day of September 1791, that Fathers 
Alonzo Salazar and Baldomero Lopez arrived and pitched then- 
tent on the hill on which the Catholic church now stands. They 
began hi a very primitive way. Something to serve for a church 
wis provided and so they began their work. It must have been 
rather lonely Their nearest neighbors were the Missions at Mon- 
terey Santa Clara and San Francisco, and the journey to either 
of those places, in these times must have been an undertaking. 
But they bring with them contributions from some other uils- 
su.ns to help them start their new housekeeping. 

Santa Clara gave thirty cows, five yoke of oxen fourteen huUs 
twenty steers and nine horses. << Two pans of the oxen, the 
leord runs, "were very bad." The CarmeVs M^sion gave seven 
u J From San Francisco came five yoke of oxen, but then 
is quaintly stated that "of those fire yoke of oxen, we had to 
kuT a pair I bad were they, and of the seven mules received 
"I Lmel, one was so gentle that he died three days after ! 
;.;; t f,;,, San Francisco, there camealso sixty sheep, ten rams, 

^X'-^-P^ They apply to the 
T r >n 1 , tcolate, to the value of forty-two dollars, 

surrounded Dy this beautiful scenery, but in seclusion and lone- 
liness. They lived under the shadow of these hills, The sun 
rose bright and the air was mild, as now, and the music of the 
surf and the roar of the ocean in times of storm, these things 
must bave been as familiar to them as they are now to us. 

But there must have been something of sublimity about them 
when all around was in a condition of nature, that we miss in 
our more artificial life. 

They go about their work, They get together the Indians as 
soon as possible, to communicate with them. They teach them 
some rude approach to the arts of civilized life. They teach the 
men to use tools, and the women to weave. 
And so a year and a half passes away. 

At this tune we find them with a great work on their hands. 
It is nothing less than the building of a church. 

We think that to be no small undertaking even now with all 
our facilities. But it is not easy for us to imagine what it was 
to them, with nothing but hand-labor; and that of a very rude 


But they set about it. They make adobes. They cut down 
the trees. They hew out the timber. By some means they get 
it up to the spot. No small undertaking that, as we can see now 
by examining those very beams, in what remains of that same 
old church. 

Nor did the hewing lack in skill and accuracy, as yon can also 
see, and the solid adobe walls, you can measure them, and you 
will find them to be five feet thick, 

It took a little over a year to build the church. It was one 
hundred and twelve and a half feet long, twenty-nine feet wide, 
and twenty-five and a half feet high. The first stone was laid ' 
on the 27th of February, 1793, audit was ready to be dedicated 
on the 10th of March, 1794. 


The dedication was a great occasion. Father Tomaz Pena 
came over from Santa Clara, and Hermenegildo Sal, command- 
ing officer of the Presidio of San Francisco came down, together 
with four or five priests. 

And so life at the Mission began in earnest. 

Other buildings were erected as they came to be needed. In 
the year 1S10 a large house with two wings is built for widows 

and for girls. 

The daily routine at all the missions was very much alike, and 

was about as follows: — 


They rose at sunrise and proceeded to the church, to attend 

morning prayers. Breakfast followed. Then the day's work. 

Towards noon they returned to the Mission and passed the 

time till two o'clock in the afternoon, between dinner and re- 
After that hour they resumed work and continued it till about 

sunset. Then all betook themselves to the church for evening 

devotions, and then to supper. 

After supper came amusements till the hour for retiring. 
Their diet consisted of beef and mutton with vegetables in 

the season. Wheaten cakes and puddings or porridge called 

atole add pinole formed a portion of the repast. 

The dress was for the males, linen shirt, trousers, and a blanket. 

The women had each two undergarments a year, a gown and a 




The agricultural success of the Mission in the year 1814 is 
shown by this statement. They sow 45 bushels of wheat, 7 
bushels of barley, 6 bushels of horse beans, 1 bushel of beans. 
1 bushel of peas. They harvest from that sowing 500 bushels 
of wheat, 200 bushels of barley, 200 bushels of horse beans and 
189 bushels of corn. 

The lands appertaining to the Mission were understood to be 
eleven leagues along the coast, and three leagues from the shore, 

The limit to the north may be indicated by the fact that there 
were 2900 head of cattle at New Year's Point in 1814, ami 
thirty-three miles thence down the coast would place the south- 
ern limit not far from Aptos. 

The cattle, flocks and herds increase rapidly, though there is 
no little complaint of the many wild animals that came down from 
the mountains and ravines making havoc often among the sheep 
and the cattle. 

For twenty -three years things went on prosperously, when an 
inventory shows the condition of the Mission. 

In those twenty-three years there were 1084 baptisms, 505 mar- 
riages, and 1242 deaths. This very large death-rate in those 
early years shows how far from kindly the Indians took to 
civilization. From the beginning as we have seen it in 1791, 
with only 33 head of breeding cattle, they have, in 1814, 3;300 
head of cattle, 3,500 sheep, 600 horses, 25 mules and 46 hogs. 

They had bells. Some of them were valuable. One account 
says there were nine in the church-tower, and they cost $3,900. 
What a clanging they must have made on the ah- when they 
were all ringing together. 

The Mission is said to have owned many valuable vestments, 
and other articles of church furniture. Fruit-trees and vines 
were planted, and even now, some of the pear trees are still 
standing that were then planted in the orchard. 

The remains of the wine cellar are also visible on the easterly 
side of the hill, below the old church. 


The side-walls of the rear part of the old church itself are 
standing, the front walls having fallen in in the year 1857. 

What remains of the building is now roofed with shingles, and 
shows what the structure must have been in the days when it 
was perfect. 

The mission-period of Santa Cruz was one of interest and life 
peculiar to itself - It has altogether passed away. The race for 
whose benefit it existed has died out. 

The village of Branciforte established on the south side of the 
Ban Lorenzo as a military protection, and assistance to the Mis- 
sion is almost forgotten. The careful observer may see a very 
few tile-roofs in that neighborhood, reminding one of the Mis- 
sion-days, but the name "Branciforte," will never go out of mind 
as long as that beautiful little river bears it, becoming tributary 
just there to the San Lorenzo. 

It taxes ones powers of imagination, to recall the picture of the' 
mission times, as we stand on these hill-slopes, all occupied with 
its new type of life. 

Not much is left to remind us of the days when everything 
centered at the Mission on the bill, and the industries went on 
with the routine- of mission-life. Very few records remain to help 

ns look in upon the life of those days, very few things are now 
to be found to show us what was done there. 

The remnants of the old church walls before mentioned, are 
still on their ancient foundations, saved thus from utter ruin by 
the wooden roof built over them. Something may be seen of the 
painting on their inner surfaces. An old adobe stairway within, 
is a curiosity. Leading up to a small window that looks out on 
a beautiful landscape. 

It must always have been beautiful. LlomaPriata rises in the 
distant horizon with its beautiful mountain outline to the left, up 
the Santa Cruz range, toward the source of the San Lorenzo, 
and to the right stretching away to the Gavilan range, and the 
valley of the Salinas. In the nearer view was the succession of 
hills and plains, of rivers and forests, and the curving bay-shore. 

What a dreamy secluded life it must have been here, with 
communication with the outer world only at intervals. 

Something of the remains of the old wine cellar may be seen, 
as has been said, and one of the large family of church bells, 
broken and silent, is now under a thicket of rose bushes in the 
Mission garden. 

Some very curious old manuscripts, from the hands of instruct- 
ed Indians are seen. Also old scores of music, written in very 
large characters, the Latin words of the chants divided plainly 
into syllables and made ready evidently for drill in the music 
room, and for use in public performance. 


Walter Colton says that in 1830 this Mission had 42,800 head 
of cattle, 3,200 horses and mares, 72,500 sheep, 200 mules and 
large herds of swine. 

That then the church was spacious, and was garnished wnth 
825,000 worth of silver plate. It was secularized in 1834, by 
order of Gen. Figueroa, and then according to another account, 
the liquidated value of the entire Missiou property was estimated 
at S97.301.96. 

Forbes says that in 1835, there were in Santa Cruz Mission, 
222 men, 94 women, 30 boys and 20 girls, in all 366. Also 
that that year, this Mission produced 400 bushels of corn, 965 
bushels of barley, and 75 bushels of beans. 

Further, that there were 3,500 black cattle, 040 horses, ,s2 
mules, 5,403 sheep; whereas, in 1830 there were 42,800 cattle, 
3,200 horses and mares, 75,000 sheep. 200 mules, and herds of 
swine. All which shows the rapid decline of this Mission from 
1830 to 1835. 

This mission was one of that line of twenty-one that stretched 
all the way up the coast from San Diego to Sonoma. 

The industry of the native Indians directed by the Fathers, 
erected the establishments, clothed and fed the inmates, and bye 
ami bye through the increase of herds, and by means of some 
trade with the outer world, accumulated great wealth. 

Fanning in California was in a very primitive state up to 
its occupation by the Americans. From a work published in 
London, in 1834, a traveler gives some interesting descriptions of 
the country about the Bay of Monterey, and the condition of 
farming as witnessed by him in 1832. The plow used at that 
time must have been of great antiquity. It was composed of 
two principal pieces; one, called die main piece, was formed out 
of a crooked branch of timber cut from a tree of such a natural 
shape as to form this main piece, which also formed the handle. 


Tins plow had only one handle and no mould-board or other 
contrivance for turning over the furrow, and was, therefore, 
only capable of making a simple cut equal on both sides. 
The only iron about the plow was a small piece fitted to the 
point of the stile, and of the shape- as seen in the detached part 
of the engraving. The beam was of great length, so as to reach 
the yoke of the oxen. This beam was also composed of a natural 
piece of wood, cut from a tree of proper dimensions, and had no 
dressing except taking off the bark. This beam was inserted 
into the upper part of the main piece, and connected with it by 
a small upright piece of wood on which it slides, and is fixed by 
two wedges; by withdrawing these wedges the beam was ele- 
ated ur lowered, and the depth of furrow regulated. 

Plow deed near Montekey Bay is 1832. 

The long beam passes between the two oxen like the pole of a 
carriage, and no chain is used. A pin is put through the point 
of the beam, and the yoke is tied to that by thongs of raw-hide. 
The plowman goes at one side, holding the handle with his right 
hand and managing the goad and cattle with his left. The 
manner of yoking the oxen was by putting the yoke (a straight 
stick of wood) on the top of the head close behind the horns and 
tied firmly to their roots and to the forehead by thongs, so that 
instead of drawing by the shoulders, as with us now, they drew 
by the roots of the horns, and forehead. They had no freedom 
to move their heads and went with the nose turned up and seemed 
to be in pain. 

With this plow only a sort of a rut could be made, and the 
soil was broken by successive crossing and recrossing many times. 
Plowino- could only be done after the rains came, and an im- 
mense number of ploys had to be employed. The harrow was 
totally unknown, and a long heavy log of wood was drawn over 
the field, something on the plan of a roller, but did not turn 

The form of the ox-cart was as rude as the plow. The pole 
was of very large dimensions and fastened to the yoke and oxen 
the same as the plow. The animals had to bear the weight of 
the load on their heads. This added greatly to the distress of 
the poor animals, as they feel every jerk and twist of the cart 
in the most sensible manner, and as the roads were full of ruts 
and stones, it is a wonder that the animals' heads were not twisted 
off". The wheels of this cart were of the most singular construc- 
tion. They had no spokes and were made of three pieces of 
timber. The middle piece is hewed out of a large tree, of size 
to form the nave and middle of the wheel, all in one. The other 
two pieces were made of timber bent and joined by- keys of 
wood. There does not enter into the construction of this cart a 
particle of iron, not even a nail, for the axle is of wood and the 
linch-pin of the same material. 

Wheat and eorn was generally ground or pounded in the 
common hand-stone mortar, but in larger settlements horse power 
was used in turning or rolling a large stone upon another as 
shown in the following engraving. 

Water power mills for grinding Hour in Upper California 
are hut few, and of the must primitive construction; but none 
better are to be found in the other parts of Spanish America, 

not even in Chili where wheat abounds. These mills consist of 
an upright axle, to the lower end of which is fixed a horizontal 
water-wheel placed under the building, and to the upper end of 
the mill-stone; and as there is no intermediate machinery to in- 
crease the velocity ; it is evident, that the mill-stone can make 
only the same number of revolutions as the water-wheel; this 
makes it necessary that the wheel should be of very small di- 
ameter, otherwise no power of water thrown upon it could make 
it go at a rate sufficient to give the mill-stone the requisite 
velocity. It Is therefore made of very small dimensions and 
constructed in the following manner. A set of what is called 
eucharas (spoons) are stuck into the periphery of the wheel, 
which serve in place of float boards, they are made of pieces of 
timber in something of the shape of spoons, the handles being 
inserted into mortices on the edge of the wheel, and the bowls 

California Grist Mill op 1842. 

of the spoons made to receive the water, which spouts on them 
laterly and forces round the small wheel with nearly the whole 
velocity of the water which impinges upon it. Of this style of 
mill there are not more than three in all California. 

The following table shows the number of inhabitants, amount 
of stock and productions of grain in the region about the Bay 
of Monterey, for the year 1832. The grain was calculated ac- 
cording to the Spanish fanegas. Estimating the fanega at 2 1-2 
English bushels, would make the amount of wheat for that year 
as about 8,712 bushels: 


Mission of Santa Cruz 

Presidio of Monterey 

Village of Brancit'orto 

Mission of San Juan Bautista 

ii « it Carlos 

" " " de la Soledad. 

" " " Antonio 

" " " Miguel 

" " " Luis Obispo. . 


4,509 4235 1,223 1,744 58GI86.A8 














0,991 43,408 

When Mexico became independent of Spain in 1822, the Mis- 
sion system felt the shock of the change in political affairs. 

Since writing the foregoing, Father Adam has furnished me 
the following interesting particulars which he has gathered from 
the Mission records, which I insert substantially as he has given 
them to me. 




itate tneir work. , . an( j 

written down on the 31st of December, 1 f 91. 
^SST-We baptised in to year eleven persons, 
niJL often adult*, the other srxty-cght nnd r ag. 
Hamaaea -We celebrated six marriages, all of Indians 
SS -Died on this Mission, a child baptized in the M^on 
of Santa Clara, his parents are Gentiles, and a grown person 

The Indians at present in this Mission are e.ghty-mne, three 
of then, from the Mission of Santa Clara, who were meorpo- 
rated in this Mission. 

Homed cattle.- 130 head of cattle, counting what the Mis- 
sion of Santa Clara and that of our Father St. Francos gave to us. 
Sheep, 146; horses, 23; mules, 5. 

Crops -We sowed, the following year, twelve bushels of 
wheat and one and a half bushels of horse beans, or vetches. 

We have built a house 26 varas or ells long, by six wide, with 
the rooms necessary for the Padre and offices. 

The church is twenty-one varas or ells long, and six wide, with 
a vestry four varas wide by six long. All these buildings formed 

° f We havt enclosed the place for cattle, sheep and horses. We 
have brought the water to the Mission, and we have fenced the 
orchard The tools used at this Mission belong to other MJssu ms, 
and we shall return them, when we will receive those which the 
King is going to send. _ 

We brought with us four candle-sticks of brass, a painting ot 
our Lady oF Sorrow, and an image of our Father St. Francis. 

This is copy of the original sent on the 31st Dec, 1791. 

Fr. Baldomen Lopez." 

From this document, the oldest I have found in this Mission, 
we can perceive the first missionaries did not keep a moment 
idle, but began at once tilling the land, erecting buildings, 
planting trees and rearing cattle. But while they provided for 
the temporal wants of their neophytes, they were far more anxi- 
ous for their spiritual welfare. To this purpose twice a day 
they were brought to the church, where Catechism was taught 
to them-, first by interpreters till they knew sufficiently Spanish, 
when the priests used to teach them themselves, 

The missionaries are highly criticised by some on account of 
giving so little or no secular instruction to the natives. 

First we have to reflect that in each Mission there was never 
more than two priests; one to attend to the temporal, the other 
to the spiritual welfare of their neophytes. 

How could they spare time to become scliool teachers and 

teach them how to write, read and make numbers? All these 
thing would have come if the Missions had been left to arrive 
to their mature age. From the beginning it was necessary to 

knowledge or secul.u ^2* Then it was not considered 
eyen ;u t C1 vihzed «to Th^ W rite his name. We 

a disgraC e it a man did n k now I ^ ^ ^ 

M T Uy ; TorZl ^nofmuch more excusable should 

in ^1 r n'l of criticizing theFathers for what theyhavenot done, 

In! time the Missions were left under their control. 
Sl T e^ttamongsttheold paper. I cannot find any aeeoun 
of tic condition of the Indians of this place at the arrival f th, 
JJ n2naries,nor anything concerning the ir ^it* or lan- 
( ■■ but from historical facts in general on the Indians of 
ffinia, we may guess more or less the condition of the ones 

^XS^g here and there in rancharias, and nothing is 
so ommon as to find in the old books, Indians of the rancherras 
Called "Achistace," by us named of St. Dionisius, or of rancho 

V> t see 55C the year 1795, they harvested 1100 bushels of 
wheat, 600 bushels of corn, 60 of beans, and hall a bushel ot 

l " In a few years they erected over 50 houses for the Indians, 
they enclosed very large potreros, and even as far as New Years 
Point they had houses for the steward and Indians fiuA were 
watching over the herds. _ 

Soon the tract of land along the coast was not sufficient foi 
the thousand head of cattle pasturing there, and the missionaries 
iml(1 , application to the commanding officer in Monterey to 
allow them to use the tract of land known as - bolsa or Salsi- 

P ^om what remains of the old adobe we may imagine the 
appearance of the other buildings, a row of houses used to run 
1U front of the Plaza, where the new church stands; then another 
wing was occupied by the girls under tutelage, called the con- 
vent In the rear there were the shops of the carpenter, shoe- 
maker, and blacksmith. 

The [n dians at the Missions were not all ot the same tribe, but 
perfect harmony prevailed, and when the season of work was 
over many paid visits to their countrymen and seldom returned 
alone, for the good friars had the art of making labor attractive 
The regulations of the Missions were uniform. At daybreak 
the bell summoned all to the church for prayers and mass, from 
wM ch they returned to breakfast. Then all joined then- respec- 
tive bands, and proceeded to their regular labor. 

At eleven theV returned to dine and rested t.ll two, when 
|;iUi . lvnmillll , H ,,l and lasted till the « angeles, which was 
nin „ m hour before sunset. After prayers and the beads, they 
supped and spent the evening in innocent amusements. 

Their food was the fresh beef and mutton plentifully supplied 
by their flocks, cakes of wheat and maize, peas, beans and other 

\ egetables. . 

The dress of the men was a shirt, trousers and blanket, though 
the alcalde and chiefs of gangs of workmen wore frequently the 
complete Spanish dress. 


The dress of the women was the usual one, with the invarial is 

They used to receive from Tepic and Mexican ports the goods 
they needed; in return they used to sell breadstufls, hemp, 
cordage, hides and tallow. 

Four soldiers ami a corporal stationed near the Mission were 
enough to keep hundreds of Indians under subjection; or, with 
more truth, it was the kindness and religious influence of the 
good friars that had gained a hold in the heart of the poor 


However, for proper precaution, the Fathers were not allowed 
to travel far from the Mission, or go out at night, without the 
escort of a soldier or two. 

The neglecting of this wise system proved fatal to Fr. Quin- 
tana in the year 1812. Late at night he was called down to 
the orchard, where an Indian was said to be sick. The Father, 
in nrder not to disturb the soldiers from their sleep, went alone 
with the Indian. While he was returning from the sick person, 
those who were laying in ambush got hold of the priest, and 
ordered him to prepare for death, since he would not see Ins 
native place any more. All his entreaties were of no avail. He 
was hung from a tree, just where the track of the Felton Rail- 
road passes now, not many yards far from the tunnel. _ 

When he was dead, they brought his body and put it m his 
bed and covered it, as if he were asleep! They could do this, 
because his associate priest was that night away to Monterey, 
and Quintana was here alone. His attendant called him at the 
usual hour in the morning, but found him dead ! He was buried 
as if he had died a natural death. Nevertheless, his friends had 
suspicions, and they took prompt measures to ascertain the truth. 


From an old paper we see that a surgeon came from Monterey 
to examine the body of the murdered man, having in Ins hands 
an order from the commanding officers in Monterey to the 
surviving missionary, to allow the disinterment of -* -™ 
The truth was then discovered. But who had done the deed 
That was the dark and terrible secret! And long was i kept 
a secret For years it was kept. And singularly enough was 
it discovered. 


An Indian Mayordomo went tan, the Mission on business to 
New Year's Point He knew the language of the Indians hvrng 
here but those Indians did not know that he knew it. 

Wh Chis dinner was preparing by them he overheard some 
of Them saying between themselves, "This fellow is from he 
Miln SaTta Cru, Don't you remember how we lulled Father 
Quintara there, so many years ago ! 
Q ™ „. we remember it well, but it never was found out. 

" Well let us kill this fellow too, before he gete away 
TheLning pretended to be asleep w.nle tins 
ta ,k was going on, but he ^f^^l Indill „ s , 

g ^^\^%^rtnd a horXt he could mount, 

and there told his story, and revealed the long-kept secret of the 
authors of the murder of Father Quintara. 

Information was at once sent to headquarters at Monterey, 
and the guilty parties were taken into custody. But through 
the ,-xertions of the missionaries their lives were spared; how- 
ever, it is said, they all died a filthy death, eaten up by leprosy. 
Father Quintara was buried at the side of the old church, and 
it is the intention of the present pastor to hud his grave and 
have him decently buried, and convert that place into a kind of 
mortuary chapel, where the old mementoes of the Mission will 
be preserved. 

The original motive for the establishment of the Missions was 
the conversion of the native population to the Roman Catholic 
faith and the extension of the dominion of the Spanish crowm 
When the Mexican revolution brought in a new order of 
things, more secular ideas began to prevail. Still, for a long 
time, respect was had for the Indian, the original inhabi- 
tant, the real worker, and his claim to ownership was acknowl- 
edged And even after secularization took place, and the Padre 
was deposed from his civil and secular authority, and a political 
appointee took his place, that political appointee administered 
affairs mainly in the interest of the native race. 

We see that most plainly in the administration of General 


But secularization was quickly followed by colonization. 

New settlers were sent hither by Mexico, and the under- 
standing was that they should somehow get the Mission lands^ 

This Figueroa resisted as long as he lived, backed by the 
authority of Santa Anna, but the prize was too tempting. 

The native race had no power of resistance in their own 
behalf They were only children. And they have quickly 
given place to peoples of other races. In the year 1S23, then- 
number was estimated at over 100,000, and at least 20,000 were 
connected with the Missions, but in 1867 their number had 
dwindled down to less than 20,000 in all, and only a few of 
them can be found to-day. 


After the Mission period and before the advent of Americans 
and other foreigners, the country about here came to be occupied 
bv native California families 

Prominent among these appears to have been the Castro am- 
ily Joaquin Castro obtained the grant of the San Andreas 
rancho in 1833. Raphael Castro received the grant of the Ap- 
tos rancho in 1833, and Martina Castro, a sister, received the 
grant of the Sequel rancho also in 1S33, and of the Augmenta- 
tion rancho in 1844. 

In this family there appears to have been three other brothers, 
Guadalupe, Ignaeio, and Ricardo, and five daughters ot whom 
one was the wife of Jose Bolcoff, and another the wife of J. L. 

M Another family name is that of Roderiguez. Ramon Roder- 
iguez received the grant of the Agua puerea rancho in 1843, and 
besides him there was Alexandre Roderiguez who lived beyond 
the Arrano gulch, also Jacundo ami Francisco Roderiguez. 

There was Sebastian Roderiguez who lived in the Pa.iaro val- 
lay, and Antonio Roderiguez, whose name is assoeiated with the 
San Vicente rancho in the northern part of the county. 


Ami then there was Jose Amesti, to whom was granted the 
Corriletas rancho in 1844. He was a native of Spain, and is 
said to have been a man of excellent character. 

Philip Hernandez received the grant of the Calabasas rancho 
in 1833, and Manuel Jimeno that of the Salsipuedes in 1840. 
Manuel Jimeno was born in Mexico, came to California about 
1830, was a man of good address, wealthy, and for several years 
Secretary of State. He was much respected and of great influ- 
ence in civil affairs. 

Then there was Jose Bolcoff, who married one of the Castro 
sister^' who received the grant of the Refugio rancho in 1841. 
BolcofT was a native of Russia. 

This is enough to indicate pretty nearly who were the people 
of this region, when foreigners began to come here in 1845 and 


The early success of the Missions advertised the attractiveness 
of California to the world. It became known not only in Mex- 
ico, but through the early adventurers and traders in the United 
States. Captain Jedediah S. Smith had been here from Boston, 
and so had Capt. W. G. Dana, and others. They not only traded 
in hides and tallow, but they told the story of the Mission wealth 
here, the herds and flocks and fruits, and they told of the furs to 
be procured. 

Capt. Juan B. R. Cooper came here in 1823, and obtained a 
license to hunt otters, as also did some others. 

By and by more mountaineers, hunters and trappers began to 
come into California from over the plains and the mountains and 
by way of Oregon. 

And so the immigration into this country from the United 
States commenced little by little. 

About the year 1822, an Englishman landed here known by 
the name of William Thompson. He is employed in the hide 
business. There is a touching little story connected with him. 
His native place was London. His father was a sail-maker. 
And there lived the family — mother, brothers, sisters and all. 
William went to sea. They parted with him with regret and 
sorrow, and after a time they ceased to hear from him. Years 
went by and they could get no tidings of him. The family 
grieved, and the mother pined for her son. But time went on, 
and no tidings came. By and by his brother Samuel proposed 
to go in search of him. Though he did not know where on the 
globe he might be, if still alive, yet he thought he could go to 
sea, and make voyages to different parts, and somewhere fall in 
with him, or hear of him. His plan was agreed to, and he 
started. Just how long he sailed, and where he went I don't 
know, but after a while he was on a ship that came into this 
port of Santa Cruz. Here was anchored, at that time, another 
ship, taking on board a cargo of hides. Samuel came ashore 
and inquired for the captain of that ship. When he found him 
he asked him if among his crew then' was one William Thomp- 
son. The captain said lie didn't know certainly whether he had 
a man by that name, " but then- the men are," said he, pointing 
to them at work on the beach, carrying hides, " you can go and 
see." Samuel went, and the very first man he met was William ! 
We can imagine Samuel's joy at the meeting, after so long a. 
search, and the joy, also, that the account of it caused in that 
home in London, when it reached there, But it appears, instead 
of Samuel getting William to go home, that they both remained 

on this coast. They shipped together and went down to South 
America, and then returned here to Santa Cruz. Here William 
Thompson married, and the records tell us that in 1838 the 
Carbonero Rancho was granted to him by Alvarado, a tract of 
land lying east of the San Lorenzo River, including the property 
now owned by the Powder Works. In early times he had a 
house, buildings and corrals near where the road from Mr. Pey- 
ton's house strikes the Zayante Creek road, and the country all 
around was covered with cattle. Later in life he lived on the 
hill near the Mission, on the ground now occupied by the 
Sisters' School. There he died. Samuel did not marry. He 
owned some property on the Branciforte River, a little out of 
town, where Dr. C. L. Anderson used to live. He died a few 
years ago, an old man, at the house of C. C. Martin. 

From Scotland came David Spence, in 1824, with the view 
of establishing a packing house in Monterey for a Lima firm. 

Eight years afterward, in 1832, came Thomas O. Larkin from 
Boston, intending to manufacture flour. Mr. Larkin's home was 
in Monterey, and he probably did far more to bring California 
under the United States flag than any other man. 


In 1833, Isaac Graham came from Hardin County, Kentucky. 
He settled in this vicinity, and his name is intimately associated 
with Santa Cruz. 

It is said that he erected on the San Lorenzo, somewhere in the 
neighborhood of where the Powder Works now are, the first saw- 
mill in California. 

Graham was a brave and adventurous man, a thorough fron- 
tiersman, at home with his rifle in his hand. 

This had become known to the native California officials in 

When, in 1836, Juan B. Alvarado, a subordinate customs 
officer was plotting a revolution, and contemplated the expulsion 
of Governor Guiterrez, he came to Graham and sought his 
assistance, and that of the foreigners who acted with him in the 


On condition that all connection with Mexico should be 
severed, and that California should become independent, the 
assistance was promised. 

And in due time it was rendered. And by means of it 
Guiterrez was sent away, and Alvarado and his party bream, 
masters of the situation. Now was the time for the fulfillment 
Of the promise of independence of Mexico. 

But Mexico, instead of punishing Alvarado, proposes bo 
confirm him in his usurped authority. Alvarado, pleased and 
flattered by this, quickly breaks his promise to Graham. 

But in so doing he feels a wholesome fear of those rides, by the 
assistance of which he had himself gained his promotion. 


His first care seems to have been to disable that little force of 
foreigners, and put it out of their power to punish his breach of 

Orders are sent out secretly to all the alcaldes in this part of 
the country simultaneously, on a eertain night to unvst foreign 
Ol'S and bring them to Monterey, dose Castro himself heads the 
party for the arrest of Graham. 


It was on the morning of the 7th of April, 1840, before light, 
that the party reached Graham's dwelling. They break in the 
doors and shatter the windows, tiling at the inmates as they see 
them rising from their beds. One of the assailants thought to 
make sure of Graham himself, discharging a pair of pistols aimed 
at his heart, the muzzles touching his cloak, which he had hastily 
thrown over his shoulders. 

This assassin was amazingly surprised afterward on seeing 
Graham alive, and he could not account for it till he examined 
his holsters, then he found the reason ! There sure enough were 
the balls in the holsters. The pistols had been badly loaded, and 
that it was that, saved Isaac Graham from instant death. 

He was however hurried to Monterey, and placed in confine- 
ment as were also other foreigners, arrested on that same night. 
What followed i« best told in a memorial which these same 
prisoners afterwards addressed to the Government of the United 
States asking that Mexico be required to restore then- property, 
and compensate them for their injuries and lost time. 

I quote from an unpublished manuscript, which I obtained m 
Monterey, in 1849. 


To his Excellency, John Tyler, President of the United States: 
On the morning of the seventh of April one ^^TJnM 
hundred and forty, we, your petitioner,, eitrzens of the United 
States of North America, and many more of our countrymen, 
wither with several of H. B. M. subjects, engaged m busuress 
uTm ntereyand its vicinities, were, without any just cause or 
provocatio/most illegally seized, taken from our awful occupa- 
tions fmanv being married to natives of the country), and mear 
ce^tedTa loathsome prison in Monterey. The number was 

ubtquentlv increased by the arrival of other, for the space o 
subsequently ^ ^ was elther 

S0, '\ Town tern (at the time of their seizure) nor has the 
read or sho wn **M* ^ tWs t day in any 

ffidaTmllr X or wherefore that our persons were thus 

f nuHroperty taken from us, what crime we had comnut- 

STand "XTaiported hke - many criminals to a provmee 

of Mexico. . nfthism03t outrageous action against the 

The perpetrators of ^^^ dfas (according to 

rig h te and pnvdeg* « j^ldiers appertaining to this 

treaty) were P™« ° and COInmand (as the un- 

Government and act ng ^ a ™° [ o{ nls Exce llency Don 

dersigned have heard ^^WoTSi two Californias. 

Ju an Bautista *££2 un r o t ^ ^ go 

Some of us were maicnui o r n dQol ._ 

on their- own animals, «4 on .*« -™1 J? ^ 

.aid animals and equrpi nents taku **°™ ^to ison , 

the room in which we wei • damp a nd oftensive, 

charity of them ** F*f ^^ . Lar km, we are bound in 

To our countryman, Mr 

countryman £ ~ ~ ^ ^ ^ m , )0(1 

conscience to acknowledge hat h ^ ^ rf ^ 

bu t in what other we at tme^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 
what waeTaUowed to bi 

Reduced; someof us were taken out 

of pi-ison from time to time and released by the intercession of 
friends or through sickness. 

Eight of the prisoners were separately called upon and exam- 
ined by the authorities of Monterey, having as interpreter a na- 
tive of the country, (who himself frequently needs in his occu- 
pation one to interpret for him), there being at the same tune, 
men far more equivalant for the purpose than he was, but they 
were not permitted; the above mentioned eight were, after ex- 
amination, taken to another apartment and there manacled to an 
iron bar during their imprisonment in this port. After nt teen 
days confinement, we were sent on board of a vessel bearing the 
Mexican flag, every six men being shackled to an iron bar, and 
in that condition put into the hold of said vessel and taken to 
Santa Barbara, a sea-port of this province, and there again im- 
prisoned in company with the mate of an American vessel, re- 
cently arrived from Boston in the United States, (and part of the 
crew) said vessel being sold to a Mexican, resident in this Terri- 
tory, without, as before mentioned, any just or legal cause being 
assigned, why or wherefore. 

On arriving at Santa Barbara, we were landed and taken some 
distance, three of us in irons were put into an ox cart, the re- 
mainder on foot, among the latter some were chained in pairs, in 
consequence reached the prison with much difficulty, here we 
were put into a room without light or means of air entering 
only through a small hole in the roof ; for the first twenty-four hours 
we were not allowed food or water, although we had been some- 
time walking in a warm sun. One of the prisoners became so 
completely prostrated, that for some time he could not speak, nor 
swallow when water was brought to him, and would have expired 
but for the exertions of a Doctor Den, an Irish gent emen living 
in the town who, with much difficulty, obtained admittance to 
the sufferer. ' By his influence and some Americans in the place, 
food and water were at last sent us. 

In Santa Barbara our number was increased by the addition 
of more of our countrymen; some of those brought from Mon- 
terey were discharged and received passports to return; the re- 
n anider were marched to the beach, again put in the hold of a 
Cl in irons), and in this manner taken to the Port of -San 
Bias landed, and from thence, in the midsummer of a tropical 
££ marched on foot sixty miles tothecityof Tepic, and 
here imprisoned. Some time after our arrival we were discharged 
bv the Mexican Governor, and in the space of four hundred and 
fiftv-five days from the commencement of our imprisonment, we 
ZL returned to Monterey. From the day we were taken up 
nntil our return we had no opportunity to take care of our prop- 
erty ■ we were not even aUowed when ordered on board m Mon- 
liy to send for a single garment of clothing, nor permitted to 
S -y -to the P-on, but such as we had on, and not once 
during our said imprisonment in Monterey, although in ahlthy 
and emaciated condition, permitted to shave or wash ourselves 
when in prison, in the hold of the vessel, and on our march we 
were frequently threatened, pricked and struck with swords by 
the subaltern office™ of the Mexican Government. 

Our sufferings in prison on board ship, and when drove on 
foot in a warm sun, then ordered to sleep out at night in the 
dew, after being exhausted by the heat and dust, surpass our 
power of description, and none but those who were with us can 
Size or forma just conception of our duress .d . -tion 
For many weeks we were fed in a manner different from the 
common mode, kept in a filthy and disgusting condition, winch, 



combined with the unhealthy state of the country where we 
were taken to, has caused death to some, and rendered unhealthy 
for life, others of our companions. 

Up to this time the undersigned sufferers, as aforesaid, have 
received no redress of their wrongs and losses sustained, nor 
have they been so much as allowed common facilities for prov- 
ing accounts ami establishing just claims, several of the Alcaldes 
of California having positively refused to examine claims or 
take testimony against the Government, or otherwise aid citi- 
zens of the United States in recovering lost property, or in seek- 
ing just indemnification therefor. 

Since our return to California from our confinement in 
Mexico, Captains Forrest and Aulick have visited this port at 
different periods, in command of United States vessels. Each 
of those gentlemen took up the subject of our claims and ill- 
treatment, and, as we believe, received fair promises from the 
Governor of the province; but the stay of these officers at Mon- 
terey having been limited to a few days only, was entirely too 
short to effect any good. The Governor's promise, orally, made 
by a deputy to Captain Aulick, on the eve of his departure, so 
far from being complied with or adhered to, was, as we have 
reason to believe, abrogated by his orders to Alcaldes, not to 
listen to the complaints of Americans, i. e., citizens of the United 

In conclusion, we beg leave to add that our grievances have 
not been a little heightened by the apparent neglect of our 
native country. The Government of the United States, so far 
as we are apprised up to this time, not having come forward in 
our behalf; whilst our fellow sufferers, subjects of H. B. M., 
have had their complaints promptly attended by her Minister, 
resident at Mexico, and a man-of-war was sent here to demand, 
and promptly received redress sought for the outrage perpe- 
trated on H. M. subjects. 

We, the undersigned, citizens of the United States, aforesaid, 
were among the prisoners, some of us to thejlast day, and have 
never given provocation to the Mexican Government for such 
cruel ti'catment, nor do we know of any given by our com- 
panions, and respectfully submit to your notice, the foregoing 
statement of facts, in hopes that through your means, this affair 
will be fully represented, so that the Government of the United 
States will take prompt measures to secure to us indemnity for 
the past, and security for the future, according to the rights and 
privileges guaranteed to us by treaty, existing between our 
Government and Mexico. 

Monterey, Upper California, the 9th of November, 1842, 
Isaac Graham, William Barton, 

William Chard, Alvin Wilson, 

Joseph L. Majors, Charles H. Cooper, 

Charles Brown, Ambrose Z. Tomlinson, 

William Hance, Henry Naile. 

a specimen proclamation. 
It appears that after Alvarado, Castro and company, had got 
their dreaded company of foreigners in confinement -in board a 
vessel ready to sail to Mexico, seven citizens of note of Cali- 
fornia signed and issued the following "Proclamation," whirl, is 
a curiosity in itself and illustrative of the men and the tunes;— 

"Proclamation made by the undersigned:— 

"Eternal Glory to the Illustrious Champion and Liberator of 
the Department of Alta California, Don Jose* .Castro, the Guar 

dian of Order, and the Supporter of our Superior Government 

"Fellow- Citizens and Friends : To-day, the eighth of May, of 
the present year of 1840, has been and will be eternally glorious 
to all the inhabitants of this soil, in contemplating the glorious 
expedition of our fellow-countryman, Don Jose' Castro, who goes 
to present himself- before the Superior Government of the Mexi- 
can nation, carrying with him a number of suspicious Americans, 
who, under the mask of deceit, and filled with ambition, were 
warping us in the web of misfortune; plunging us into the 
greatest confusion and danger; desiring to terminate the life of 
our Governor and of all his subalterns; and finally, to drive us 
from our asylums; from our country, from our pleasures, and 
from our hearths. 

" The bark which carries this valorous Hero on his Grand 
Commission goes filled with laurels and crowned with triumphs, 
ploughing the waves and publishing in distinct voices to the 
passing billows the loud vivas and rejoicings, which will resound 
to the remotest bounds of the universe. Yes, fellow-citizens and 
friends, again we say, that this glorious chief should have a place 
in the innermost recesses of our hearts, and be held as dear to us 
as our very breath. Thus we desire, and in the name of all the 
inhabitants, make known the great rejoicings with which we are 
filled, giving, at the same time, to our Superior Government the 
present proclamation, which we make for said worthy chief; and 
that our Governor may remain satisfied, that if he (Castro) has 
embarked for the interior of the Republic, there still remain 
under his (the Governor's) orders all his fellow-countrymen, 
companions in arms, etc., etc." 


But a great disappointment awaited this heralded hero on his 
arrival in Mexico. I find the description of it in another man- 
uscript, as follows: — 

" Commandant Castro and his three or four official friends 
rode into Tepic in triumph, as they thought, and enquired for 
the house of the Governor. On their arrival at his Excellency's 
they were refused admittance and ordered to go to prison, which 
one of them said could not be compared in comfort to the meanest 
jail or hole in all California. Here they had time to reflect on 
their scandalous conduct to so many human beings. Castro was 
then ordered to the City of Mexico and tried for his life. Mr. 
Packenham, the English Minister, having every hope of his being 
sent a prisoner for life to the prison of San Juan de Uloa in Vera 
Cruz. The culprit himself afterwards confessed that such would 
have been his fate had Mr. Ellis, the American Minister, exerted 
himself equally with Mr. Packenham. After an absence of two 
years and expending eight or ten thousand dollars, he returned 
to California a wiser and better man than when he left it. and 
never was afterwards known to raise a hand or voice against a 
foreigner. His officers and soldiers returned to California in the 
best manner they could, leaving their country as jailors and 
returning prisoners." 


It was while these men were in prison in Monterey, in April, 
ISM), as before described, that Thomas J. Favnham arrived, 

Mr had made the trip overland from blie Eastern states io the 
Pacific I loast, and just, at this critical juncture comes into Won 
berey harbor as passongor on a ship. 

He was a lawyer, and on coming ashore ami learning what 
was going on, ho comprehended the situation at once, and was 



able to do a great deal to relieve the prisoners' sufferings, ami 
restrain the lawless disposition of the chiefs then in power. Mr. 
Farnham came to California again some years after and became 
the owner of land in the valley beyond the Mission, in this town. 
More will be said of him when we come to speak of the time of 
his residence in Santa Cruz. 

But the appeal which the American prisoners made to the 
President and Government of the United States, as before 
described, was at last successful. 

How much others got as indemnity I do not know, but Isaac 
Graham received S3<i,000, after a year or two of waiting. One 
who knew him well, however, tells me that it cost him fully half 
of that sum to pay those who got the claim through for him. 

But that affair was so connected with this vicinity, that it 
seems to deserve a place in the county's history. 

After something over a year from the time of his arrest, We 
find Graham back again in this county, on the Zyante rancho. 
Civil affairs seem now to be so disturbed, the idea of expelling 
foreigners is given up. Those who are here were unmolested, 
and each year added a few to their numbers. 

It was principally through their enterprise that foreign trade 
began to increase. 

The following statistics of the period will show where this 
trade came from and how fast it grew from year to year: 
Amount of Duties toom Foreign and National Vessels received in the 
Custom House of California in Monterey, from 1839 to 184o. 

1839 $85,613 00 

!840 72,308 00 

1841 101,150 00 

1S42 73 ' 72900 

,843 52 ' 0000 ° 

1844 78,73900 

1846!'.".". 138,3(50 00 

Average per year for seven years. 

8601,839 00 

.§85,985 00 


in Monterey, 1844. 
From Mexican Vessels, coastwise, from San 

Bias and Mazatlau S 5 - 194 00 

From American Vessels, from the United 

States and the Sandwich Islands . .. 00,326 00 
From two Russian Vessels, one French and 

one Hawainion Vessels ■ »- 1J uu 

$78,739 00 


This leads to the inquiry, who the men were who were then 
s,t lL in this county and what they were doing^ am aUe to 
SL names of someof them. 1 will give the facts relativeto 
them according to the best information I can obtain. 

Kauvof my readers discover errors, they will please remember 
how » is to be accurate where there has to be depend- 

— « «" mem0 ZfC£7J^ to be on record in the 

Mexican to the United States Hag. 
Thecal prominent name I tad jthatrf ' 

, have spoken of some of the — ££* A ^ ^ 
stat^, he wa^ born mHarto County Kentt y ^ 

the mountains to California in 1833. He iv 
ftXsman, and depended very mueh upon his rifle. 

After his return from Mexico he settled on the Zyante rancho, 
which he bought of Joseph L. Majors, to whom it was granted 
in 1841— a region which must have been then rich enough in 
game and in lumber. The place and the man seem to have been 
suited to each other. Very soon we find new industries springing 
up around him. 


It is not later than 1842 or 1843 that he built a saw mill on 
the Zyante Creek, near where the Fuse factory is now. 

That is certainly the first saw-mill I can find any record of in 

There was whip-sawing before that, but no mill so far as I 


An immense amount of the very finest redwood lumber has 
been cut in those mountains since Graham's day, and within 
ten or fifteen miles of the place where he built the first saw- 
mill; but he began the business. 

To be sure there was but little demand for lumber in the 
.lays from 1842 to 1846, and yet there was enough to keep a 
mill busy and to employ many teams to draw the lumber down 
to the shipping point on the bay. 


While Graham was commencing the great business of lum- 
ber manufacture here in the mountains, Paul Sweet was begin- 
ning the tanning business. Paul Sweet is a strong man. He 
came ashore in Monterey in 1840. He was born m Rhode 
Island He followed the sea in his early life, but left it when 
he reached here, May 11, 1840, and has lived here ever since. 
He was at Graham's saw-mill more or less, in 1842 and 1843. 


But in 1843 he began tanning on the San Augustine Rancho. 
now Scott's Valley, some five or six miles east of Graham's. 
There were plenty of hides, and there was plenty of chestnut 
oak yielding the best kind of bark for tanning. 

The leather was wanted for various purposes, especially by 
rancheros, for saddles, leggbis, etc. 

The vats were made of split logs, dug out mto an oval shape, 
eight feet long and five feet wide, and two and a half feet deep. 
There were eight of these vats. 

The bark was ground by a large wooden wheel, which re- 
volved in a circle, grinding about one-half cord of bark a day 
In this way they tanned steer hides, deer skins, etc. 

Something was done about this time at tanning on Graham's 
rancho, near the "big trees," as the old log vats yet to be seen 
there reminds the observer. 

Paul Sweet joined the "Bear Flag" battalion in 1846, and 
marched southward with the rest, to see that the sovereignty ot 
the stars and stripes was undisputed everywhere, and when that 
fact was sufficiently established, he came back again to burin, 
Cruz He finally took to the land, and selected him a little 
valley hidden among the hills, east of the Santa Cruz and Soquel 
road,' and something like half way between the two towns 

The valley is long and narrow, putting out its arms in three 
directions between the hills. At the center stands the house 
and the other buildings, looking out upon the fields, gardens and 
fruit orchards belonging to it, but subject to the disturbances of 
no passing road, and subject to the inspection of no other human 
habitation. There since 1849, he has been living with his 
family, and does not forget, he says, the saying of his namesake 



Paul, as he learned it in his New England home when he was a 
boy, " In whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content." 


This is another name which I find associated with that of 
Paul Sweet in those times. St. Clair came to California in 
1843, and now lives in Coralitos in this county. 


Another name associated in the ranch-ownership with Isaac 
Graham, is that of William Ware, who came here very early, 
and is said to have died on the rancho in 1844. 


Another man of that time, still better known here, is Joseph 
L. Majors. He came from Ohio, in 1832. 

He also was arrested in 1840 and forced into the prison-pen in 
Monterey; but having friends and influence outside, working 
in his behalf, he was let off, and escaped the voyage to Mexico. 
His marriage to Maria de Los Angeles Castro in 1839, the year 
before this, a lady, belonging to an influential California family, 
is enough to account, probably, for the favor shown him. 

Another sister of the same family was married to Jose Balcoff 
in 1832. 

To Joseph L. Majors was granted the San Augustine rancho 
in 1841, now known as Scott's Valley. 


And here, on this rancho, beautifully situated among the hills, 
was commenced not only the tanning business as before men- 
tioned, but also the grinding of wheat and the manufacture of 
flour. Majors built a flour mill, but it was propelled by horses 
or mules. Nevertheless, it did a large business. 

That raneho appears to have been the center of industries and 
no mean enterprise in those old times! Thriving young life 
abounded there too it seems, for I am told that Majors had li) 
child ren. 

He afterward moved to the vicinity of the town here, and 
built and occupied the house and mill property on the bluff, still 
standing and known by his name, where Mrs. Majors is living 


Among the men who came here in 1835 was William Trevo- 
then, an Englishman, a sawyer by trade, and he worked at his 
business here. 

He was made prisoner with the rest in 1840, and was confined 
with them some ten days in Monterey, but he was one of the 
few discharged there, through the influence of friends, and so 
avoided the journey to Mexico. 

The lumber business seems to have been thriving in those days, 
for we find Vardman Bennett building another saw-mill on the 
San Lorenzo river. 

Bennett came from Arkansas. He went from there to Oregon 
in 1842, — father, mother, and eight children, making the long 
journey together. 

In 1843 fchey came to California, and stopped in San Fran- 
cisco ■where they remained about a year. Then the family re- 
moved to Santa Clara, and remained till 1847, when they came 
over to the mill in Santa Cruz, which Bennett had commenced 
to build. After his death, it, was completed by them. 

The promising prospects of the lumber business about this 
time are still further evident from the fact that another mill was 
built on the San Lorenzo river, where the Powder Works now 


The Rincon rancho was granted to Don Pedro Sansevam in 
1843. Not long after that we find him, together with Charles 
Rosalean, building and operating a saw-mill. 


Among other active pioneers was John Daubinbiss who was 
born in New Bavaria in 1816. He left there in 1835 and came 
to New York city and remained in the States until 1842. That 
year he started across the plains for Oregon. He left Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, with Capt. Hastings' company of about 200 men, 
women and children, and 19 wagons. They took the route by 
way of Black Hills and Fort Hall, down Snake river te Colum- 
bus* and Oregon city. Owing to lateness of the season and lack 
f roads, the°wagons were left at Fort Hall. Everything was 
placed on pack horses. 

Mr. Daubinbiss stayed in Oregon until May, 1843, when he 
and part of the original company stai-ted out for California, and 
after about 40 day's travelling they arrived at Sutter's Fort, (a 
view of which is given elsewhere). The plains at that time 
were covered with herds of elk, deer and antelope. On their 
journey at one time they herded into one band as many as 2,000 

Mr. Daubinbiss met with an interesting adventure in the Sac- 
ramento valley. While looking for water he became separated 
from the rest of the company. It seems that after they reached 
the Sacramento valley near Mt. Shasta, a band of Indians charged 
on the company, and a tight ensued lasting until sun-down. The 
Indians used only bowsNind arrows, and nearly forty of them 
were killed, but none of the whites were injured. Ten miles 
further brought the company to a camping ground. The next 
day having left the river, water was needed, and Mr. Daubinbiss 
started to look for water and became lost in the foot-hills, and 
did not get out until dark, when he rode for the Sacramento river 
and at head of a slough, found water for himself and horse. During 
the night he lust his horse and had no alternative but to start 
out on foot. His shoes soon became useless, and he continued 
his journey barefooted as best, he could. The second day he 
reached the river. Here he cut two logs with a tomahawk he 
happened to have, and tied them together with grape vines and 
his stirrup leathers, making a raft. With a stick for a paddle be 
made his way down the river, He was three days on the river 
without food, as he dare not use his gun for fear of the Indians. 
When he reached the mouth of Feather river, he saw a boat go- 
ing up that stream, which he hailed by tiring his gun. The 1 toat 
came to his rescue, and was manned by Mr. Cordway and Indians. 
Bidding good bye fco Ins logs, he went with this boat to Nieholas. 
Sere hegot a horse, and finally reached Sutter's Fort where he 
found the balance of the company 

In June, 1843, in company with L. W. Hastings, -bis M, 
Hudspeth, Geo. W. Ballomy, Stephen Weeks and Mr. Coats, he 
went down the Sacramento river in on.' of Sutter's boats, and 
landed at about the corner til' Montgomery and Commercial 
streets, At that tune asandy beach and a few shanties ami tents. 
The same year, 1.S43, Mr. Daubinbiss went to San -lose, w here 
In- found only seven Americans, lb- visited at that time Gilroy 
and Monterey. Mr. Daubinbiss made Ilia home in San .lose until 



1 84,7 He joined the troops that went with Gen. Sutter to sup- 
port the Mexican Government to Los Angeles and vicinity where 
a battle occurred with Gen. Castro and his forces. Finding 
Americans engaged on both sides, they agreed to withdraw and 
let the Mexicans and Californians fight it out. He then returned 
to San Jose, and when war was declared between the U. S. and 
Mexico, he joined Fremont's company and remained with him 
until,peace was declared. 

Mi Daubinbiss bought his present farm of about 1100 acres, 

in 1847 It is situated in and near the village of Soquel, on a 

creek of the same name. At the time he purchased, there were 

no improvements, where now is a little village with its church, 

school house, and business places more fully described elsewhere 

In company with J. Hames, who was,also a pioneer, they built 

a flZ mill and saw-mill on Soquel Creek. The flour-mill w« 

erected in 1847, just above the present village. The saw-miU 

Z eteld about where the lower bridge crosses the creek 

fers Daubinbiss and Hames built a mill for Gen. Yallejo neai 

Sn Jose Mission in 1845. In 1849 or '50 hey bull a md 

near Cahoons which is still standing, and used for shingles and 

Z^Zy. ^^-^S"d^w^,eC 

1847. and drove them home by ^/^X^o It wa8 

who was born in Washington County, Mo » ^ ^.^ 

in San Jose, Dec. 3, of that year, in y Daut mhiss 

1847, where they have since resided. Ifc and < 

dren now living, rhey eQ ^ e ^ fl m il y . The oldest child is 
pioneer life, and the cares of a ^ge tarn J w;mam ismar- 
now Mattie Chapman, hvmg * £* n- ^ ^ 
ried and lives at home. Rachel V* a n ^^ Ka _ 

ahove Soquel. The names * ^^^U wlth two other 
tie, Fred, Florence and * a ™ ie w x m £rom the upsetting of 
persons, was drowned m the bay in 

a sail-boat. . PTe cted in 1867, a view of 

Mr. Daubinbiss ^^^^L -th pa** of 
which is given on anothei page, in 

himself and wife. t ^ the we lfare of his 

Mr. Daubinbiss has token n « * ^ rf ^ re _ 

eounty, and has contributed much ^ impl . ove . 

purees at an early day » «*^ fte ftrst Board of Supers 

ments. He was one of the mem 
vi^rs, and of several successive torn, 

Monterey for carpenters to come to Santa Cruz and build a 
schooner Mr. Hardy came, among others, and they went to 
work on the vessel. ,,, 

Mr Hardy distinctly remembers that they had got it halt 
done when the United States flag went up in Monterey, July 7 
1816 • The vessel was completed and was called the Santa 
Cruz," and sailed to the Sandwich Islands to be coppered. She 
returned here and was sold to Manuel Diez, and was atoward 
lost at sea. Mr. Hardy has lived on that same hill nea. onr 
beach ever since. 


t - «,,» name of William Hardy, a 
And this leads me to mention the name o 

citizen of Santa Cruz, now lmng. ^ fce ^ 

William Hardy came ashore from ^ ^^ for 

part of the year 1845. M* wen to ^ ^^ 

' rh °'" aBf \ Lark lXc CI and Sansevain sent over to 
this way long betoit 


In the year 1845, William Blackburn came to Santa Cruz 
He came over the plains from Independence, Missouri and arrived 
here in October. He was a native of Virginia, born m 1814. He 
cle over the country in company with Jacob R. Snyder, Geo. 
McDougal and Harvey Speel. ^.l™,,, 

They stopped together on the Zyante and went to making 
shines. Wnliam Blackburn was a cabinetmaker by trade and 
•n the year 1844 worked at that business in New Orleans with 
B H s7win now a well known citizen of Santa Cruz But 
men a" in California of course took hold of any business 
Tat St So these men seem to have been stui engaged 
^ulS and shingle-making when the Bear flag went up 

liarly his own. 


Many curious illustrations of it could be given, but I wdl 

iDS TT! ^bookoTZlde records in the County Clerk's office 
I find no book ot A ca ^ ^ a jury 

SSTESXIS. of his wife, Barbara Gomez, 

rS 5^3T b U etk» ou/and shot." August 17. 
SSS eaiid into effect on the 16th «£* ^ 

■ i- *.-Uo+i Tt should, perhaps, be stated 
» IX Ju^e B ael^urn ougll to In reported 
that, according to law, Juogi Monterey, and 

the trial of tins criminal to the higher c cution . 

have had the action of Ins court anct»n ed b *> ^ 

For some reason he did not do this »« headquarters! 

and then reported both the trial ana; -e u *n Job q ^ 
This did not quite suit G ; vernOT ^ s ha™ correspondence fol- 
in that lawless time, and some ^^J^J_ This exact 
l0 wed between the Governor and J "^ f ™ ted! 



dered mother, were brought into court— two littlu girls— to be 
disposed of by the court. m 

The court gives Bahnda, eleven years old, to Jacinto Castro, 
"to raise" until she is twenty-one years of age, unless she is 
sooner married ; the said Jacinto Castro obligating himself to 
give her a good education, and three cows and calves at her mar- 
riage, or when she arrives of age. 

The court gives Josepha, nine years old, to Alexander Roder- 
iguez, with some similar provision for her education and care. 
But it is a sorry feeling that comes over us as we seem to see 
those poor little orphan girls parted there to go among strangers. 
I hope their lives have been less a grief than their childhood. 

But in court, still further, November 27th, 184-7, the case of 

A. Roderiguez vs. one C ; plaintiff sues defendant, a boy, 

for shearing his horse's inane and tail off. It was proved that 
the defendant did the shearing. 

An eye witness of the trial says, that when it came to the 
matter of the sentence, Judge Blackburn looked very grave, and 
his eyes twinkled a good deal, and he turned to his law book, 
and examined it here and there, as if looking up authorities 
touching a very important and perplexing case. All at once he 
shuts up his book, site back in his chair, and speaking with a 
solemn tone, says: — 

" I find no law in any of the statutes applicable to this case, 
except in the laws of Moses — 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for 
a tooth.' Let the prisoner be taken out in front of this office 
and there be sheared close." 

The sentence was literally carried into effect, to the great 
satisfaction and amusement "of the native inhabitants, who ex- 
pressed then- approval by saying, " Served him right! " 

The following article in regard to Judge Blackburn, is copied 
from the Santa Cruz Sentinel : — 

" The late William Blackburn was born in Jefferson county, 
Virginias on the 14th day of February, 1814, consequently was 
53 years of age at the time of his death, the 2.5th of March, 
1867. From Harper's Ferry he emigrated to Cincinnati; thence 
to St. Louis; thence to Louisville, and from thence to New 
Orleans; at each and all those places pursuing his trade as 
cabinet-maker. In 1845 he crossed the plains from Independ- 
ence, Missouri, to California, in the company of Jacob R. Snyder, 
George Williams, George McDougal and Harry Speel, all being 
leading men in the company. They arrived in this county in 
October of that year, and settled on the Zyante, where Black- 
burn, Snyder and McDougal engaged in the shingle business ; 
Speel having left the party at Fort Hall for Oregon, but arrived 
in California in 1840. Blackburn, with all of these fellow- 
travelers, was in Fremont's Battalion under the Bear Flag, 
Blackburn being First Lieutenant of Artillery, Co. F — ( 'aptain 
McLane. At the battle of Buenaventura, Lieutenant Blackburn 
fired the first gun, loading and handling it. During that cam- 
paign, Snyd.-r whs the Quartermaster. They coutinued in the 
service till the treaty of Couenga, when they returned to this 
county as their home, Blackburn opening a store on the Old 
Plaza, which was also an open hotel, for no white man was ever 
asked pay for supper or lodging; hut anything there was in bhe 
house was at the service of the guest, open-handed hospitality 
being Hie character of host and people in those primitive times, 
here, as elsewhere, throughout ( lalifornia, McDougal settled in 
Gilroy, In 1847, Blackburn was appointed Alcalde by Gov- 
ernor Mason; and during those stormy periods of anarchy and 

lawlessness, he performed the duties of the office to the entire 
satisfaction of all ; and although his decisions cover points of all 
the varied questions of jurisprudence, we believe none have ever 
yet been reversed by any higher court. His pretensions were 
not based on Coke or Littleton, but on common sense and jus- 
tice. The records of his court are as amusing as the jokes of 
'' Punch." 

Blackburn, as Judge, was always anxious that the law and 
justice should be fully and quickly vindicated, and, after passing 
sentence, would give no delay to its execution ; for, although it 
was the rule for his decisions to be sent to the Governor for 
approval, they were generally sent after the execution, so that 
there should be no chance for a delay of justice. Although that 
might seem to be summary proceeding, yet it met the approval 
of the people over whom he governed, but at times was the 
cause of some sharp and terse correspondence between himself 
and his superiors. In 1848 lie resigned his office to go to the 
gold region, Wm, Anderson succeeding him. He returned to 
Santa Cruz in 1849, and was appointed a Justice of the Peace 
under the Territorial Government, and continued in that office 
some time longer than he desired, only at the earnest persuasion 
of the Governor, who was willing and ready, by such persua- 
sion, to acknowledge the superiority of the man for the position. 
In 1851 he settled on his present homestead, and commenced 
farming in company with his brother, Daniel Blackburn, and 
they planted the bottom with potatoes, and such was the enor- 
mous yield of the whole bottom that at 13 cents per pound, the 
then price of potatoes, the yield was neaidy $100,000; and for 
several years the profits of potato raising were enormous. 
Where the house now stands, four acres yielded $1,200 worth of 
potatoes to the acre; they were early, and brought 12£ cents 
per pound. Next year 13 acres were rented to Thomas Weeks 
at §100 an acre, in advance. From this place the Judge sent 
samples of potatoes of four pounds weight [which was a general 
average), to the Crystal Palace Fail- at New York, and received 
a premium for the finest potatoes evei known. From here also 
was derived the fame which Santa Cruz now holds of produc- 
ing fine potatoes. In LS54 lie planted the present orchard, which 
is now the finest for trees and fruit of any hi this section of the 


In IS48 Judge Blackburn built the first vessel here, a schooner 
of about fifty tons burden, called the ' Zach Taylor,' and * 'apt. 
\ 'lucent commanded it. When Monterey ceased to be the head- 
quarters of tlie Pacific, the vessel was run on the Sacram. nto 
River, He was also concerned in building the first saw-mill up 
the Blackburn Gulch. He was considered a man of enter-prise 
and improvement. In 1 801 he married, and devoted himself 
to the cultivation of his farm and raising of fruit, enjoying the 
fruits of his former labors. 

Thus we find him from his start towards the Pacific to have 
been a man of note, first as one of the leaders in the train with 
whom he journeyed; again a commander and soldier in the 
first war towards the generation of a Pacific Government; then. 
as a jurist, his history is recorded in the archives of the country; 
finally, as an agriculturist, his mark was made and is on record 
in fehe proceedings of the Crystal Palace World's Fail*, New 
York, which was also probably the first, visible knowledge 
demonstrating to the East the capabilities of California to raise 
her own food. 


fiVOTT tCQ lIT/f. $.* 


A native of Santa Cruz County, who died March 70th, 1875, aged /3S years 

h hv Baldwin. This ancient relic of a forgotten race lived to the ex- 
11 py. JS,l,lu v __ _»■.!„ — i,.™™m. r, B ho itari iivnii hnvond the rccollec- 

by the Angel of 

was yellow, hard 

Ho walked in 

Ik, in j name J"* 

VTMAOE W. K,,r„rr * Co., FBHUbO» of the ^^^g^Z^^iiS&gl In . 
"Ploaneflnd enclosed hero the reco "loftH ,. \ , rh.i to the remains of Jus iinni.. 

the Second book of Death of this Parish, No. 2,869: On the 

, ltllV ,s an iiulian nf this Mission, who reached to the 

vi-ir IW' urul bcliicllicn a man of about, forty years of age, 

iw-ivedti ,' Boorament, and was burled near Ehecrpse i in the 

re vlu Yours truly, J. Adam, Pastor. 

nuw ucmetery. Ue died on the 




His ancestors emigrated from Ireland sometime in the early 
.settlement of America, and settled in Durham, Connecticut" 
His grandfather, James Hecox, lived in Farmington Connecti- 
cut, where he raised a family of six children, four boys and two 
girls. The names of the boys were James, Salmon, Adna and 

About the year 1786 or '87, Robert Morris bought of the Seneca 
Nation of Indians a large tract of land in the Genesee County, 
State of New York. The father, Adna Hecox, then a boy 
about nineteen years of age, anxious to try his fortune in a 
new country, started with some five or six others to explore the 
new purchase. After arriving at Big Tree, on the Genesee River, 
he engaged in surveying land for Mr. Morris. About this time 
the Indians commenced anew their depredations on the settlers 
of Kentucky and Ohio, and General Wayne was sent out to 
conquer a peace with those Indians. This put a stop for a time 
to any immigration to the new country, and the father of our 
sketch was obliged to remain, in company with some nine others, 
for three years among the Seneca Indians. Many of the Sen- 
ecas were anxious to join the Shawnees and other western tribes 
in their war against the whites, and to save their own scalps, 
his father and his few companions were obliged to aasimulate 
themselves as much as possible with the Indians, and for the 
time to become a part of that Nation. Often, when a boy, 
young Adna has listened with delight to the recital of their 
adventures while among those Indians. The names of some of 
those with whom he was acquainted have become historical. 
Such as Little Bard, and Red Jacket, also Jack Berry after- 
wards Major Berry, a half-pay officer under the United States 
Government, and many others whose names have passed from 
memory. Adna often heard his father speak of Mary Jemison, 
a white woman, who was taken prisoner by these Indians when 
quite young, married an Indian, raised a family, and always re- 
mained with them. His father spoke highly of her friendship 
and hospitality. 

After General Wayne had conquered a peace with the west- 
em Indians, Adna's father purchased six hundred acres of land 

f Smith This land bordered on the Genesee river, some 

four miles below the town of Big Tree, for which he paid in in- 
stallments Just before the last installment was paid Smith went 
to the city of New York, turned his property aU over te his 
creditors, broke, and was locked up in jail, and Adnas father 
with others lost then land. About a year before this transac- 
tion Adna's father and mother were married. Hib mother, 
whose maiden name was Polly Andreas, was horn and raised in 
the town of Hudson, New York. After the loss of his property 
his father determined to try his fortune still farther west, when 
with his mother and one child, then an infant, he made his way 
through the wilderness to Black Rock, and crossed the Niagara 
river to Fort Niagara, in Canada. While remaining at Fort Nia- 
gara, he became acquainted with Captain Coann a Brrtish Navy 
Captain, commander of a small armed sloop on Lake Erie. B* 
next move was to push farther west, and take charge of a large 
farm belonging to Captain Coann at the head of Lake Erie, near 
F MdZ. Forth! purpose he placed Adna's mother and 
sister on Captain Coann's sloop to go up the lake, while he with 
almall herd of cattle made his way through the wndemes, by 
the way of the river Thames to Fort Maldin. 

While at Fort Maldin he became acquainted with the notorious 
Simon Girty, Colonel Elliot, Captain McGee, and many other 
equally desperate characters. It was said of McGee that he had a 
barrel of scalps salted down, and it was well known that he paid 
the Indians for all American scalps they would bring to him. 
Adam's father and mother witnessed his funeral. It was con- 
ducted in great pomp by the Indians. 

After remaining three years at Fort Maldin his father crossed 
the Detroit river to the American side, and took up his residence 
on Grose Isle, a large island eighteen miles below Detroit. Here 
he en-aged quite extensively in farming and stock raising. It 
was on this island that A. A. Hecox, the subject of this sketch, 
was born, on the twenty-sixth of January, 1806; His father 
resided on this island many years before and after the war of 
1812 It was on the 3d day of July, 1812, about ten o clock 
A m, while his father and his men were at work under some 
cherry trees in front of the house, then scarlet with delicious 
fruit, making and repairing hay utensils, that James Chitenden, 
a friend of his father, having escaped from Canada the night be- 
fore and having obtained a horse at the lower end of the island, 
rode up to his father and informed him that war was declared 
between the United States and Great Britain. And here it 
might be said that plowshares were turned into swords and 
pruninghooks into spears, for in a few moments the implements 
of husbandry were laid aside, and rifle and shot-guns were ex- 
amined and prepared to do duty in ease of an attack by the 
enemy. They were only seven miles from, and in sight ot, Fort 
Maldin, and to add to their dismay they saw a British man-of- 
war the Lady Provo, with a light wind, making up the river to 
the place. Had the wind freshened a little, she would have in- 
tercepted them, but when she was within two miles of them the 
wind died away and she was obliged to come to anchor. This 
was eighteen miles from Detroit, the only place of safety in the 
whole territory of Michigan, and our friends were obliged to 
make all possible speed for that place. In two hours from the 
time they received the intelligence that war was declared, 
Adna's father and mother and six children and three hired men, 
with a few valuables taken from the house, were on their way 
(in two canoes) for Detroit. To get from the island to the 
main land they had to cross an arm of the Detroit river one-half 
mile wide. It was impossible to tajce their stock, consisting of 
cattle sheep and hogs, with them, so they were obliged to leave 
them to the mercy of the Indians and more savage tones in Can- 
ada The consequence was that very little was ever got off the 
island by them, and what little they did get was soon stripped 
from them after the traitor Hull surrendered Detroit. 

It has often been said by the apologist for General Hull that 
he was old and imbecile and not a traitor. But this argument 
was always scouted by those who were there and saw the whole 
transaction. Wm. Hull, then the military governor of the ler- 
ritory of Michigan, was ordered south to raise an army tor tlie 
protection of the western frontier; instead of taking passage in 
one of our own vessels down the lake he took passage on a 
British man-of-war. This being well know, as soon as his acte 
be-an to look suspicious many cried out traitor, traitor, but 
atesi the country was sold, and the inhabitants of the Territory, 
and those of the frontier of Ohio and Indiana, were left to the 
mercy of the savages. The British and Indians now had com- 
plete control of the Northwest, and the tomahawk and scalping 



knife wen.- freely used, with all their attending horrors. The 
subject of our sketch well remembers Colonel Dudley's defeat at 
Maumee, Genera] Winchester's defeat at French Town, on the 
river Racine, and the murder of men, women and children at 
other places. After the surrender of Detroit the inhabitants 
were held as prisoners, and not allowed to leave the place except 
at the risk of their own lives. Every article of value, such as 
silverware and fine clothes, had to be put out of sight, for the 
Indians often entered the houses, stripping the women of shawls, 
handkerchiefs, ear and finger rings, and robbing the houses of 
any other article they took a fancy to. They were held in this 
state of fear and subjection for two years, and until Gen. Har- 
rison retook Detroit, in October, 1814. After Harrison drove 
the British from Detroit and Fort Maldin, in Canada, and cap- 
tured the whole British force on the river Thames in Canada, 
many of the Indians sued for peace, and the inhabitants once 
more breathed the air of liberty. In the spring of 1815 Adna's 
father moved on to a small island that had been inhabited by 
whites before the war, and by Indians during the war, repaired 
an old log shanty, pulled the dry stalks where the Indians had 
raised corn the year before, dropped the seed in the place where 
the corn had stood, and with their corn hoes they raised corn 
and potatoes enough to keep the wolf from the door until the 
close of the war. At the close of the war, his father again 
rented his old home on Grosse Isle, where with perseverance in 
business, soon made his family comfortable in this world's goods. 
In 1S20 his mother died and the children were left without a 
mother's care. About this time his father purchased a tract of 
government land near Flat Rock, on the Huron river, Wayne 
county, where he remained till his death in 1829. 

In February, 1829, Adna A Hecox was married to Catherine 
Hamiausaw, and in 1832, having disposed of his interest in his 
father's estate, he removed with his wife and youngest brother 
to St. Joseph county, where he remained six years. In 1834 
his wife, while on a visit to her friends in Brownstown, took the 
cholera and died, and he was left alone in the world. On the 
10th of July, 1836, he was married to Margaret H. Hamer, of 
Watsontown, in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania. In 
March, 1838, he, with his wife and one child, took up his line of 
march westward, and settled in Jodnis county, Illinois, where he 
remained working at carpenter work and mining in the lead 
mines for eight years. Oii arriving in Illinois he was soon at- 
tacked with the dysentery, which kept him very feeble for seven 
months, and after he recovered from this disease he had frequent 
attacks of influenza, inflammation of the lungs, and pleurisy, and 
so frequent and severe did these attacks become that he soon 
began to cast about for a more healthy climate, being satisfied 
that if he did not leave that locality his friends would soon lay 
him in his long home. After obtaining all the information pos- 
sible of Oregon and the Pacific Coast, he became satisfied that 
California, if not an El Dorado, was the Panacea of life, and he 
set his face westward, and made every possible effort to get here. 

The following account of his trip across the plains in 1846, 
was written by himself, and we publish it as it came from the 
Judge's pen: 

In 1843, a Major McKinstry conceived the idea of organizing 
a small band of hardy frontiersmen, capable of enduring the 
fatigue of crossing the Rocky Mountains, with whom he pro- 
posed to enter California, subdue the small force of Mexican 
troops stationed in Monterey, and other pueblos in Upper Cali- 

fornia, revolutionize the country, and establish an independent 
republic on the coast of the Pacific. 

In order to facilitate this undertaking it was necessary that 
the people should have some knowledge of the country to which 
they were bound; and in order to give them this information, 
letters were written and published, and speeches were made, in 
which the beauties of the scenery, the richness of the soil, and 
the mildness of the climate were set forth in glowing language 
to us, who were plodding in the cold winds and bleak storms of 
the western plains. The ambitious hope of Major McKinstry, 
were to all appearances about to be realized, when he received a 
communication from the President of the United States, stating 
that if his designs were as stated, he would not be allowed to 
leave the country, as it was against the policy of the United 
States to allow her people to invade the soil of a friendly nation. 
The Major immediately stayed further proceedings. 

But the adventurous spirit of the hardy pioneer was not so 
easily quelled. Inquiries were made as to the practicability of 
crossing the plains; societies were formed to obtain all the infor- 
mation that eon Id be had of the country, and so satisfactory was 
the information obtained that the spring of 1846 saw eighty 
wagons with their freights of men, women and children, their 
household goods and herds, plodding their weary way through 
the desert wastes of the Rocky Mountains to the genial climate 
and pleasant shores of the great Pacific. A few of these emi- 
grants saw, perhaps, in their imagination a magnificent republic 
springing up on the Pacific slope, but the more tboughful the 
true lover of his country, the admirer of the banner of liberty, 
looked forward to the day when the Star Spangled Banner with 
its ample folds would overshadow the American continent from 
the frigid zone on the north to the torrid zone on the south. 

On the first day of April, 1846, three wagons with ox teams, 
seven men, two women and seven children, left Belmont, a small 
village on the Iowa side of the Mississippi river, sixteen miles be- 
low Galena. The names of those who left Illinois in this little 
company were A. A. Hecox, wife and four children; Joseph 
Aram, wife and three children; Charles Imus, Charles A. Imus, 
Edwin Shaw and John and James Taggart. Those among the 
company who were old enough to realize the important step 
they were taking, were saddened by the thought of leaving 
home, parents, brothers and sisters, the friends of then youth, 
and the land of their birth. The two thousand miles of untrod- 
den wilderness, the chances of starvation, of Indian captivity and 
torture, would sometimes loom up darkly before them, but sadness 
and fearful forebodings vanish when brave men, yes, and brave 
women, set their hearts to accomplish any great end; they steel 
their hearts to endure any hardship until the haven is gained. 

Nothing of greater interest than being drenched with rain, 
wading through mud and water, feasting on fat wild turkeys, 
transpired until we arrived at the Sheridan river. Here our 
road became blocked with Mormons, who had left Nauvoo with 
Brigham Young at their head, to form a Kingdom of Saints in 
the far west. After taking a glance at the situation, we discov- 
ered that our only chance of progress was to take the more 
southerly route to Independence, or lay by until the Mormons 
should get out of our way. We adopted* the latter plan, and 
while laying here were joined by seven wagons, with four 
families-, two of whom were bound for Oregon and two for Cali- 
fornia. We now formed one line with a determination, ox-whip 
in hand, to break through the ranks of the Saints at all hazards 



But, to our surprise, when we arrived at the great camp of the 
Saints there were no Mormons there. We now learned that the 
ghost of Governor Boggs had appeared unto Brigham Young in 
the dark watches of the night, when heavy sleep had fallen upon 
all the Saints and had ordered him to leave the State of Mis- 
souri Brigham, unwilling to meet the ghosts of living men, 
had retreated back into Iowa, and had fortified himself in the 
wilderness on the head waters of the Platte river. 

On the third or fourth day of May we arrived in St. Joseph, 
Missouri where we discovered that our little company had aug- 
mented to fourteen wagons, six married and two single women, 
sixteen children and twenty-eight men. From the fifth to the 
eighth of May all hands were busy in buying teams, laying m 
stores, repairing wagons and preparing ourselves to cross the 
Missouri and enter the great plains of the far west. 

On the eighth day of May we moved to the ferry, some four 
miles above St. Joseph, on the Missouri river; and while General 
Taylor was commencing the conquest of Mexico at Palo 
AltoandResacadeLa Palma, we were ferrying our wagons 
across the Missouri river and preparing to reap the benefits ot 
that conquest in California. On the tenth of May 1846 as the 
sun shown bright on this fine morning, we cracked our whips to 
the cry of " Westward ho ! " while we glanced backward to the 
land of youthful memories to which we had bid a long and per- 
haps a last farewell. As we moved forward our trave soon be- 
came monotonous. The same routine of duties had to be per- 
formed each day; at night the wearied teamster sought rest on 
nature's green carpet, where he dreamed of scenes and friends 
far away Nothing transpired worthy of note, except perhaps 
the election of a captain, the dividing the company into messes 
and guards, and the routine of duty assigned to each division; 
or now and then the sight of an Indian, the graceful bounding 
of the nimble deer, or the swift gliding of the timid ante ope, till 
we had passed the north bend of the Big Bine, and had en- 
camped on the plateau between the Blue and Platte rivers. 
Here as the sun sunk behind the western hills, and darkness 
began to obscure the light, a strange whizzing sound was heard 
above our heads, when to and behold, we were beset by ten 
thousand times ten thousand black bugs, or beetles, armed with 
long legs and sharp claws. They fit on our faces, fastened them- 
selves to our hak, crept into our bosoms, filled our wagons, 
clung to our blankets, crept into our beds, and raised Ned gen- 
erally Children cried, women scolded, and men swore; our 
cattle' became frantic, so that it required our utmost endeavors 
to keep them from stampeding during the night The bugs 
were about tnree-fourths of an inch in length by about hatf an 
inch across the back. Those who were fortunate enough to 
have close covered wagons, rested comfortably after clearing out 
their unpleasant visitors, but those not so blessed were obliged 
to entertain these strange bedfellows. 

-The next morning we found that one of our best oxen had 
broken his thigh. This was a great loss to his owner, as we had 
to kill him and distribute his meat among the company. After 
this we proceeded on our journey, glad to bid adieu to Camp 
Bug " From this time the regular routine of an every day life 
on the plains was not disturbed until we arrived at a place 
about two day's travel above where Fort Kearney now stands, 
on the Platte river. After we had encamped here for the night 
some thirteen Pawnee Indians, with their squaws unpacked 
their horses and spread their blankets about a hundred yards 

from our wagons. After supper one of their braves came into 
our camp and proposed that if our young men would furnish 
wood to make the necessary light, they would amuse us during 
the evening with a grand war dance. They were undoubtedly 
in good humor to perform, for, as we afterward learned, they 
had had a fine set-to a day or two previous with the Sioux, in 
which the Pawnees had been badly worsted. Everything being 
ready, the grand pow-wow commenced. The brave, stripped to 
the buff spear in hand, which he used as a staff, performed a 
few circles around the camp fire in a kind of half-hop, half-trot, 
keeping time to the music, which is made by rapping the back 
of a large knife on a stick of wood, to the tune of yah, yah, ha, 
ha' with his body bent a little forward, his eyes glaring, his 
features distorted, and to the savage mind exhibiting the most 
warlike attitude. After performing a few circles around the 
camp-fire, the dancer halts in front of the music, draws himself 
up erect, raises his spear, and in glowing language recounts the 
many battles he has fought, the many foes he has vanquished, 
and the many scalps he has torn from the heads of his unfortu- 
nate victims; the many prisoners he has taken and tortured, 
and concluding by congratulating himself upon being a great 
and intrepid brave, his audience cheering him with a savage 
grunt, after which he takes his seat, and is followed by another, 
who endeavors to exhibit a more savage and warlike spirit. 

This savage pastime was kept up until ten o'clock, when the 
Indians were informed that it would be well to keep near their 
own camp fire during the night, as a strict watch would be kept, 
and they would be pretty roughly handled if found prowling 
near our camp. They then retired, but the next morning, as 
soon as our camp fires were kindled for breakfast, our friends 
the Pawnees, distributed themselves through our camp, so as to, 
if possible, receive a share of the good things provided by the 
" white squaws." This they did receive without stint, and we 
were congratulating ourselves that we should part in friendship 
from our rod brethren of the plains; but "lo, the poor Indian," while 
we were hitching up our teams, purloined something from almost 
every wagon in the company. The Pawnees were very adroit 
thieves so much so that our light fingered gentlemen of more 
enlightened soil might take lessons from them; for notwithstand- 
ing we had charged our wives and children to keep a strict 
watch they succeeded in stealing knives, spoons, spurs, bridles, 
pistols, and wagon bolts, from almost every wagon in the com- 
pany As soon as we discovered that our new friends had made 
themselves so familiar with the contents of our camp chests, 
waaon tongues, and horse equipments, we surrounded then- camp, 
and after a good deal of talk and a little tobacco, most of the 
stolen articles were recovered, after which we resolved that we 
would not join the Pawnees in another war dance. 

On reaching Fort Laramie a few days later, we found the 
Sioux, both men and women, performing a war dance around 
three Pawnee children, all girls, taken prisoners in the late fight. 
These children had been presented to the widow of an Indian 
who had been killed in the fight with the Pawnees. This young 
widow was painted black in token of her determined revenge. 
After dancing around and tormenting the children for a few 
days, she was going to knock them on the head and tear off 
their scalps as a revenge for the loss of her husband. 

' Our route lay along the south side of the Platte river. This 
road is too well known at this day to need description. Nothing 
of special interest occurred except the wild sport of hunting 



buffaloes, of which thousands were seen on either side of the 
road, ami feasting on the delicious steaks cnt from then- carcass s 
until we had crossed the south fork of the Platte, and were pur- 
suing our way across the country to the north fork of that | 
river Here we encountered one of those exciting scenes often 
experienced by hunters and trappers in the Rocky Mountains. 
A band of buffaloes became frightened by being set upon by our 
dogs (some fifteen of which domestic animals accompanied 
the train), and broke into a rapid light and after making 
a circuit of a mile or a mile and a half, they made 
directly for our train. Being aware that the habit of this 
animal is to turn neither to the right nor to the left when 
fleeing from his foe, we prepared ourselves for the encounter. 
The buffaloes came alongside until they were opposite our for- 
ward wagons, when they wheeled to the right, and about fifty 
abreast made a charge for our wagons. And now ensued one 
of those wild and exciting scenes hard to be described. Some of 
our men were shouting, others fleeing to avoid being run over, 
dogs were barking, children crying and women screaming. < >ne 
buffalo in attempting to run between my oxen got entangled in 
the chains and behaved rather rudely for a few seconds, to the 
great inconvenience of my oxen. One cow, wounded in the hind 
leg, in attempting to run from a couple of dogs, made towards a 
wagon in front of which Mrs. H. was standing, and she, believ- 
ing herself about to be attacked, crept under the wagon, and 
holding fast to the coupling pole, kicked the animal, who had 
followed her, in the head until it retreated, and a moment after 
it was brought to the ground by a ball fired by some one near. 
A young bull ran up to one of the teams and commenced smell- 
ing the cattle, when a little boy eight years old, fearing it would 
gore the oxen, rushed up and began to ply his ox-whip with all 
his might. Bewildered and not understanding the situation, the 
buffalo turned on the boy, who but for the courage of his 
mother, would have fared badly. She, seeing his danger, rushed 
up flourishing her apron and shouting lustily, succeeded in res- 
cuing her little son. This animal Was also killed by one of the 
men. Mrs. H. sustained a fracture of the collar-bone and 
right shoulder while under the wagon. Otherwise there was no 
great damage done. After obtaining what meat We wanted we 
pursued our way. 

We proceeded up the north fork of the Platte river to Fort 
Laramie. At this place we were advised by the white traders 
to prepare a dinner for the head men and a few of the braves of 
the Sioux Indians, being assured that this would secure their 
friendship and insure the safety of ourselves and property while 
passing through the lands of that nation. For this purpose we 
united with another company, making in all about thirty 
Wagons. The dinner^consisted of biscuit, fried bacon and coffee. 
All things being ready, about thirty-five stalwart Indians, 
dressed in their best, seated themselves in a semi-circle within 
the enclosure of our wagons, where they partook sparingly of 
the good things set before them. After the board was removed 
the great pipe of peace was filled with delicious Killikinick and 
lighted with appropriate ceremony. This pipe is made of red 
marble, the stem about three feet long and the bowl holding 
about one gill. The pipe is passed around with great gravity and 
decorum; each in his turn takes two or three whiffs, the last 
mouthful of smoke being slowly forced through the nose. 
The stem of the pipe must never touch the teeth. After pass- 
ing the pipe three times around the circle (some of the whites 

mining in the ceremony), the Indians arose, bowed their thanks, 
with the assurance that We should not be molested while passing 
through their country. 

On the evening of the third day of July We encamped under 
the shadow of Independence Rock. This rock is situated on the 
bottom land of the Sweetwater river, and covers about ten acres 
of land. It looks something like a large turtle, and is about 
sixty feet high. Our route now lay along the beautiful 
bottom land of the Sweewater river, thence along Sublett's cut- 
off to Bear river, where we drank copious draughts from na- 
ture's soda fountain at the Soda Springs. From this point we 
traveled northerly to Fort Hall; thence down the American 
fork of the Columbia to Raft river; thence up Raft river and 
across a low divide to Thousand Spring Valley; thence to the 
Humboldt river, down which we traveled as fast as our jaded 
teams could be forced, in order, if possible, to cross the Califor- 
nia mountains before the winter should commence. 

While at the Big Meadows, on the Humboldt river, we were 
visited by Old Truckee, who, with two others, proposed to ac- 
company us to the new land of which we were in search. 

I believe it was in 1844 that the noted mountaineer, Greenwood, 
undertook to pilot a small band of adventurers to California. 
Among this company was George Foster, afterwards killed at 
the Salinas battle while defending himself, in company with 
James Hayes, Tom Hill and James Salmon, Delaware Indians, 
and two "Walla Walla Indians, against a superior force of Cali- 
fornians, commanded by Da La Tory. Greenwood's knowledge 
of the route extended no farther than the sink of Humboldt 
river. While lying at that point, undetermined what route to 
pursue, the Indian, afterwards called Truckee, entered their 
camp. This Indian, after being made, by marks in the sand. 
signs and gestures, to understand the desire of the travelers, 
agreed to pilot the company across the desert to Truckee river. 
While crossing the desert, Foster, from the peculiar gate of the 
Indian to keep pace with the horses of the whites, called him 
"Truckee," and when he arrived at the beautiful river now 
bearing that name he called it " Truckee river." The definition 
of the word "Truckee" I have never been able to find. 

While remaining at the Big Meadows a few days to recruit our 
cattle before crossing the desert, the Humboldt Indians made 
a raid on our stock and ran off" five of our best oxen. As soon 
as our loss was discovered thirteen of our men started in pur- 
suit. After following the trail about five miles we found where 
the cattle had been butchered, but not a particle of the meat 
could be found. We afterwards learned that the meat had been 
sunk to the bottom of a slough near at hand. Enraged at the 
loss of the cattle, we maneuvered some three hours to revenge 
ourselves on these thieves, but they were too cunning to be caught 
within the range of our rifles, and we Were forced to give up 
the chase and return to camp. 

We now pursued our way across the desert to Truckee river. 
thence up that stream to Truckee's (afterward Donner'sl Lake. 
While at this place we received the first intelligence of the eon- 
quest of California by the United States, which caused great re- 
joicingin our little company. Thisnews was furnished us by Mr. 
Green Patterson, who was on his way east to furnish provisions 
for some of his friends in our rear. Our next difficulty was to 
ascend the dividing ridge of the Sierra Nevada. This was ac- 
complished in two days, taking up one wagon at a time. We 
now felt that the backbone of OUr journey was broken, nnd 



that in a few days we should rest from our labors on the beauti- 
ful plains and in the healthy valleys of California. On the 
first day of October, 1846, at about 4 o'clock P. M., the long- 
sought haven appeared in view, and at sundown of that day we 
encamped in the lovely valley of the Sacramento. 

A few facts in regard to the loss of the Donner party, which 
I believe have never been published, may be in place here. 
While near the summit of the Rocky Mountains, the California 
emigrants were'met by an agent sent out from California by the 
projectors of the Bear Flag revolution, to collect the emigrants 
of that year and bring them in, in a body, the better to facilitate 
their designs in California. In order to accomplish this the 
agent argued that the route south of Salt Lake was better and 
shorter than the one hitherto traveled. This argument was op- 
posed by Greenwood and other mountaineers. They represented 
the proposed route as being without grass and water, during the 
dry season, for most of the way, and if any of the emigration 
went that way they would undoubtedly lose most of then cattle 
and run the risk of perishing themselves. The consequence was 
that the company of emigrants was divided; part went south of 
Salt Lake, and the wiser and more prudent kept the old and 
beaten way. They that went south of the lake found to their 
sorrow that Greenwood had spoken the truth, for while crossing 
the sandy desert some of them lost all of their cattle, and the re- 
maining teams were so weak that they made but slow progress. 
Others again refused to lighten their wagons so as to relieve 
their teams. The consequence was that the Donner party fell 
behind and perished in the mountains. 

As soon as it was known in Sutter's Fort that we had arrived 
in California, Captain Swift, of Fremont's battalion, visited our 
camp to solicit volunteers to reconquer the Spaniards m Califor- 
nia We say reconquer, from the fact that soon after the Amer- 
ican flag had been raised by Commodore Sloat in Monterey and 
San Francisco, Colonel Fremont, with a small band of hardy 
mountaineers, had marched from San Francisco to Los Angeles, 
and had displayed such bravery that the California^ had 
yielded without firing a gun. But this state of things did not 
last lona, for as soon as Fremont returned to Monterey to take 
charge of the Territory the Spaniards raised m -rrutsse, drove out 
the guards left by Fremont at the different pueblos, and bid de- 
fiance to the bold invaders of their country. It therefore be- 
came necessary for Fremont to organize his forces before he 
could reconquer the country. Some ten of the unmarried men 
of our company volunteered under Captain Swift, and imme- 
diately left to join Colonel Fremont at Sutter s Fort. From this 
place, some six days later, the gallant Fremont, with hus little 
battalion, crossed the Sacramento river on his way to Bemcia 
there to take shipping for Los Angeles. After remaining at 
Sutter's Fort a few days to recruit our cattle and to procure 
fresh provisions, we moved down the country, anxious to find a 
resting place, that we might prepare for the winter. Abou the 
first of November we reached the pueblo at San Jose. While at 
that place we were informed that we could find empty houses 
and shelter from the storms of the coming winter m the old 
Mission of Santa Clara. On reaching Santa Clara, we found 
the old Mission buildings in a wretched condition. The most of 
those not occupied by Spaniards and Indians, we without 
windows or chimnies, the tile of the roof out of place, and alto- 
gether we found ourselves little better protected than when in 
, open wagons. By the middle of November the number of 

emigrants had increased, in Santa Clara, to eighty women and 
children, twenty-five men, and some six or eight boys old 
enough to shoulder a rifle, but thought to be too young to join 
Fremont's Battalion. 

The season had been very dry on the plains, many ot the 
streams had become dry, or the water stood in holes, stagnant 
and unhealthy, many of the emigrants had been attacked with 
typhoid, or what was known on the road as the camp fever. 
This disease still prevailed after we had arrived at Santa Clara, 
so that fourteen of our number died before the first of February. 
The rainy season commenced with unusual violence, and the 
water leaked through the tile roofs, until the adobe floors, 
in some instances, became mortar. In some of the rooms there 
were small ponds, and our beds and clothing became damp and 
unhealthy, provisions scarce, medicines and other necessaries of 
life impossible to be had. The sick suffered untold miseries In 
one instance an old woman died; and after she had been lifted 
from her bed and prepared for burial, the bed had to .be scraped 
from the adobe floor with a hoe; for so decayed had the bed-tick 
and feathers become that they could not be handled with the 

hands. In one instance a Mr. , who had recovered from 

a sick bed sufficiently to be able to render some assistance in 
taking care of his suflering wife and child, appropriated three 
boar<£ belonging to another, to construct a rude bed-stead to 
keep them from the damp adobe floor, the owner refusing to sell 
the lumber for money. In a few days the wife and chdd b h 
died when the bed-stead was made into rough eoflms in which 
to bury the dead. After the war was over this poor man was 
hauled up before the Alcalde, fined twenty-five dollar^ locked up 
nthe calaboose, and his wagon and team levied upon to pay th 
flne. This Alcalde had been appointed by one of our web-footed 
o-entlemen of the American Navy. 

° As soon as Fremont had raised all the volunteers he could ob- 
tain amon. the emigrants, he marched for the lower country, 
Sr te ted save by'the navy. Colonel Fremont had left orders 
JL the commanding officer at San Fracisco, to issue rations to 
Z emigrants in Santa Clara, but these rations were hke angel s 
Sits few and far between. The Spaniards refused to sell us 
mtat'and other provisions, and starvation began to sta. some 
of us in the face. To add to our tther troubles as soon as Col 
ond Fremont had left for the lower country, the Spaniards ,m 
fe upper part of the State flew to arms; and wi h Golone 
Sanlez at their head, who-after taking prisoner Lieutenant 
St, of the navy, with some eight sailors whc ^er^out on 
afora-inc expedition-besieged the emigrants m Santa Clara. 

Wilis time we had sought to conciliate rather than ag- 
gravate the Spaniards but our condition had now became des- 
^: and w^ found that the only chance to obtain p~ 
was to appropriate the fat cattle of the Spaniards, that weie 
running in abundance near the Mission, and we soon found our- 
selves in fighting condition on fresh beef without salt. 

Al hanos were now busy in fortifying the old Mission of 
Santa Clara, and preparing to give our foe a gallant ^reception , 
but the Spaniards though boasting that they would soon ap- 
propriate the pretty Sehoras blancas to their own use, faded to 
come near enough to measure arms with our mountam trfka 

While collecting his forces, Colonel Sanchez had selected a 
canyon in the hills between the bay of San Francisco and the 
ocean, where he hoped to surprise the Americans, ^conq^ 
the country at a single dash; but the brave Captain Webei, 


,.,,,. 0Q the alert, soon discovered his hiding place ^X't 

in Santa Claxa and San Jos,, marched to San La 
hewafiioined by Lieutenant Stansit, with thirty-two marines, 
IT pound field piece, six artillerymen, and Captam Martin 

"small company of volunteers, making in all about o ty 

in ,„, with Captain Marta in chief command 

A soon a, Sanchez discovered that Weber ha, gone * San 
Francisco, lie, Sanchez moved up and encamped near Santa 
Clara, where he kept the .migrants in close quarters until the 
memorable battle of Santa Clara. 

The two armies met on the first day of January, 1847, on Jht 
r „ad to San Francisco, about ten miles west of Santa Clam 
The Spaniards, mounted on good horses, would charge up to 
lit,, hundred, or two hundred and fifty yards of he 
Americans, discharge their muskets and retreat to a safe d*- 
tance, where they would reform, load and charge again. Tins 
kind of running tight was kept up untfl witlun half a mile ot 
Santa Clara. By this time the blood of the emigr ^ecame 
too warm to be kept within the walls of the old Mission, and 
fourteen of them crept out through the mustard and attacked 
1 them in their rear. This ended the fight. The Spaniards re- 
treated to their camp and the Americans marched m triumph 
into Santa Clara, where they were received with shouts and 
ioyful exclamations by both the men and women of that place. 
The Spaniards lost eight men, killed and wounded, in this bat- 
tle but no blood was spilled on the American side. The grape- 
shot from tlje field pieces kept the Spaniards at long rang, during 
the fight On the eighth day of January, 1847, the Americans 
having been reinforced by about sixty men, under Captain Mad- 
docks of Monterey, the Spaniards gave up the struggle as hope- 
[ .. marched out of their camp and laid down their arms. This 
ended the war in the upper Department of California. The 
wearied emigrant now felt that he could go forth under the ; 
stars and stripes, with none to molest or make him afraid. 

A short account of the death of Foster at Salinas may be of 
some interest to the reader. Before Fremont had started for 
the lower country, Captain Burrus left San Jose with about 
thirty or forty men to join Frf mont at Monterey. On appoach- 
ing near the Salinas plains Captain Burrus halted his company 
and sent out a scout to reconnoitre, and see that all was clear 
before he attempted to cross the plains. This scouting party, as 

I have before stated, consisted of James Haze, Foster, Thos. 

Hill, James Salmon, several Delaware Indians ami fcwo Walla 
Walla Indians. < )n approaching the plains Mr. Haze and his 
companions discovered a company of men encamped some dis- 
tance off, and being undetermined who they were, returned and 
reported what they had seen to Captain Burrus. The Captain 
then ordered them to return and find out who they were. In 
the meantime Burrus moved off to the left, behind some hills, and 
camped for the day. On returning near the plains Mr. Haze 
saw that he had been discovered by the Spaniards, who had 
placed themselves in position to cut off his retreat, and he found 
himself surrounded by some forty or fifty well mounted Span- 
iards, and his only chance was te retreat into a clump of oak 
trees and defend himself until Burrus should come to tin- rrseue. 
This Burrus neglected to do, and Haze and his companions were 
obliged to defend themselves against, this superior force for about 
four hours before they were relieved by Burrus, One Spaniard 

brought him to the ground. He was a ™ x ^ ar " „ Th 

scalped, and stripped of his serape and hat by loin H,U. U» 
Spaniards were Erequenthy bantered to con,, out and tafceafan 
fight. At last To,,, Ml said, "You come r*re,m .kffl jou. 
You can't fight hotter than one woman." At length the} were 
IZZ upon by three Spaniards armed with lassoes, and the 
SWquite exeiting for a few moments, but soon over 

H , Drought town with his rifle an,, Salmon ano her; but 

Hul seorrifd to take such advantage of his foe, and puttmg 
down his rifle, drew his tomahawk and prepared to meet hm> on 
fan ground. The strife was soon over, for as soon as the Span- 
iard made the first pass, Ton, paried the thrust and stock the 
Spaniard in the forehead with his tomahawk, winch b.ought 
him to the ground, where he deliberately tore off his scalp. 
During the remainder of the battle the Spaniards kept at long 
rangeTnot caring to come within close quarters with H« and 

his Indians. 

Captain Burrus with his force was but a short distance from 
th,- seen, of conflict, but instead of pushing forward to his rebel 
he bad encamped behind a high hill, where he was entnely out 
of hearing of Haze's guns. Here he remained until late m the 
afternoon, when some of his men went to the top of the hill to 
reconnoitre, when they discovered Haze and his Indians still 
defending themselves against the Spaniards. They immediately 
reported to Captain Burrus, but that functionary thought they 
could get along without him. This so enraged the men that 
they declared their intention to go to the assistance of Haze, his 
orders to the contrary notwithstanding. Burrus, finding himself 
in the minority, took the lead and ordered his men to follow. 
The Spaniards had been watching Burrus' movements, and as 
soon as they discovered him approaching withdrew from the 
contest and prepared to meet Burrus. Burrus, with more cour- 
age than prudence, as soon as he earn, near enough to the Span- 
iards ordered his men to tire, and immediately gave the word to 
charge, supposing he could make an easy victory with empty 
rifles without bayonets. De La Tory saw hi. advantage, and 
advanced with pistols and lassoes to meet him. At this critical 
moment a Cherokee Indian, with one or two others who had 
fallen out of the ranks, came up and opened tire on the right of 
the Spaniards, who, supposing that Fremont was attacking 
them, broke and lied If it had not been for this lucky incident 
the Americans would have been all cut off Captain Burrus 
paid for this rash act with his own life, being killed by a pistol 
shot fired by De La Tory. 

The Spaniards, feeling that all was lost in the upper depart- 
ment of California, concentrated their Eorces near Los Angeles 
for a final struggle. Colonel Fremont moved southward in pur- 
suit of De La Tory, while Commodore Stockton anchored his 
fleef at San Pedro, to awaH the arrival of Colonels Kearny and 
( look, who were approaching California from New Mexico. To 
forward the arrival of Kearny. Commodore Stockton dispatched 
Lieutenant Gellispie with an escort of fifteen men, to meet and 
hurry him along as fast, as possible. As soon as Collispie met 
Kearny, he selected fifteen of his old dragoons, making, with 
Gellispie's escort, thirty mm, and started on a forced march to 
join Stockton at San Pedro, dust, after taking up his line of 



march, the morning after he left Cook, Kearny discovered some 
eighty Spaniards about ono mile in advance, in the act of taking 
tin ir breakfast, and supposing that he could surprise them before 
they -would be ready for action, ordered a charge led oft* by him- 
self at full gallop, but soon found to his sorrow that the Span- 
iards were not so easily surprised. Kearny's men, being on 
jaded horses, were scattered in the rear, while the enemy, with 
fresh horses, and outnumbering the Americans two to one, were 
anxious for the fray. As soon as the Americans came up, the 
Spaniards opened to the right and left, as if to leave the road 
open for Kearny to pass through, and as soon as he was en- 
trapped in the net, they wheeled witli their lances and attacked 
both in the front and rear. In this engagement both Kearny 
and his men showed consummate skill in the use of the sword; 
for, hi a very few moments the ground was strewed with the 
dead. At one time General Kearny was attacked by five 
lances coming from different directions, and my informant says 
he saw no chance for him to extricate himself, but in the twink- 
ling of an eye he parried their thrusts, cut oft' their lances, and 
cut down two of the Spaniards. The Spaniards, after a num- 
ber of charges, broke, and left the field. In this encounter 
Kearny lost fifteen, killed, and the enemy about an equal num- 
ber After burying the dead, Kearny pursued his way and 
joined Stockton at San Pedro. As soon as he arrived there, 
Commodore Stockton landed the marines and sailors from the 
fleet, and took up his line of march for Los Angeles. Soon after 
they left San Pedro they were attacked by the Spaniards, but 
after keeping up a running fight for two days, the Spaniards 
fell back and surrendered to Fremont, between Los Angeles and 

Santa Barbara. 

And now Peace, with her balmy wings, settled down on the 
lovely valleys and beautiful hill sides of California. The open- 
in,- spring was warm and delightful; all nature looked gay and 
lovely, and the tumult of war was forgotten; the sword and 
spear were turned into plowshares and pruning hooks; the 
farmer went forth to till the soil; the merchant to his goods; the 
mechanic to his workshop; and peace and plenty smiled on 
every side. Fanned by the gentle breeze of the Pacific the 
emigrant looked back over the toils of his long journey, and felt 
secure from the scourge of fever and sword; he looked forward 
to years of quiet prosperity, little dreaming that m four short 
years a greal State would arise on the shores of the Pacific and 
that the gold of the Sierras, and the precious me tab of he 
barren hills and plains of the Rocky Mountains would gladden 
the commerce of the world." Thus was it decreed by a wise 
Providence that the treasures so long hidden in the ravines and 
hillsides of California should be brought forth, not only Jo 
gladden the heart of the toning miner, but to bring «mfa*«£ 
plenty to the destitute at home; that agncuhnre should flom sh 
on those broad plains and in the rich va leys and, with ^ 
golden grin, feed the starving of the world; that cities an 
towns and villages, should spring up as rf by magic; that the 
Xholbe clothed with the vine and thefig tree; thatmanu- 
^ctoHes should increase and flourish; that the Pagan should b 
wi rn contact with enlightened Christianity, and the gospel 
I i n n forth and bless the world; and the aged pioneer of 

a, prayer of thanksgiving to the preserver of hi. existence, who 
has spared him to look down on the broad fields, great cities 
and beautiful hamlets, which he has watched from the hour ot 

their existence. 

About the 15th of December, 18-16, the first Protestant sermon 
was preached in California, and from that time until the first ot 
February, 1847, meetings were kept up regularly every Sunday 
evening Nor was the education of the young neglected, for, 
soon after we arrived in Santa Clara a school for the instruction 
of our children was commenced by Mrs. Olive Isbell, and when 
sickness prevented her from attending to her duties^t was con- 
tinued by Mr. West until the emigrants left Santa Uara 

In February, 1847, the greater part of the emigrants left 
Santa Clara and settled in other parte of the State, San Jose, 
Santa Cruz and Monterey receiving the greater portion, those 
who attempted to settle in and around Santa Clara were driven 
off' by the military forces during the next summer. The emi- 
grants having settled themselves in the different parts of the 
country, nothing occurred to disturb the peace and harmony ot 
their fives, except now and then a murder, an account of one ot 
which I will relate, to show the prompt manner m which justice 
was meted out by the Alcaldes. During the summer of 1S47 » t 
Mexican, having become jealous of his wife-whether the cause 
was real or only existed hi his mind, we know note-stabbed her 
to the heart with a large sheath knife. As soon as he had com- 
mitted the murder he gave the body of his wife to her sister and 
fled for refuge to the old Mission Church in Santa Cru* Fm 1- 
ing himself unable to gain an entrance into the church, he s tuck 
hi. finger into the key-hole of the door, and with stoical calm- 
ness awaited the arrival of his pur™* Before hrs murdered 
victim was laid in her last resting place the Alcalde had sum 
moned twelve jurymen to appear forthwith to ^J"^ 
derer The jury, after answering to their names, and without 
S -vornVere ordered to take their seats and brmg in a 
vrdlct according to the testimony. The witnesses were the 
2tei and daughter of the deceased, and the knJe-showmg 
bt four hich: S from the pointe-with which the ^ had W 
committed The case was a clear one, and the jnry, after being 
1^ fifteen minutes, brought in a verdict of gufity *nd<,ne 
of them, at least, said the prisoner was guilty and ought to be 
1 liter the verdict was rendered the prisoner was asked if 
t had anything to say why sentence of death should not b 
pronounceiagamst him. The answer being in the negative, he 
Sntence wasVonounced, as near as can be remembered in he 
ofiowuio- words : - You shall be taken from this place to the 
IlaW from whence you came, and on next Friday you shah 
£ taken to the place of execution and shot until you , are deai 
After thinking the matter over very seriously f or a ^few - 
utes, the prisoner asked, - When did you say 1 must M He 
was answered, " On the day after to-morrow-Friday. J. Be 
™Z replied, with a shrug of the shoulders £■*** 
Six voung Spaniards, two of them nephews of the murdered 
wlln volunteered to do the shooting, and on Friday, in the 
presence of a large concourse of people, he was led forth and shot 
She was deal his own children and the friend, ,o ta** 
witnessing the execution. Had justice been meted out to tians 
™ m after years as promptly as it was in this case, it 
woTld have precluded the necessity of vigilance committees in 

VTbusiness of the country at this time was mainly stock- 



raising and lumbering, and the circulating medium .was hades, 
tallow and lumber. There was very little money m t ^country. 
and business waa transact.! to a great extent without that com- 
modity. The American population had become so scattered that 
there was very little chance to organize society or establis 
schools, and society in California was in a wretched condition. 
The Sabbath was used by Californians as a day of recreation 
and sport, such as bull-fighting, cock-fighting horse-racing, 
drinking and gambling, with a fandango at night, many of the. 
American and foreign population joining in the sport. 

In the spring of 1848 a report was circulated that workmen, 
while digging the tail race of Sutter's mill (now Coloma) m the 
California mountains, had discovered small quantities of gold 
This was thought not improbable, as gold had been found m small 
quantities, and placer diggings had been worked for years in the 
vicinity of Los Angeles and San Diego. The next report was 
that Marshall and his men had quit work on the mill and were 
making an ounce a day each, in gold; and still another that 
fabulous quantities of the precious metal had been found, and 
all that was necessary was to go to the mines, shovel up your 
pile, and return home. The inhabitants of California became 
wild with excitement. Mills were allowed to stand still; farms 
* were forsaken, the merchant packed up his goods; the mechanic 
packed up his tools, and all started for the mines. 

In 1847 he moved from Santa Clara to Soquel, and was 
engaged the first season in building a saw mill for Michael 
Lodge, on Soquel creek, on the present site of the town of SoqueL 
During the summer of that year, while work was scarce, the 
Judge passed away his time in the manufacture of a billiard 
table, the first one ever built in California. It was built of red- 
wood lumber, and was taken to Monterey and set up. In the 
spring of 184S Mr. Hecox thought he would try his hand at the 
mill business, and rented the mill he* had built for Lodge. It 
was during the early spring that the news of the discovery of 
gold reached them. It was rumored that an ounce a day to 
the man was the smallest amount that could possibly be made. 
Of course this created a great excitement, and the mill hands all 
left for richer fields, and of a necessity the mill had to close. 
The Judge caught the fever and went with the rest to the mines. 
He was among the party that discovered the rich diggings at 

On their way to the mines they stopped at Webber's Camp, 
about five miles from Coloma. The Judge had two partners. 
The partners went out to mine, while the Judge remained at 
camp and made rockers, which were just then in great demand. 
The partners discovered rich diggings on the south fork of the 
American river. A party of eight was made up, and they 
silently stole away to the rich placers. They started with a 
team, and at night they camped at the place that was afterwards 
called Hano-town, and now Placerville. Those who remained at 
Webber Camp, on finding that the Judge's party had left, 
followed them, and coming to Hangtown they were searching 
around for the runaways and prospecting the while. The pros- 
pectors discovered the rich diggings and concluded to go no 
farther. From this discovery Hangtown soon became very 
famous, and thousands flocked there to enrich themselves from 
its auriferous gulches and creek beds. 

Hecox's party, on hearing of the rich find, came back to Hang- 
town, and on the afternoon of the day they arrived the party 
picked up six pounds of gold. 

In July, Judge Hecox returned to Santa Cruz, where he was 
taken sick, which lasted him six weeks. 

On the first of September he concluded to return to the mines 
again On arriving at the Mokelumne river he met Captain 
Aram The Captain had some goods there, but was without 
teams to convey them to the mines. The Judge took hnn and 
his goods up to near Sonora. The goods were readily sold at 
400 per cent above cost. They were gone but five days, and 
cleared $2,200. 

In the fall of 1848 the Judge returned again to banta Lruz, 
where lie has lived ever since. 

In the winter of 1848-9 he sold goods for William C. Parker 
& Co., and in June, 1849, he opened a store in Santa Cruz with 
Elijah Anthony, who is still a resident of Santa Cruz. 

In the fall of 1849 Hecox was elected Alcalde. In the winter 
of 1850 the business of his office became quite lively, so that in 
less than two months he had sixty-three cases on his docket- 
mostly criminal. All the cases that came before the courts in 
those early times had to be tried without any established rules 
of law, and the Judge says he ruled from his sense of justice and 
what good horse sense he possessed. 

He held this office until the State laws came in force and a 
Justice of the Peace elected. 

In 1852 he was elected a Justice of the Peace, which office he 
held two terms. He was then elected Public Administrator. 
This office he held two years and six months, when he was 
again elected Justice of the Peace, and held two more terms. At 
the close of the second term he was elected Associate Justice of the 
County Court; Associate of Judge of Watsonville. 
In 1861 Judge Hecox was elected County Treasurer of Santa. 
Cruz county, and held that office -with honor to himself and 
credit to his county for two years and six months, his time run- 
ning over under the amended law. 

Some time after his term of office as Treasurer had expired, 
the Government erected a lighthouse at Santa Cruz point, and 
Judge Hecox was placed in charge of it. That position he has 
held continuously to the present time; and though the light of 
his life may burn dimly in its socket, yet he keeps the light 
bright that guides the storm-beat mariner on his way. 

The old Judge carries his years well, and looks a much 
younger man than he is. The good wife who shared the trials 
of the plains with him in those days when it tried the mettle of 
women, has been his true companion hi all the years that have 
gone since they plighted their troths, and she still remains to 
cheer his footsteps toward the shores of that brighter world, 
where the light of eternity never dims and the days and nights 
are as one in glory. May the declining years of this old couple 
be pleasant, and them last moments the happiest of them lives. 

Three of their children that crossed the plains with them are still 
living in different parts of this coast, and are all married. The 
eldest, Mrs. Mary E. Stamploy, resides at Carson City, Nevada; 
the second, Mrs. C. M. Brown, resides in San Francisco; the 
third, Adna H. Hecox, is engaged in the livery business in San 
Luis Obispo. Four children born to them in California are still 
living, two of them are married. Mrs. Matilda Longly resides 
in Santa Cruz, also Mrs. A. Rigg; Miss Laura J. Hecox resides 
with her parents. This young lady is quite a student of conch- 
ology, and her display of shells and cabinet specimens is greatly 
admired by all who visit the lighthouse. The youngest child, 
Orville S. Hecox, is also at home with his parents. 




Mr. A. A. Hecox appears to have commenced Protestant pub- 
lic worship in Santa Cruz. He was an authorized Christian 
minister in the Methodist Episcopal church. Worship was first 
held at the house of John 1). Green, in August, 1847, and after 
that in the house of J. G. T. Dunleavy. 

Mr. Hecox thinks he preached the first Protestant sermon m 
California at the funeral of a Miss Hitchcock, who died at San 
Jose, about December 15, 1846. " Feeble in body and leaning 
upon a staff he made his way to the house of mourning, where 
he found a few of the relatives of the deceased, who had assembled 
to bid farewell to their departed sister who had fallen far, far 
from home." His remarks were based upon, the following words 
" Remember how short my time is." 

After Mr. Hecox removed to Santa Cruz he was called upon 
to attend the funeral of a young man who was killed at Soq_uel, 
by the falling of a tree, about May 1, 1847. The sermon was 
preached in the old adobe building, now known as the " Angle 

Hotel." j. * t i 

The first Methodist class was formed the latter part ot Feb- 
ruary 1848, and the Rev. E. Antony elected preacher, and Mr. 
Hecox appointed in charge of the work in San Jose 

The gold discovery, however, drew off the people very sud- 
denly, in the latter part of the year, and public worship was 
practically suspended for the time. 


Francisco Alzino, came to California in 1840, and to Santa 
Cruz in the fall of 1847. He went to the mines awhile when 
ff old was discovered, but he has resided here ever since. lie has 
long been the acknowledged and trusted interpreter, between 
the Spanish and English speaking people hereabout. He was 
the first Sheriff of Santa Cruz county. 


Alfred Baldwin came in 1846. When a boy, living in Dela- 
ware Co New York, he got very much interested in this Pacific 
region, through reading Lewis and Clark's journal 

The desire to see this country that was said to have no cold 
winters, grew upon him. Being in St. Louis in 1845 when a 
party was starting overland to Oregon, he lomed it. 
P They reached then- destination in the fall of IMd. Mr. Bald- 
win cauie to San Francisco early in 1846. He very soon en- 
listed under Purser James H. Watmough, purser of the sloop of 
war "Portsmouth," with others, to see that there was no resistance 
to the flag of the United States, which had then just been raised. 
Thev were stationed at San Jose. 

While they were there news came down from the Mission San 
Jose that Indians from the San Joaquin neighborhood were 
making their usual raids and stealing all the horses 

ThiTwas an old habit of the Indians, and frontier ranches, 
like Marsh's or Livermore's, could not keep horses. 

The spirit of the new flag did not propose to submit to these 
depredations. So, very promptly, Capt. Watmough organized 
a party to go and look after these matters. It comasted of some 
twentv-five or thirty men. . 

Til went to the Indians lurking place on the Sanguis 
river and there camped for the night. By and by, in the dark- 
ness came rushing on them a band of horses, 
"ndians had stolen them from around the Mission, as be- 

fore remarked, and now as they thought they were driving them 
into their own secure retreat, they were driving them into the 
hands of our encamped force. 

The horses were secured ami brought back, but the Indians 
themselves succeeded in getting away into the willows and thick- 
ets Returning to San Jose, the party was ordered at once to 
co south in a vessel named " Sterling " to help take care of thmgs 
there. Getting a little below Monterey, they met the " Yanda- 
lia" coming up with orders that they should return to Monterey, 
and there fit out an expedition and proceed in force down the 
coast, by land. Back to Monterey they came. Men were sent 
to the Sacramento Valley to get horses to mount the expedition- 
Mr. Baldwin, meanwhile, worked at his trade in Monterey get- 
tin* the harnesses ready for the hauling of the cannon. 

In the month of November, 1846, the requisite number of 
horses having been obtained, were about to be driven across the 
Salinas plain toward Monterey. 

But just here, Pio Pico, who had heard of this coming band 
of horses, confronts them with a force of Californians. 

Before he gets the horses, however, the men in charge of them 
turn them aside to a rancho in the hills, and on the next daygo 
out to disperse the opposing California forces. 


The battle of the Salinas resulted, and it went very hard with 
our few men. It is said to have been the only battle during the 
struggle for American rule in California, that did go hard with 
our forces. The record is that Capt. Foster, the officer in com- 
mand was killed and eleven of his men. But the horses were 
not captured That night their faithful Indian guide, "Tom, 
broke through and carried the news to Monterey. The entire 
force there marched immediately over to the Salinas, but no en- 
emy was any longer to be found. The horses were obtained, 
the expedition was gotten ready and moved down the country. 
Of course in December and onward, they encountered the rainy 
season and the storms in the St. Inez mountains were terrible; 
but they got through at last, and accomplished the object of then- 

Mr. Baldwin was mustered out of service with the rest in Los 
Angeles in April, 1S47, and returning, came to Santa Cruz in 
the fall, reaching here in December, 1847, and has lived here 
ever since. 

Alfred Baldwin was born in Bensselaerville, Albany Co., N. Y . 
in 1816 and lived in that section until 1844, when he went to 
New Orleans by water, and then up the river to St. Lours. On the 
9d of May 1845, he started with a company from St. Louis for 
Oregon They started with 300 wagons, but finding that num- 
ber too large for one party they divided. Mi-. Baldwin's com- 
pany reached Portland and Oregon City after many trials. 

At Portland he helped erect the first frame dwelling ever built 
there Here he met Mr. R. C. Kirby, now of Santa Cruz, and 
they in company with about fifty others, started for California, 
Sutter's Fort being the objective point. At San Francisco nearly 
all enlisted under Fremont. 

In 1846 he married Miss Fannie Willard, a native of Leom- 
inster, Mass., who came in the spring of the same year to Santa 
Cruz Mr. Baldwin has a pretty residence on one of the chiet 
residence streets of Santa Cruz, which has been sketched tor this 




Mr R C Kirby, who, since 1850, has been extensively engaged 
in the manufacture of leather in Santa Cruz, was born m lSlf, 
in Staffordshire, England. Having served a seven years appien- 
fciceship to the business in Dudly, he left England ml 842 to_ t 
his fortunes in the United States. He worked first m New 
York and then in New London, Connecticut, whence m 1843 
the spirit of adventure seized him; he shipped on the whale ship 
"Morrison," Capt. Green, master, bound for Okhotsk Bay, on the 
coastof Asia. They touched at Cape de We , St Paul and 
other islands. Made a short stay at Van Dieman s Land, rounded 
the Cape of Good Hope, visited Otaheite, and in the spring of 
1844 found themselves at the Sandwich Islands. Here Iresh pro- 
visions were purchased and all necessary preparations were made 
for the summer whaling cruise-when work began m earnest. 
In the autumn, after not a very successful « find ' ot oil, we 
left Okhotsk and sailed for the Straits of Juan de Fuca, anchor- 
ing in the neighborhood of two other whalers, in a small bay 
opposite Vancouver's Island. . 

The master of one of the other vessels was cousin to Captain 
Green and bore the same name, and there was now commenced 
a great deal of what sailors call " gammoning " or visiting be- 
tween the ships, so that it was nothing unusual to see a whale 
boat with men in it on any evening. 

The subject of this sketch began to realize seriously about 
this time that he had no special vocation for the sea, and he had 
had his fill of whaling and whale oil. Two others on the "Mor- 
rison" and three on the " Cousins " ship were of the same mind. 
They therefore entered into an agreement to leave as soon as a fan- 
opportunity offered- Each of the number was a good mechanic, 
and not one doubted of success could they reach some American 
settlement. Oregon— some point on the Columbia River was 
their object. Accordingly one moonlight night when the two 
Green's visitors were having a jovial carouse in the cabin of the 
"Morrison," the party of six gently dropped into a whale boat 

and put off. 

All night they rowed, keeping land in sight. In the morning 
they tried to put in near the mouth of the Chalet River to obtain 
if possible some food and water— articles with which they had 
been wholly unable to provide themselves from the .ship. In- 
dians, however, came hastening down to the beach and with un- 
friendly gestures tried to surround them and the boat. Our 
refugees offered a few knives for some dried salmon and ol itained 
it. They then made signs that they would land with a keg for 
water. Instead, they hurriedly pushed the boat off and left. 
The Indians took to their canoes and followed firing a volley of 
arrows now and then, and they had made over ten miles sea- 
ward before their enemies gave up the chase. In those days the 
captains of deserted whalers would offer Indians a good price 
to capture absconded sailors, and it was no uncommon thing to 
see a couple of them bringing a fugitive in, bodily. To this fact 
they attributed their bad treatment on this occasion.. 

They now rowed, hoping for a better reception elsewhere, and 
the following day at noon, having been thirty-six hours without 
water, they landed on a beach near which a pure spring of water 
was rushing out of the bank.. Observing here the foot-prints of 
Indians, they filled their keg and at once put to sea again. 

Head winds from the south hindered their progress and kept 
the sail valueless, but by the help of the boat's chart and com- 
pass they lost no way. 

Arriving off Gray's Harbor towards evening of the i second 
riiTZ found the breakers rolling very high on the bar and 

Ught a heavy gale tan "^ ™ to thetote s. We 

&~js^sp«~ <£ " uld r t:: 1 

i r, ,« All efforts were directed to keeping her square, 

SiZhXway toll over the waves to theshor. Finally, 
one Wker opened and we were swamped. Three of our num- 
ber Truesdale, Fisher, and myself, managed to serze on the 
warp wh eh th oars had kept afloat, and in th s way we were 
S over the bar, and dashed, more dead than ahve, on a 
" U and island at the month of the bay. The other poor 
ellows went down. Truesdale dragged us from the edge of the 
water to a sand hillock at a little distance. The boats sad, 
which had been landed near by, he pulled over us and we soon 
slept heavily. 

In the morning Truesdale rose first and took a survey of our 
situation, waking us up with the alarming news that we were 
on a sand island, destitute of water. A porpoise and a sea gull, 
both killed in the storm, lay near us on the shore, and those we 
ate raw most thankfully. 

On the other side of the hilly dome, we found our boat with a 
hole stove in her side through which the snag protruded that had 
held her fast for us. But for this we must certainly have per- 
ished on the island. 

With part of our clothing we stopped up the hole, and finding 
our oars also, we got her afloat and rowed across the channel 
southward to the mainland where we camped for the night, 
tormented by mosquitoes, which showed so marked a preference 
for a foreigner over native Americans, that in the morning I could 
with difficulty see out of my eyes. 

Famishing with thirst we got up and licked the heavy dew 
from off the grass. Searching for Indians from whom we could 
obtain food and water, we came upon some blackberry bushes, 
and satisfied both hunger and thirst with the fruit. 

We now returned to our boat which was anchored on the 
fiats The morning was beautiful after the storm, but with our 
reduced numl ler we did not dare to put to sea again. We there- 
fore hoisted sail and proceeded up the bay. 

In about two hours we discovered, amoks rising on the south- 
ern shore and at once made for the spot. We ran our boat on 
a lovely beach and found a wigwam containing an Indian and 
two squaws close by. 

By signs we gave them to understand our want ot food and 
water, and these were at once responded to by the present of a 
large roasted salmon and a gourd of water. We concluded to 
rest here that day and the next night. On the following morn- 
ing we found that our host had stolen out of the boat, all our 
few possessions— the razors, scissors and other traps with which 
we had provided ourselves for barter with the Indians, and he 
now made signs that we should depart. Pointing to the opposite 
shore he let us know that we should Hud plenty of [ndians there. 
We could hut follow his advice. He gave us another salmon and 
We set out. 

After rowing some hours we found ourselves at the mouth ol 
the Chehallis riven We proceeded up it a few mUes— camped 
on the hank that night, and in the morning had not run a mile 



before meeting a canoe containing an Indian and a squaw. In 
answer to our signs they approached us and let us understand 
that they were going duck shouting. The Indian presented us 
with a roasted salmon and finally turned his canoe head up stream 
and made signs for us to follow, which we did, and m about an 
hour we were in sight of a large Indian village. The Indiana 
appeared much surprised at our presence but were not unfriendly. 
We were immediately provided with more salmon and some 
cake made of pressed huckleberries. One of their number was 
shortly dispatched up the river; the others got into our boat and 
examined every part curiously; then spent the rest of the day 
holding a sort of a town meeting about us. 

Near sunset the messenger returned with some eight canoes 
containing besides Indians, their squaws, papooses, and then- 
chief " Jim," a young fellow with one eye. 

A great powwow now took place, at the conclusion of which 
the chief ordered eight of his men into our boat and motioned 
us to enter and sit in the stem with himself and squaw The 
oars were now put aside and the Indians paddled us up theriver 
to chief Jim's village, five miles distant. The nigh was ovely 
and the plaintive chanting of the boatmen most soothing to oui 

T^fnow night and the chief kindly provided us with 
blankets and more salmon. A little salt would have added 
relish to the meal but this luxury was not to be had. 

We remained with these friendly Indians more *an to 
weeks and managed to pick up during that time a good deal of 
the jargon dialect which proved useful to us afterward,. B»- 
ton Tillicnm" was jargon for American man, and King 
George's man "for an Englishman. 

Our visit had lasted a week when the good chief said that he 
wanted us to bnild him a - Boston "house. V*™™ 
frame and log houses at Chenook, on the Columbia.) Tl icy had 
Loodsnpplvof axes which they had procured from .the Hud- 

selZ ntof "Botton TiUicums" made us an offer to pilot ™ 
settlement. nu^ank for the gift of our whale boat. 

various streams, and lastiy Shod ^ Water * £ rescortplacedll9 

a i.™, tW three mouth's afterward Jonathan Trues- 
•It ,na y be , well *£^££ «* *** T*. f & Z 

r^iKMSti °< - « <°< -* yMrs * te 

at Oregon City, had a small Tannery. Leaving Fisher and 
Truesdale at Astoria, I went in a canoe to see them. (My ward- 
robe at this time consisted simply of a shirt and a pair of pant- 
aloons) I found the yard with leather in the vats awaiting . 
currier, and I was so fortunate as to procure a set of curriers 
tools which had been brought out by the Me hodist Mission. It 
was not long before I had the leather dressed, and as there weie 
I adv two or three shoe makers in the place ™»W*"» "*; 
Alfred Baldwin, long a resident of this city), the citizens, both 
English and Americans who had previously worn only moccasins 
in the streets, now went properly shod. 

In the following spring, being desirous on my own account to 
locate a tannery in some favorable place, I traveled with Alfred 
Baldwin over all the settled part of Oregon. Returning to 
Oregon City, I met two gentlemen, Messrs. Ponieroy and Hedges 
builders, who offered to supply all the capital I should want if I 
would start a yard with them, the yard to be located abov the 
falls on Nesmith Smith's place. We bad-commenced operations 
when the British sloop of war "Modesto arrived at Fort Van- 
couver This was during the dispute respecting the North- 
western boundary line. The two gentlemen next morning came 
to me anxious to withdraw from the contract, as it was uncertain 
wh"t country our tannery would be in. They offered to settle 
with me on liberal terms; such, in fact, as would atf ted me , ui 
excellent outfit for my trip to California. Besides this, they 
Presented me with a fine horse for my journey there 
P ! now started with a large party for this State but we had 
not advanced very far when there was great discontent. There 
were so many French Canadians, with their squaws and children, 
ttiat movement was. necessarily slow. We, therefore, broke up 
into companies, of which ours was the smallest. We could now 

h 1n n thTlJmpqua mountains, we fell in with a party of Oregon- 
ians returning from California with cattle. They advised us to 
Wre oW River Indians, informing us that the Wom- 
b land Wood'^party of eight, who had preceded » had £» 
attacked by them, and some of then' number had been bad y 
wounded They advised us if we fell in with these Indians to 
Zwtght instead of retreating before them. This line of action 
ve adopted, and consequently arrived in the Sacramento VaUey 
without loss of any kind, after five weeks journeying At oui 
fir t stopping place we found one of the badly wounded men of 
the W. W. party. We were met here also by news of the Mexi- 

"traveled, taking Hoe Farm on our way, till we came to 
Sutter's Fort, at which place I was shortly prostrated by a vio- 
lent attack of chills and fever.- The physician of the Fort had 
lately died, and my case was treated by an old mountaineer, who 
aSter'ed 60 grains of calomel for a dose. I need not escr*e 
the effects of such a remedy. Never was a person so ten bly 
sahvated My life was despaired of. Hearing that Captain 
Sutot launch was about to leave for Yerba Buena, with whea 
for the Russian Government, whose possessions in this region he 
had purchased and was paying for, I begged that he would have 
me put aboard, that I might seek medical advice in that pla e. 
To this the Captain acceded, and had me conveyed on a Cali- 
fornia ox cart to the embarcadero (the former site of Sacramento) 
We were six days getting to Yerba Buena. The passengers 
and crew lay on deck and on the wheat in the hold, while Cap 
tat Grimes occupied the little cabin. I was far too low to eat 



anything, but old man Grimes gave me every day a little tea Cm 
those 'lays a great luxury), which kept me alive. The landing 
was made on the beach at Montgomery street, at the foot of 
Clay. Two men supported me to the City. Hotel on Portsmouth 
Square. 1 had not been here long when Captain Montgomery, 
of the United States sloop of war "Portsmouth," saw me, and 
inquiring my condition, kindly ordered his boatswain to send up 
some men bo carry me to his boat and convey me on board 
the sloop, where I remained, carefully attended by Dr. Powell, 
and receiving every possible kindness from the officers, for eleven 

Being now convalescent, Captain Montgomery gave me a 
permit to stay at the Sonoma Barracks, with orders for rations, 
until such time as I should be equal to take hold of active life 
again. I can say now that but for Captain Montgomery and 
the Doctor, I should not be here to tell my story. 
^Alfred Baldwin and H. Spccl came on board on their way 
South to join Fremont, to wish me good bye, as they never 
expected to meet me alive again. 

I had promised Captain Sutter, should I live, that I would 
return to the Fort and dress out for him a lot of leather which 
his Indians had tanned, and which was intended for muchers 
and saddles. Accordingly, as soon as I was strong enough, I 
left Sonoma for that purpose. 

At Sutter's Fort I found General Vallejo, his brother Salvador, 
Lees, Bob Ridley, and others, prisoners taken by the Bear Flag 
party. Fremont had left his draughtsman in charge of the Fort. 
Having dressed Captain Sutter's leather I returned to Yerba 
Buena, bought a lot in a little valley, in sight of North Beach, 
through which ran a stream, and put down a small tan yard in 
company with Philip Pell. 

We worked in a few hides and deer skins. The bark we 
peeled off the trees standing— live oak trees, which grew not far 
from the Presidio. To crush this bark we had. to take the stone 
out of Grimes' grist mill, which was on Clay, between Mont- 
gomery and Kearny streets. Our tools we had made by a black- 
smith." The entire arrangement was of the most primitive kind. 
Dissatisfied for various reasons, and having previously met 
Judge Blackburn of Santa Cruz, who told me that he had a 
small yard with stock in it waiting to be dressed, I sold out to 
one Atherton my entire interest in the concern for one dollar 
and came to Santa Cruz, where I made an engagement to dress 
out the Judge's leather for seventy-five dollars per month and 

This yard was on Joseph Majors' ranch, the St. Augustine, 
now called Scott's Valley. This was in the winter of L847-8, 
and I had just finished dressing out the stock when the gold 
fever " broke out." 

I at once prepared to leave for the mines, Alfred Baldwin going 
with me. We went by way of the San Joaquin to Mormon 
Island, at which place I found many old acquaintances. In 
three weeks I had made $3,000; then I returned to Sutter's 
Fort, the great trading point, and laid in a stock of dry 
goods for trade with the Indians in the diggings. 

Having quadrupled my means, 1 returned with it to San 
Franeiseo for the winter, enjoying whatever there was there of 
enjoyment for money to purchase. 

In (be spring of 1849, I started with a few others on a trailing 
expedition to the Southern "diggings." On arriving witl r 

boat at Stockton, we were persuaded to seU out our stock on 
favorable terms to a company. 

Now we went on a pasear to Mormon Gulch, near Wood's 
Diggings. On Monday morning, my partner and myself went 

work and on Wednesday evening had lU lbs. of gold for our 

We left this place for the Merced diggings, where we found 
Fremont and his party and Dr. Cory, of San Jose, and his party, 
the sole residents. We remained at these diggings till fall, when 
we again returned to San Francisco. There I was persuaded to 
invest my easily earned thousands in a most uncertain and 
hazardous undertaking. The result was, in six months I did 
not own a dollar. This was the common experience of the first 
gold tinders. 

R. C. Kirby now bethought himself that his wisest course 
would be to return to Santa Cruz and settle down permanently 
to his legitimate business. The foot-hills of Santa Cruz abounded 
in chestnut oak, and running streams afforded water power. He 
reasoned sensibly that the constantly increasing influx of popu- 
lation would create a steady demand for leather. In this he 
was not mistaken. 

In the fall of 1S50 he came down and put up a small estab- 
lishment at Squabble Hollow, a "one horse" affair, to use his 
own words, where all the work was done by himself. In 1855, 
being now a married man, he moved his family into town and 
built a yard on the Mission hill, taking in as partners Mr. Ed- 
mund Jones and Mr. Joseph Boston, the firm being known as 
" Kirby, Jones & Co." . 

In 1863 he sold out, and immediately purchased of Charles 
Brown the property on which his present yard is built. The 
capacity of this establishment is 1,500 hides per month, and the 
leather with the "R. C. Kirby" stamp has a reputation not only 
all over California, but hi the East also. 

During his lone; residence in Santa Cruz, while the place has 
grown from an insignificant hamlet to a city of some 5,000 
inhabitants, Mr. Kirby has always taken a prominent part in all 
that concerned its welfare. An ardent advocate of the best 
public schools, a "Black liepublican" when that term was a 
stigma on the character, a friend to labor and to religious free- 


Eli Moore and family came to California from Missouri in 
1847 — father, mother, and five children, arriving here in 
December. Mr. Moore and Judge Blackburn were friends, and 
that probably was what induced Moore to come here. He 
bought the ranch now known by his name, of Boleoff. The 
family lived there for some years. They then moved into 
town that the children might have school privileges. 

Mrs. Case was then teaching school, and that leads us to the 
mention of 


B. A. Case, and Mary A. Case, his wife, came to California in 
1847. Mr. Case was a native of Connecticut, and Mrs. Case of 
Vermont. In January, 184S, they came to Santa Cruz, and 
Mrs. Case began to teach school. 

Here we come upon another very important event, the begin- 
ning of schools in Santa Cruz. It holds an even date with the 
discovery of gold in ( 'aliimnia, in bs4S, hut it is .if immeasurably 
greater importance to the town than that event. 



Mrs. Case taught school here two summers. Her school-house 
was her own private house. The long line of teachers that 
have taught in Santa Cruz, anrl the longer line that will teach 
here, will find the name of Mary Amney Case standing at the 
head of the list. 

Mr. Case died in 1871, in Long Valley, Mendocino County ; but 
Mrs. Case is living with us still, and sees almost a thousand schol- 
ars taught near by where she began teaching a mere handful. 

e. h. sawin. 

R. H. Sawin came to this State in 1849. He was in the 
furniture business, as before stated, in New Orleans, when 
Judge Blackburn left to come to California in 1845. By and 
by he heard about Blackburn and his friend, Jacob R. Snyder, 
making shingles in the Santa Cruz mountains. And so he had 
a growing interest in this far off country even before gold was 

When the news of that event reached New Orleans in Decem- 
ber, 1848, it determined him to come here. He made a quick 
turn of affairs, and joined a party of fifteen, to come through 
Mexico. They came by way of San Louis Potosi, Guadalajara, 
and Mazatlan, reaching San Francisco the last of April, 1849. 
He went to the mines— everybody went to the mines in those 
days. He went to Wood's Diggings on the Tuolumne River, 
but was back in San Francisco in July. 

During this year, 1849, Blackburn and Snyder were up the 
Sacramento River, not from Sutter's Fort, trading and making 

money fast. . 

Sawin met Harvey Speel in the mines, another friend ot 
Blackburn's, who had gathered plenty of gold. Blackburn 
wanted Sawin to come to Santa Cruz, and help finish a saw- 
mill which he had already commenced in what is now known 
as Blackburn Gulch. He went to work on it in the fall of 
1849. Ira Allen was millwright. His wages were $16 a day 
up to the following March. The common laborer received So 
a day In December, 1849, there was a great rain. The mills 
on the San iorenzo went away. They got the mill running 
at an enormous expense in March, and at that time imported 
lumber was pouring into San Francisco market to such an ex- 
tent that the mill would not pay running expenses. 

Mr Sawin, in 1S50, planted a crop of potatoes round about 
where our railroad station and the Pacific Ocean House are. 
la the fall he went on to the farm which Mr. Ely now owns 
and cultivated till 1868, when he built his house on Mission 
street in this city, where he now resides. 

He was here first in 1840, as before stated; came the second 
time in 1846. The services he rendered Graham in 1840, were 
not forgotten by him, and now he gives him that fine tract of 
valley land beyond the Mission. _ 

He does not appear to have occupied or worked it, but prac- 
ticed law in Judge Blackburn's court. After awhile he built 
a schooner at Soquel, and did a freighting business with her 
on San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento River. When go d 
was discovered in 1848, it at once made this freighting a gold 

yielding business. 

Mr Farnham went and gave his personal attention to it, and 
thereby appears to have contracted fever, of which he died m 
San Francisco in September, 1848. 

Mrs. Eliza W. Farnham, his wife, came to California by way 

of Cape Horn in 1849, and took charge of Mr. FarnhanW 
estate. She subsequently married a man by the name of 
Fitzpatrick in San Francisco, but she died in 1870. 

Our townsman, Judge Farnham, was brother to Thomas J. 


Among others who crossed the plains in 1846, and now re- 
side in Santa Cruz, is David L. Adams. His wife, whose family 
name was Bennett, came in 1842. 

David L. Adams was born in Park County, Indiana, on the 
25th day of July, 1836, and with his parents removed to Platte 
County, Missouri, in 1838. In his fifth year he was sent to a 
country school, then taught by General John Bidwell, of Chico, 
Butte County, California. His parents continued to reside in 
Missouri, until they heard from Mr. Bidwell; T. A. Brown of 
Contra Costa County, and others who crossed the plains in 
1842, what a beautiful country and mild climate California 
had. Mr. Adams' parents, in company with Elam Brown, of 
Contra Costa County, and others, in April, 1846, started for 
the far west. 

All the effects belonging to Mr. Adams' family were one 
wagon, three yoke of oxen, five head of cows, one horse and 
twenty-five dollars, or thereabouts, in cash. He was too young 
to recollect many things that took place on the plains. Many 
in the train of thirty wagons were down sick with fever at the 
same time, and at one time his father, himself and sisters, were 
all sick. Mr. D. L. Adams and sisters recovered, but his father 
died, was placed in a very rough box, buried beside the road, 
and the train moved on. Three other deaths occurred during 
the long trip. After many hardships, they reached Sutter's 
Fort, on the Sacramento River. One incident he recollects very 
well,' was how they reached the top of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. The wagons were all drawn up to within two or 
three hundred feet of the top, with as many as fifteen yoke of 
cattle to each wagon; the oxen were then taken to the top; 
two forks were placed firmly in the ground, and a roller placed 
in them; chains were then linked together, fastened to the 
wagon tongue below, over the roller at the top and to the cattle, 
and thus the wagons were lifted to the top. By night all were 
up, and camped a short distance from there that night. Three 
nights after this the Donner party, or most of them, were 
camped at the same nlace. In the morning they could see noth- 
ing but snow and mountains ahead of them. They turned back 
down the mountains with sad hearts, to starvation and to death. 
After leaving here and coming down into Bear River, he recol- 
lects having to cut small trees, hitch them to the hind end of 
the wagon, and then proceed down the hill. Some thought the 
hill was so steep, that the wagons would tumble^pver ahead on 
to the oxen. The emigrants traveled down the river bed (as 
there was but very little water in it), for quite a distance over 
large boulders, the men having in many places to use hand 
spikes to roll the boulders out of the way of the wheels. And 
right here, two years later, under these rocks, immense quanti- 
ties of <*old were literally picked up. Query. Why was it 
none of the emigrants saw gold? At Sutter's Fort they were 
cordially welcomed by the Captain, and partook largely of his 
hospitality. After a few days it was determined that Mr. Adams' 
mother should accept the hospitality, on invitation of one Jack 
Smith, who owned a large ranch on the Yuba River, near 
Marysville.' There being no other choice, the family went 



there to live in a small adobe house, about ten by twelve, cov- 
ered with a tule roof, without chimney or window. Here young 
Adams -was pressed into service, having to drive for other par- 
ties three yoke of cattle all winter to plow; bare-footed and 
ra^ed rain or shine, he was compelled to work. Boded wheat, 
muk and beef, the latter very plenty, was his only food during 
the winter. In the spring of 1847 his mother married Abner 
Bryan, then living on Stony Creek, Colusa County. They 
moved to San Jose, and the following year went to the mines, 
and located in the afterwards noted valley called Hangtown, now 
Placerville. Mr. Adams was one of the first in this mining 
camp The family did at that time pick up a thousand dollar* 
per day in gold for a while. Mr. Adams well recollects the cir- 
cumstance that gave the name of Hangtown to the pace. 
Three men were hung fur murder by a mob to the limb of an 
oak tree, which stood about one hundred yards from his step- 
father's store. Mr. Adams actually helped grease the rope with 
soap from the store, that the men were hung with. In 1849 
the family removed to San Jose. The following year, when at 
the ao-e of fourteen, Mr. Adams started out in life for himself, 
following various occupations, until the fall of 1859, when feel- 
ing the need of a better education, he entered the University of 
the Pacific at San Jose, remaining there two and a half years. 
In December, 1862, he moved to Santa Cruz, locating on the 
San Lorenzo River, ten miles from the city, on public lands, 
acquiring title to 640 acres, where he resided fourteen years. 
September 17th, 1863, he married Miss Julia A. T. Bennett, 
who with her parents, crossed the plains in 1842, to Oregon, 
and J to California in 1S43. Mr, John Daubinbiss has a vivid 
recollection of the great hardships endured by that little com- 
pany. He has t family of six children, five boys and one girl, 
living on Branciforte Avenue, in the city of Santa Cruz. He has 
a nea°t and comfortable dwelling, a view of which is given in this 
work. At present Mr. Adams is engaged in the lumber business. 


When lumbering by whip-sawing was first engaged in is not 
definitely known, but long before the first mill was erected, the 
pits where this slow and laborious process was carried on were 
quite common. 

With the coming in of foreign population, a demand for lum- 
ber sprang up. Trees were plenty, and water was plenty, but 
it was hard to get the lumber over the rough roads down to 
the bay. 

It was only gradually that the business increased, till after 
the gold discovery. When prices ran up to such fabulous sums 
the mills were busy. 

Judo-e Blackburn in erecting his saw mill in 1848-49 encoun- 
tered many difficulties. Prices of labor and material were 
fabulously high. But the work was pressed on and the mill 
went to running, for the demand for lumber was great in San 
Francisco at almost any price. But just about the time this 
mill was ready to go to earning money to repay its heavy cost, 
imported lumber began to arrive in San Francisco by the ship- 
load, and prices dropped so low that this new mill could not 
run to any profit. You may see the remains of it, with its old 
flume and timbers, as you travel along that valley now. 

The lumber business has grown to be of vast proportions, 
turning out millions of feet of lumber annually, and seemingly 
making no impression on the vast quantities of redwood cover- 

ing the mountains and filling the many little valleys As ship 
ping facilities by railroad increase, a new impetus will be given 

to the business. o,„„ rt ,i 

Some idea of the timber in its virgin state may be gathered 
from tracts of it still uncut upon the western slope of the moun- 
tains ; but the gulches, where attention was first directed have 
been almost wholly divested of the redwood giants. In the 
matter of "big trees," this county at one time contained speci- 
mens that would not suffer unfavorable comparison with those 
of the Mariposa and Yosemite groups. 

The story is told of two men who were engaged in the cut- 
tin* of one of these immense trees into logs, with a cross-cut 
saw After they had sawed themselves out of sight of each 
other one of them became impresssd with the belief that the 
saw was not running as easily as it ought, when he crawled on 
the top of the tree to remonstrate with his partner, whom he 
discovered to be fast asleep. 


There were some men of forethought among the stranger 
crowds of 1849. The greater number seemed to be intent on 
the sale of an invoice of goods, or the making of a lucky strike 
in the diggings, and as soon as possible, getting home with the 

U Not so with Isaac E. Davis and A. P. Jordan. They coolly 
looked over the country, and were convinced that it was worth 
staying in. Although they were making money, they saw that 
a country in its building up of towns and cities, must have 
materials,' and the? believed in California, that it was going to 
build itself up. Among these materials must be lime. They 
knew something about lime, and they thought that it ought to 
come out of these hills, and not be imported around Cape Horn. 
They looked about, they inquired, they dug a little on the slope 
of the mountains toward San Francisco Bay. They were not 
exactly suited. They heard of some little boxes of lime that 
went up to San Francisco from Santa Cruz. 


It seems it was burned in a little kiln, the remains of which 
may now be seen in the hillside, not far from the residence of 
Mr. Whidden. As soon as they set eyes on it, they saw it was 

Down to Santa Cruz Mr. Davis came, and the result was 
the establishment of the lime works by Davis and Jordan. 

They commenced in 1851, when most men were carrying 
money away from California, rather than risking investment 
in it. They built the first wharf here, alongside of which ves- 
sels could lie; also warehouses and works, gradually develop- 
in* the business as the demand for lime increased ; and the 
result has been that they have furnished the greater part of 
what has been used on the coast. 

The increased demand for lime in these later years has 
brought other firms into existence for the manufacture of lime, 
some here, and a few elsewhere, and all seem to thrive. It is 
believed that full $200,000 worth of lime was shipped from 
Santa Cruz last year. 

Several lime kilns are extensively worked in the vicinity ot 
Felton, the lime being shipped by the narrow gauge railroad 
to the wharves at Santa Cruz. The lime is considered supe- 
rior to any other manufactured in the State, and the business 
has grown into one of great importance. 




Elihu Anthony came to California in 1847, from Indiana. 
He stopped first in San Jose, but moved with his family to 
Santa Cruz in January, 1848. 

He was soon in business, a man of affairs, making things 
8 tir around him. He held the position of local preacher in 
Indiana, in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Very naturally, 
on arriving here he took a leading part in continuing services 
of public worship which had been already commenced. 


He engaged in trade and in real estate transactions, and 
built the°first wharf here to facilitate the loading and unloading 
of freight from vessels. This wharf was built in 1849. It was 
constructed on an incline and so arranged that loaded cars 
would go down on one track while others came up on the 
other. It was afterward sold to Davis & Jordan, the lime 
manufacturers, and remodeled by them. 


This was one of the early enterprises in which Mr. Anthony 
entered. The building is the old one, now standing under the 
blufl>nd occupied by Thomas Amner. It was built in 184S. 
At that time there were but two or three foundries on the coast. 
All the patterns and fixtures were bought in the East. The 
original plan was to manufacture mill irons and similar articles 
used in the lumber business. 


Mr Anthony's foundry made the first cast iron plows ever 
constructed in California. Patterns were obtained from the 
East in 1848, and the castings made and attached to the proper 
wood work. Previous to this they had been imported and sold 
at high figures. The modern plow was at this time supplant- 
ing the old Mexican affair, illustrated and described elsewhere. 


At this same foundry was made, in the spring of 1S48, the 
first picks for mining purposes. As soon as the report of gold 
discovery was known in Santa Cruz, Anthony went to manu- 
facturing picks for miners' use. He made seven and a half 
dozen They were light and weighed only about three pounds 
each. Thos. Fallon, now of San Jose, took them with his family 
in an ox team across the mountains to the Sutter mines, or mill, 


to dispose of them. He sold nearly all of them at three ounces 
of gold each ; but the last of the lot brought only two ounces each, 
as by this time other parties had packed in a lot from Oregon. 

' Mr. Anthony was in Monterey when the messenger sent by 
General Sutter arrived with the specimens of supposed gold sent 
to Governor Mason. These were subjected to chemical tests and 
pronounced the "clear stuff." In company with others, Mr. 
Anthony visited the Sutter millrace where gold had been 
found. This ditch, or escape for water, ha"d been dug by the In- 
dians who used a piece of wood, or a sort of knot for a pick. 
A view of this noted mill, as well as Sutter's interesting narra- 
tive, is given elsewhere. 

In 1845, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, Mr. Anthony married Sarah 
A. Van Anda, who was a resident of that locality. She came 
across the plains with her husband. In this new country she 
found a large field for works of charity. She was for many 
years active in Sunday-School and other religious work, and 
aided in helping mold and develope society. 

Mr. Anthony was a member of the first Board of Supervisors 
elected in 1852, and served with Messrs. Daubinbiss, Hames, 
Moore, and Meder. 

The following extract in regard to Mr. Anthony is taken 
from Bishop Simpson's History of Methodism lately published: 
"Elihu Anthony was born in the State of New York, but 
removed with his parents, when a child, to Indiana. He 
was converted, and united with the M. E. Church in 1841. 
He was afterwards licensed to preach, and traveled two or 
three years on trial. In 1847 he joined an emigrant train con- 
sisting of about 150, and started for Oregon. Having reached 
the Humboldt Sink, Mr. Anthony, with his family and a few 
others, took the trail for California, reached San Jose in Septem- 
ber 1847 .halted a short time, held religious services, and organ- 
ized a class. He moved to Santa Cruz in October of that year, 
and determined to make his home there. He at once engaged in 
the work of the Lord, held services, and organized a class. He 
visited other settlements and did the work of an evangelist. 
After prayerful examination, he ceased preaching as soon as 
regular pastors were appointed in the churches. He surrendered 
his parchments as a local deacon, and took his place in the 
ranks of the laymen, where he has remained, but not a whit less 
useful or influential as a laborer in the Lords vineyard. He has 
ever been the true friend and wise counselor of the itinerant 
ministry. He educated a younger brother for the ministry." 




M. A. Meder came to California around the Horn, in 1846, 
arriving in San Francisco, August 1st. He was a New England 
man, handy at any work, and before long, Isaac Graham found 
him and engaged him to come to Santa Cruz, and help him repair 
his saw mill on the Zyante creek. He came down and began 
work there in February, 1847. 

The work was so permanent, that he sent to San Francisco and 
had his wife and child come down and join him. They lived 
there in the lumber region a year or two. 

When the mill on the Zyante was finished, Graham built 
another on the San Lorenzo. 

Just at this time gold was discovered, and almost everybody 
was off to the mines. Mr. Meder did not go. Graham proposed 
to rent the San Lorenzo mill to him on favorable terms. He took 
it, and Otis Ashley went into the business with him. They made 
lumber, and as we all know, lumber just in those days made 
money. Mr. Meder tells of a cargo of thirty thousand feet that 
he sent to San Francisco, and although it cost half of it to get 
it there, the other half he sold at $300 a thousand. 

Not far from the same time the Quartermaster came over from 
Monterey to buy some lumber. Mr. Meder sold him 50,000 feet 
at SI 50 a thousand ! The market did not hold to that figure long, 
but Mr. Meder had his lumber ready to sell at the right time. 

Subsequently he bought land on the Braneiforte, selling it 
after awhile to Elihu Anthony. Then he helped Eli Moore build 
a mill on a stream north of the town. He afterward moved into 
town and lived on a lot not far from the Court House. 

Dr. Stephenson, a physician, here at that time, owned the prop- 
erty with Mr. Meder. The Doctor became County Recorder when 
California became a State, and J. L. Majors, County Treasurer. 
Majors had not any safe place where he could keep the county 
money at first, and he turned it over to Dr. Stephenson, and Dr. 
Stephenson gave it to Mr. Meder, and he put it in a chest under 
his bed. Of course, the county officers could make better ar- 
rangements after awhile. 

Mr. Meder was born in Ellsworth, Grafton Co., New Hamp- 
shire. His parents were farmers and of English descent. Mr 
Meder followed the same business. At the age of 27 he mar- 
ried Sarah D. Blod and lived in Grafton, N. H. About this 
time he read Hastings' History of California and became much 
interested. Learning that a vessel was putting out for that 
country he took passage from New York with wife and child, 
Jan. 1st, 1846, and landed at Yerba Buena Aug. 1st, 1S46. 

His first wife died Aug. 3d, 1872. His present wife's name 
was Olive Ann Linnett, a native of Maine, who came to Cali- 
fornia in 1866. They were married July 18th, 1873. 

Mr. Meder is a member of the " Reorganized Church of JeBus 
Christ, of Latter Day Saints," but is not a believer in the doc- 
trines of Brigham Young. He believes that Joseph Smith was 
a prophet aud that the book of Mormon is a correct history of 
a people who lived on this continent in ancient times. He does 
not believe in a plurality of wives, but believes strictly in the 
commands of the Book of Mormon: Jacob 2 : 6: — " Hearken to 
the word of the Lord, for there shall not any man among you 
have save it be one wife." He is a firm believer in the common 
bible of King James' version. He gives liberally to aid all 
denominations of Christians. His annual contributions to his 
own church is from $200 to $500. 


A. Trescony, another pioneer, came to Monterey in 1844 
where he resided until he came to Santa Cruz. He still owns 
several ranches in Monterey County which demand his atten- 
tion. He purchased the beautiful place in Santa Cruz, where 
he makes his home, in 1876. 


Mr. Trescony's residence in the old capital of Monterey for 
bo many years has given him opportunities for noting the many 
changes that have taken place in that city, once the metropolis 
of California, but now a place of little importance except to the 
traveler and curiosity seekers. 

The Sentinel of that city, dated March 29th, 1856, said: " In 
fifty years Monterey will be a large, celebrated and beautiful 
city, overflowing with commerce from the Orient and Occident. 
Then the race of growling squattars, litigious of other men's 
hard earned lands will be dead — their bones will have turned 
to dust to nourish the roots of grass and oaks." 


When Mr. Trescony first resided in Monterey, almost every 
nation had a representative there — a representative of its 
peculiar habits, virtues, and vices. Here was the reckless Cali- 
fornian, the half-wild Indian, the roving trapper of the West, 
the lawless Mexican, the licentious Spaniard, the scolding 
Englishman, the absconding Frenchman, the luckless Irishman, 
the plodding German, the adventurous Russian, and the dis- 
contented Mormon. All came there with the expectation of 
finding but little work and less law. 


P. H. Devoll first reached this Coast in 1830. In 1826 he 
sailed on board the ship " Phebe Ann," which left New Bedford 
bound on a whaling voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Returning 
from this trip he again sailed for the same locality, and visited 
the Island of Juan Fernandez, Peru, Society Islands, Japan 
and Sandwich Islands. 

From these islands he went to Monterey. He remembers 
seeing here the father of Mrs. Edward Williams, who now lives 
in Santa Cruz. He was building a store and hauling the lum- 
ber by means of a pair of bullocks, yoked in the style of that 
day, with a pole strapped to the roots of their horns, and a strip 
of raw hide fastened from the middle of the pole to the lumber. 
This was in the fall of 1830. Wild animals, geese and sea fowl 
were in abundance, Money was plenty in Monterey. There 
were no roads or carriages in the country at that time. No 
fences between Monterey and San Francisco. All vessels enter- 
ing the golden gate at that time had their papers carried on 
horse back to Monterey by the government officers before they 
could do any business, as the custom house was then at Mon- 

After leaving Monterey, Devoll went to Santa Barbara, where 
there were no inhabitants, but plenty of animals, snakes, turtles, 
and a variety of large clams. Seals were abundant in the harbor. 
He returned home, but made other voyages in 1S32. He 
was engaged in farming in Westport, Mass., 21 years, and 
afterward in other parts of that State. In 1SC2 he became 
crippled, and has not been able to stand or walk a step since 
that time. In 1868 he came to Stockton, California, and in 
1871 to Santa Cruz. Ho erected a business block in 1875. He 
occupies the lower part for sale of sewing machines, patterns. etc 



These were some of the men who were at the head oF affairs 
here in that stirring transition period between the two flags, 
the Mexican, and that of the United States, and the introduc- 
tion of California as a State of the American Union. When 
that was accomplished, Sept. 1840, then Santa Cruz County 
received its legal organization, took its boundaries, and chose 
its officers The names of the first officers elected after Cali- 
fornia became a State, to serve in this County, will be found in 
the complete list of county officers. 


On Saturday, July 11th, 1846, came the astounding news 
from Monterey, that Commodore Sloat had arrived there m the 
United States frigate, " Savannah," and had raised the United 
States flag, and taken possession oF the country in consequence 
of war, which had broken out between the United States and 
Mexico It was understood that Commodore Sloat requested 
Captain Fremont to go with all possible dispatch to Monterey. 

The United States flag was raised in Monterey on July 7th. 
If the messenger started immediately, he was four days on his 
way to Fremont's camp. But Fremont appears to have been 
nine days on the way to Monterey, reaching there on Sunday, 
July 19th. If the question is asked, why this slowness when 
speed would be so certainly looked for, the reply must be that 
no answer is apparent. 


The year 1846 was the crisis-year in the destiny of Califor- 
nia In looking hack on the events of that year, touching this 
country from this distance of time, their »m purpose stands 
out dearly revealed, as it did not do when those events were 
TanS. It is plain enough now, that they were inspired 
from Washington 

KScf the United States had kept a careful 
watch of what was going on on this coast for many years. 
Ever after the famous explorations of Lewis and Clark, who 
we sen out by President Jefferson, in 1804, our government 
hid kepUtself thoroughly informed of everything that con- 

Ce Thfho;es £ °of England to acquire California were also well 
knlwn ano all her movements having that end m v le w, were 
Ca «ntrtreV-n m entat Washington continued to seek 
fll l™Se information concerning this country, then so remote 
l^Sored. = O. = , who came herefrom 

^S'X"^- ^ - fteely — 

x& — ~ - * ° tber ™ ya ' they t made ao f 

By this mean , aeoerap hy and natural resources of 

and the foreign. ^ ^^ ffl ^ 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, by which California was 
,V™ T-t„:t^1 State was concluded m Mexico, on Feb- 
ccded to the United State ^ ^ ^ ^ 

VUary ,f February 18i8, that, here in California, Marshall 
second of »^ ^ d at what j, now Coloma 

rides in from Bote. ** ^ & foam and himsel{ all 

forty miles , to State « *™ '^ Captaul Sutter alone, takes 
^^"uchtom which I pours upon the table 

about an ounce of yellow grains of metal, which he thought 
would prove to be gold. It did prove to be gold, and there was 
a <n-eat deal more where that came from. General Bidwell 
writes- "I myself first took the news to San Francisco. I went 
by way of Sonoma. I told General Vallejo. He told mo to say 
to Sutter " that he hoped the gold would flow into his purse as 
the waters through his mill-race." 

We cannot observe the coincidence of the date of this great 
discovery, with that of the negotiation of the treaty of peace 
with Mexico, by which California was acquired by the United . 
States, without thinking, what if the gold discovery had come 
first? What if the events of the war had postponed the con- 
clusion of peace for a few months? What if Mexico had heard 
the news before agreeing upon terms ? What if Mexico s arge 
creditor England, had also learned that there was abundance 
of gold here in California? Who can tell when, in that case, 
there would have been peace, and upon what terms, and with 
what disposition of territory? 

At this day, it seems strange that the news of this great dis- 
covery did not fly abroad more swiftly than it did. It would 
not seem so very strange, however, if it could be remembered 
how very improbable the truth of the gold-stories then were. 

And it appeared to be most improbable, that if gold was 
really found, it would be in quantities sufficient to pay for going 
after it People were a little slow to commit themselvs, at first 
respecting it. Even as late as May 24th, ^^^Tlr^ 
writing in the California*,, a paper then published in San Fran- 
cisco, expresses the opinion of some people, thus: _ 

"What evil effects may not result from this mania and the 
consequent abandonment of all useful pursuits, in a wild-goose 

chase after gold? . 

A good many people, far and near, looked upon the matter m 
this light for some time. The slowness with which the news 
traveled in the beginning, is seen in this: 

Monterey, then the seat of government, is not more than four 
or five days' travel from the place where gold was ^covered. 
The discovery took place not later than the first of February, 
1848 And yet Alcalde Walter Colton says, in his journal 
under date: « Monday, May 29. Our town was startled out 
of its quiet dreams to-day, by the announcement that gold haa 
been discovered on the American Fork." 

If it took four months for the news of the discovery of gold 
to travel as far as Monterey, the capital town of the country it 
is not surprising that it hardly got over to the Atlantic States 
within the year 1848. There was then an express that adver- 
tised to take letters through to Independence, Missun, m sixty 
days, at fifty cents a-piece. 

If the gold news had been thoroughly credited here, it might 
have been published all through the East by the first of May; 
but it was not. In the early fall of 1848, however, the rumor 
began to get abroad there, through private sources. At first it 
wi laughed at, and those who credited it at all had no idea 
that gold existed here in sufficient quantities to be worth dig- 
ging Still, the items of news that were often floating about 
in the papers that fall greatly sharpened curiosity about the 
newly-acquired country. 

This closes the article on the general history of Santa Cruz 
by S. H. Willey, to which we have added some biographical 
matter obtained by us. 

City Hotel. 

Ameriuin Hutcl. 

Clay and Kearney Streets. 

Styles' Hook Store. 

The general condition of society and of business in Cali- 
fornia soon after the discovery of gold cannot be better de- 
scribed than by illustrating the condition of San Francisco at 
the time of a visit made there in 1849 by S. H. Willey. Business 
went on, at that time, on Sundays as on other days. If some 
men did not do business on that day, they nevertheless could 
not leave their cloth or slight wooden stores unguarded and 
alone. Banks were open; expresses were runing; stores were 
open for the most part; steamships were leaving, when Sun- 
day was their sailing day; auctioneers were crying their wares, 
and the town was full of business and noise. Gambling saloons 
were thronged day and night. The Plaza was surrounded with 
them on two sides, and partly on a third. Music of every sort 
was heard from them, sometimes of the finest kind, and now 
and then the noise of violence and the sound of pistol shots. 
The whole city was a strange and almost bewildering scene to 
a stranger. 

In this connection we present a view of Portsmouth Square, 
showing the old City Hotel, S. F., corner of Kearney and Clay 
streets, so well known and remembered by old Californians. 
How many memories cling around that old building ! It was 
the first hotel started in San Francisco, then the village of 
Yerba Buena, in the year 1846. It was an adobe with tile roof, 
one story high. When the mineB were first discovered and San 
Francisco was literally overflowing with gold, it was the great 
gaming head quarters. Thousands and thousands of dollars 

were staked on the turn of a single card, and scenes such as 
never were before and never again will be seen occurred in 
this old building in those years. In the spring of 1S49 the 
building was leased at sixteen thousand dollars per annum. 
This hotel was burned, as well as other buildings about the 
Square, in September, 1851. The view we here insert was 
sketched and engraved in 1850, and has never before been used. 
A writer of that day says: — " On two, if not three sides of 
the Plaza were the open doors of the gamblers. The little open 
space which was left was occupied by a multitude of nonde- 
script objects, by horses, mules and oxen dragging burdens 
along, by carts and carriages of various kinds, boys at play, 
miners with pipes, loads of lumber and other articles of mer- 
chandise. At times a few Californians, or some foreigners 
would appear on prancing steeds, the horses caparisoned with 
gaudy harness and brightly-colored saddle-cloths, while little 
bells jingled as they moved along. The riders wore strange 
leathern aprons before the legs, huge spurs on the heels, and 
perhaps had a cloak picturesquely thrown across their shoul- 
ders. Occasionally, too, even at this early period, the crowds 
would make way for the passage of a richly dressed woman, 
sweeping along, apparently proud of being recognized as one of 
frail character, or several together of the same class, mounted 
on spirited horses, and dashing furiously by, dressed in long 
riding skirts, or what was quite as common, in male attire." 




The more intelligent settlers of California saw at an early 
day the urgent necessity of a regular constitution and laws. 
The provisional government existing since the eonquest of 1S47 
was but a temporary affair and by no means able to satisfy the 
wants of a great, growing and dangerous population which had 
now so strangely and suddenly gathered together. The inhab- 
itants could not wait the slow movements of Congress. 
Attempts were made by the citizens of San Francisco, 
Sonoma and San Jose to form legislatures for them- 
selves, which they invested with supreme authority. It was 
quickly found that these independent legislative bodies came 
into collision with each other, and nothing less than a general 
constitution would be satisfactory to the people. 

Great meetings for these purposes were held at San Jose, 
San Francisco, Monterey, Sonoma, and other places, m tne 
months of December and January, 1848-9. It was reso ved 
that delegates be chosen by popular election from all parts of 
the State to meet at San Jose. These delegates were to form 
a Constitution. These movements were general on the part ot 
all citizens and no partisan feeling was shown in the mrtn 
While the people were thus working out for themselves this 
great problem, the then great Military Governor, Gen. Eiley, 


tx, n za nf Time 1849, a proclamation calling 
^^rrJS-^S«li.«- Septet to 
XU^att 1 were forty-eight in number and while they 

„£& A parts ^%£^°2S£ 

The delegates at their hi „ ^ ^^ 

September,^ ^ ^ J^ Captain William G. 

M mP j^h^ ^appointed Secretary, and the other necessary 
Marcy was then app ^^ more ftan a 

offices were prop-ly ™^ J\ fte existing Constitution 
month's constant labor and ^ ^^ 

of California was diaftec and y ^ ^ ^ ^ 

*- Tstrc—^Tfl: Union, and was framed in 
S^— : : with the most Hberai and independent opin- 

ions of 'the .age ^ signei the instrument 

Jl %£ SJtf. guns was fired. The house in which 

the delegates met was a large, handsome twc,story stone 
erection called " Golton Hall," and was perhaps the best fitted 
for their purposes of any budding in the country. It was 
erected by Walter Golton, who was the first Alcalde of Monte- 
rey under the new Constitution. In connection with Dr. Sem- 
nle he established the first newspaper ever published in 
California and called the OMforrmm. The first number was 
issued Aug. 15, 1846. Our illustration shows Colton Hall, 
In which tie Constitution was adopted, as well as Monterey 
and part of the Bay on which it is situated. 

On Saturday, the 15th of December, 1849, the first Legisla- 
ture of the State of California met at San Jose. The Assembly 
occupied the second story of the State House-a cut of which 
we herein present-but the lower portion, which was de- 
sianed for the Senate Chamber, not being ready, the latter 
body held their sittings, for a short period - *l h ° u3e ° 
Isaac Branham, on the southwest comer of Market Plaza. TLe 
State House proper was a building 60 feet long, 40 feet wide 
two stories high, and adorned with a piazza in front ine 
upper story was simply a large room with a stairway leading 
Thereto. This was the Assembly Chamber. The lower story 
was divided into four rooms; the largest, 20x40 feet, was de- 
signed for the Senate Chamber, and the others were used by 
the Secretary of State, and the various committees. The build- 
up Z destroyed by fire on the 20th of April, 1853, at four 
tfolock in the morning. On the first day of the first Legisla- 
tive session only six Senators were present, and perhaps twice 
as many Assemblymen. On Sunday, Governor Kdey and See- 
"tTry Halleck arrived, and by Monday nearly aU the members 
were present. Number of members : Senate, 16 ^; Assembly, 
qfi Total 52 No sooner was the Legislature fairly organ- 
ized than the members began to growl about their accommoda- 
tions They didn't like the Legislative budding, and swore 
terribly between drinks at the accommodations of the town 
generally Many of the Solons expressed a desire to remove 
I « Ctpftal fror/san Jose immediately. On the 19th instant 
Geo B Tingley, a member of the House from Sacramento, 
offered a bill to the effect that the Legislature remove the Capi- 
tal at once to Monterey. The bill passed its nrstreading and was 
laid over for further action. On the 20th Gov. B.ley resigned 
his gubernatorial office, and by his order, dated H^d^rters 
Tenth Military Department, San Jose, Cal., Dec. 20, 1849 Or- 
der No 41), Captain H. H. Halleck was relieved as Secretary 
of State On the same day Governor Peter Burnett was sworn 
by K H Dimick, Judge of the Court of First Instance. The 
same day, also, Col. J. C. Fremont received a majority of six 
votes and Dr. M. Gwin a majority of two for Senators of the 
United States. On the evening of the 27th, the citizens of 
San Jose having become somewhat alarmed at the continued 
crumbUno- of the strangers within their gates, determined that 
it was necessary to do something to content the assembled wis- 
dom of the State, and accordingly arranged for a grand ball, 
which was given in the Assembly Chamber. As ladies were 
very scarce, the country about was literally " raked," to use the 
expression of the historian of that period, " for senontas, and 
their red and yellow flannel petticoats so variegated the whirl 
of the dance that the American-dressed ladies and in fact the 
Solons themselves were actually bewildered, and finally capti- 
vated for as the record further states, "now and then was 
eiven' a sly wink of the eye between some American, and 
between them and a friend of the other sex as the senontas, 




bewitching and graceful in motion, glided by **•£%£* 

Dia inaugural baU was a success. The dance ^ 
merry as a marriage bell. All were in high glee. ^^ 
plenty. Some hovered where you saw them not but the ouna 
Thereof was not lost." Speaking of the W^J*£££ 
the first body of California law-makers, * e TheL gis ature 
of a thousand drinks," the same quaint writer -^J*» 
disrespect for the members of that body, I never head one of 
them deny that the baptismal name was improperly bestowed 
upon them. They were good drinkers-they drank hke men. 
If they could not stand the ceremony on any particular occa- 
sion they would lie down to it with becoming grace. I knew 
one to be laid out with a white sheet spread over him and six 
lighted candles around him. He appeared to be in the spn it 
land. He was really on land with the spirits m him-too full 
for utterance. But to do justice to this body of men, there 
were but a very few among them who were given to drinking 
habitually, and as for official labor, they performed probably 
more than any subsequent legislative body of the btate 
in the same given time. In the State House there was many 
a trick played, many a joke passed, the recollection of which 
produces a smile upon the faces of those who witnessed them. 

Statu Hoi^k at San- Josh, 1840 

Ifc was not unfrecmently that as a person was walking up stairs 
with a lighted candle, a shot from a revolver would extinguish 
it, Then what shouts of laughter rang through the building at 
the scared individual. Those who fired were marksmen; their 
aim was true and they knew it. The respective candidates for 
the United States Senate kept ranches, as they were termed; 
that is they kept open house. All who entered drank free and 
freely. Under the circumstances they could afford to. Every 
man who drank of course wished that the owner of the estab- 
lishment mifht he the successful candidate for the Senate. 
That wish would he expressed half a dozen times a day in as 
many different houses. A great deal of solicitude would be in- 
dicated just about the time for drinks. Speaking of the way 
in which these gay and festive Legislators passed their evenings, 
the writer says : " The almost nightly amusement was the 
fandango. There were some respectable ones and some which 
at this day would not be called respectable. The term might 
be considered relative in its signification. It depended a good 
deal on the spirit of the times (not Boruek's newspaper) and 
the notion of the attendant of such places. Those fandangos, 
where the members kept their hats on and treated their part- 
ners after each dance, were not considered of a high-toned 

etaacfcer (m0 dern members will please ^ ^»^ 

TI Vb-tT iXl C^ l^^ZZ country, 
exacted. In -J^^^^g*^ in language, insome 
they were very ^agieeable 1 ^ ^ ^ 

degree prohibited a tiee excnange 

sexes when ..he Americans were in excess. But then, w 
e n e could not say in so many words ^^^ £ 
made signs, and on the whole, the parties were nove Land ^n 
teresting. The grand out-door amusements were the buU and 
bear fi4ts. They took place sometimes on St. James ana 
sometimes on Market Sonar, Sunday ™ the usua day fo 
bull fights. On the 3d of February the Legislators were enter 
toed by a great exhibition of a fellow-man putting hxmself on 
S w'th'a beast. In the month of March there was a good 
deal of amusement mixed with a good deal of excitement. It 
was reported all over the Capital that gold had been discovered 
in the bed of Coyote Creek. There was a general rush. Picks 
shovels, crowbars and pans had a large sale. Members of the 
Legislature, officials, clerks and lobbyists, concluded suddenly 
to chan-e their vocation. Even the sixteen dollars per day 
which they had voted themselves was no inducement to keep 
them away from Coyote Creek. But they soon came back 
a-ain and half of those who went away would never own it 
after the excitement was over." Beyond the above interesting 
and presumably prominent facts, history gives us very little 
concerning the meeting of our first Legislature, except that the 
session lasted one hundred and twenty-nine days, an adjourn- 
ment having been effected on the 22d of April, 1850. 

The second Legislature assembled on the 6th of January, 
1851. On the 8th the Governor tendered his resignation to 
the Legislature, and John McDougal was sworn in as his suc- 
cessor. The question of the removal of the Capitol from San 
Jose was one of the important ones of the session, so much so 
that the citizens of San Jose were remarkably active in cater- 
ing to the wishes of the members of the Legislative body. They 
offered extravagant bids of land for the Capitol grounds, prom- 
ised all manner of buildings and accommodations, and even 
took the State scrip in payment for Legislators' board. But 
it was of no use. Vallejo was determined to have the Capitol, 
and began bribing members right and left with all the city lots 
they wanted. The Act of removal was passed February 14th, 
and after that date the Legislators had to suffer. The people 
refused to take State scrip for San Jose board, charged double 
prices for everything, and when, on the 16th of May, the Solons 
finally pulled up stakes and left, there was not thrown after 
them the traditional old shoe, but an assorted lot of mongrel 
oaths and Mexican maledictions. 

Third Session — Convened at Vallejo, the new Capitol, Janu- 
ary 5th, 1852. Number of members : Senate, 27 ; Assembly, 
62 ; total, 89. 

Fourth Session — Convened at Vallejo January 2d, 1853 ; re- 
moved to Benicia, February 4th, 1853. 

Fifth Session — Convened at Benicia, January 2d, 1854, re- 
moved to Sacramento, February 25th, 1854, where it has since 

In the beginning of 1860 the citizens of Sacramento deeded 
to the State lota of land in the city on which a new State Cap- 
ital could be built. Work commenced the 15th day of May, 
1861, and the corner stone was laid with Masonic ceremonies, 
conducted by N. Green Curtis, then Grand Master of the Or- 
der. In a few years other blocks were added, so that now tho 



grounds extend from Tenth to Fifteenth and, from LtoN streets. 
For this addition the citizens subscribed S3U.000, the State ap- 
propriation not being sufficient to fully pay for the land. The 
original architect was Reuben Clark, to whom the greatest 
meed of praise should be given for the beautiful building that 
now adorns the city and is an honor to the State. After the 
dedication ceremonies, work was discontinued on it for some 
time, and it was not until I860 that labor was recommenced in 
earnest. Up to November 1st, 1875, the cost, added to the 
usual items for repairs and improvements, amounted to 
$2,449,429.31. The building is 240 feet in height, the height 
of the main building being 94 feet. Its depth is 149 feet and 
its length 282. The Assembly Chamber is 73x75, with a height 
of 48 feet, and the Senate 73x56, with the same height. The 
first, or ground story of the building, is 16 feet above the level 
of the surrounding streets. 

The State Capitol, one of the prettiest in America, stands in 
a park of eight blocks, terraced and ornamented with walks, 
drives, trees, shrubs and plants, forming one of the prettiest 
spots in the country. This fine structure cost about $2,500,000, 
and its towering dome, surmounted by the Temple and Goddess 
of Liberty, rises 240 feet, and is the first object [presented to 
view in the distance as the traveler approaches the city from 
almost every direction. _ 

The State Capitol Park, in which are located the Capitol 
building, the State Armory and the State Printing Office, em- 
braces ten fuH blocks of land, and the breadth of four streets 
running north and south. It is therefore upon its longitudinal 
sides 1 920 feet by 780 feet in width, and is thus from street 
center to street center over three-eights of a mile in length. It 
has heretofore been divided into two parts, known as "The 
Park " and " The Park Extension." The former is raised in two 
terraces and in the middle is situated the Capitol building. 
The latter is an even grade from just below Twelfth street up 
to Fifteenth street, and upon the northeast corner is situated 
the Armory and Printing Office. Recent improvements upon 
the extension are of a character which wiU obviate any neces- 
sity for distinguishing between the sections of the grounds and 
hereafter the entire plat will be best designated as the State 
Capitol Park. The Legislature in 1878 appropriated the sum 
of $"0 000 for the improvement of the new grounds, to be ex- 
pended under the directions of the Capitol Commissioners. 
Early in October the preliminary steps toward the improve- 
ment were taken, and the State Capitol Gardener, Mr. William 
O'Brien, surveyed the grounds and set his stakes. The plan 
adopted by the Capitol Commissioners is one drawn by him, 
and is in excellent taste. The plan lays out the grounds in a 
graceful landscape style, of extensive lawn and clumps of trees, 
Ld arranges them more especially as a drive. The mam drive 
is in the form of an elipse, the roadway being 40 feet m width, 
and estimated to be about two-thirds of a mile in length. It 
will be bordered by a double row of trees, and the grounds in- 
tervening between the roadway and the fences are being 
tastefully- laid out in the best style of landscape gardening 
The spacious center plat will be planted with forest trees in 
clumps, while beneath them will be an extensive lawn, the 
freshness of which will be exceedingly greatful to the eye_The 
center feature of this plat will be a grove of sequoia (or Wash- 
ington) gigantea-the "big trees" of Calaveras and Manposa 
counties" Other little groves will include the ^torma arbor 
vit» from the mountains; the Lawson cypress, from Port Or- 

ford; cedars of several kinds, and, what will he gratifying to 
everybody, a large variety of the choicest trees familiar to peo- 
ple who have lived in the Eastern States— the weeping birch, 
purple-leafed beach, lindens, larches, tulip trees, Eastern and 
Southern magnolias, cedars, maples, bays, etc. The trees on 
the drive will represent the most stately and select varieties of 
avenue elms, alternated with appropriate evergreen trees, so 
that the drive will present a refreshing aspect, even through 
the winter months. 

There will be four entrances to the grounds— one from the 
Capitol Park, another at Fifteenth and M streets, and the 
others on Thirteenth street, one on each side, midway of the 
grounds. At the four entrances to the grounds will alternate, 
immediately at the four points of entrance, palms with the 
avenue elms such as Chamerops-palmetto, Pritchardia filamen- 
tosa, Brahia and Seaforthia, etc., and it is the intention to 
introduce a few more of the most desirable varieties of the 
palm family, as they can be obtained, to stand as single speci- 
mens, not only at the new grounds, but also on the original 
Capitol Park, immediately surrounding the Capitol building. 
Some Pritchardias, Seaforthias and Araucarias were planted in 
front of the Capitol in 1878. (For view of Capitol, see front of 
this book.) 


Adam's needle. 
African cedar. 
Arbor vitae. 
Alder (cut leaved). 
American Linden, 
Arbutus unedo. 

Bastard indigo. 
Broad-leaved laurel. 
Birch (American cher- 

California nutmeg. 
-Calif "l'ma evergreen 

California bay tree. 
California redwood. 
California fir. 

Carolina laurel. 
Calaveras and Maripo 

sa Big Trees. 
Camphor laurel. 
Chinese torreya (yew 

family) - 
Chilean cedar. 
Cist us. 

Crape myrtle. 
CaHeaved beech. 

Date palm. 
Deodar cedar, 

Double rose flowering 


English yew. 
English laurel. 
English sweet bay. 
English holly. 
European linden. 
European larch. 
Evergreen oak. 

Fern-leaved beech. 

Golden arbor vitas. 
Golden-tip arbor vitae. 


Italian cypress. 

Japan jumper. 
Japan quince. 
Japan tree of the cedar 


Kentucky coffee tree. 

Larch tree. 

Lawson's cypress. 
Lemon verbena. 

Maidenhair, salisburia. 
Maple, silver -leaved. 


Mexican pepper tree. 


Mock orange. 

Monterey cypress. 

Mountain ash. 

Mt. Lebanon cedar. 


New Zealand flax. 
Norfolk Island pine, 
Norway spruce. 

Oakland cypress. 

Ornamental hazel. 
Orange trees. 


PiilmcHo palm. 
Portugal laurel. 
Portugal cypress. 

Purple beech. 
Purple-leaved maple. 
Purple-leaved beech. 
Pyramidal juniper. 
Pyramidal growing ju- 
Roman pine. 
Rose acacia. 
Rose of Sharon. 

Scarlet flowering thorn. 

Silver fir. 

Siberian arbor vita. 


Snowy pyrus. 



Spindle tree. 

St. John's wort. 

Strawberry and Indian 

Sugar maple. 
Sweet bays. 
Sweet gum. 

Tulip tree. 
Tyrone berry. 

Upright yew. 
Upright cypress. 
Upright cypress. 
Upriyht juniper. 

Variegated Virginia ju- 

Variegated mountain 

Variegated holly. 

Virgiuia cedar. 

Weeping ash 

Weeping cypress. 

Weeping tree. 

Weeping out-leaved 

Weeping arbor vit». 


Willow-leaved varie- 
gated ash. 

Yellow wood. 






fTriB following rough notes Of nsmtiva In the handwriting of the venerable General Sutter, 

-*-, wore found JDOIlKtfl tliu ML 

,-,.,;„, .„, ..l im-klmis .n MiUiiL- ...f 11 man heUl >r. respect bv 

.f an eminent citizen of 

1 if roiit*r- 
the discoverer of gold iti California, 
this Suite, recent)}' ilcceaset 

"tbograpliy. and imperfect punctuation of the manuscript; giv- 

rare found JDOngsr the papers 
sidimls.n the lift-- of 
loranda will, iL is believed, have a double m- 

added charm to the narrative. ] 

quaint phrasoolo 
inn, in our juMgi: 

Left the State of Missouri (where I has resided for a many 
years) on the 1th a April, 1S3S, and travelled with the party 
of Men under Capt Tripps, of the Amer. fur Compy, to their 
Rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains (Wind River Valley) from 
there I travelled with 6 "brave Men to Oregon, as I considered 
myself not strong enough to cross the Sierra Nevada and go 
direct to California (which was my intention from my first 
Start on having got some informations from a Gent'n in New 
Mexico, who has been in California. 

Under a good Many Dangers and other troubles I have 

An Officer and 15 Soldiers came on board and ordered me out, 
saying that Monterey is the Port of entry, & atlast I could ob- 
tain 48 hours to get provisions (as we were starving) and some 
repairings done on the Brig. 

In Monterey I arranged my affairs with the Costum House, 
and presented myself to Govr Alvarado, and told him my in- 
tention to Settle here in this Country, and that I have brought 
with me 5 White Men and 8 Kanacas (two of them married), 
3 of the white men were Mechanics, he was very glad to hear 
that, and particularly when I told him, that I intend to Settle 
in the interior on the banks of the river Sacramento, because 
then at this time would not allow white Men and particularly 
of the Spanish Origin to come near them, and was very hostile, 
and stole the horses from the inhabitants, near San Jose. I got 
a General passport for my small Colony and permission to select 
a Territory where ever I would 6nd it convenient, and to come 
in one Years time again in Monterey to get my Citizenship and 

SUTTEB'S 2v£IXjX-i. 

passed the Different forts or trading posts of the Hudsons Bay 
Compy. and arrived at the Mission at the Dalls on Columbia 
River. From this place I crossed right strait through thick & 
thin and arrived to the great astonishment of the inhabitants. 
I arrived in 7 days in the Valley of the Willamette, while 
others with good guides arrived only in 17 days previous my 
Crossing. At fort Vancouver I has been very hospitably re- 
ceived and invited to pass the Winter with the Gentlemen of 
the Company, but as a Vessel of the Compy was ready to sail 
for the Sandwich Islands, I took a passage in her, in hopes to 
get Soon a Passage from there to California, but 5 long Months 
I had to wait to find an Opportunity to leave, but not direct to 
California, except far out of my Way to the Russian American 
Colonies on the Notth West Cost, to Sitka the Residence of the 
Gov'r, (Lat. 57) I remained one Month there and delivered the 
Cargo of the Brig Clementine, as I had Charge of the Vessel, 
and then sailed down the Coast in heavy Gales, and entered in 
Distress in the Port of San Francisco, on the 2d of July 1839. 

the title of the Land, which I have done so, and not only this, 
I recei *ed a high civil Office. 

When I left Yerbabuena (now San Francisco) after having 
leaved the Brig and dispatched her to the S. I. I bought several 
small boats (Launches) and Chartered the Schooner " Isabella" 
for my exploring Journey to the inland Rivers and particularly 
to find the mouth of the River Sacramento, as I could find 
Nobody who could give me information, only that they Knew 
that some very large Rivers are in the interior. 

It took me eight days before I could find the entrance of the 
Sacramento, as it is very deceiving and very easy to pass by, 
how it happened to several officers of the Navy afterwards 
which refused to take a pilot. About 10 miles below Sacra- 
mento City I fell in with the first Indians which was all 
armed & painted & looked very hostile, they was about 200 
Men, as some of them understood a little Spanish I could make 
a Kind of treaty with them, and the two which understood 
Spanish came with me, and made me a little better acquainted 



with the Country, all other Indians on the up River hide j 
themselves in the Bushes, and on the Mouth of Feather Rive 
they runned all away so soon they discovered us. I was exam- 
ining the Country a little further up with a Boat, while th< 
larger Crafts let go their Ankers, on my return, all the whib 
Men came to me and asked me, how much longer T intended to 
travel! with them in such a Wilderness. 

The following Morning I gave Orders to return, and entered 
in the American River, landed at the farmer Tannery on the 
12th Augt. 1S39. Gave orders to get every thing on Shore, 
pitch the tents and mount the 3 Cannons, called the white 
Men, and told them that all those which are not contented 
could leave on board the Isabella, next Morning and that I 
would settle with them imediately, and remain alone with the 
Uanaca's, of 6 Men 3 remained, and 3 of them I gave passage to 

The Indians was first troublesome, and came frequently and 
would it not have been for the Cannons they would have Killed 
us for sake of my property, which they liked very much, and 
this intention they had very often, how they have confessed to 
afterwards when on good terms. I had a large Bull Dog 
which saved my life 3 times, when they came slyly near the 
house in the Night, he got hold of them and marked most 
severely, in a short time removed my Camps on the very spot 
where now the Ruins of Sutter's fort stands, made acquaint- 
ance with a few Indians which came to work for a short 
time making Adobes, and the Canaca's was building three 
grass houses, like it is customary on the Sandwich Islands. 
Before I came up here, I purchased Cattle & Horses on the 
Rancho of Senor Martinez, and had great difficulties & trouble 
to get them, and received them at least on the 22d October 
1839. Net less than 8 Men, wanted to be in a party, as they 
was afraid of the Indians, and had good reasons to be so. 

Before I got the Cattle we was hunting Deer & Elk etc and 
so afterwards to safe the Cattle as I had then only about 500 
head 50 horses and a manada of 25 mares. One Year that is 
in the fall of 1840, 1 bought 1000 head of Cattle of Don Anto- 
nio Sunol and a many horses more of Don Joaquin Gomez and 
others In the fall of 1839 I have built an Adobe house, cov- 
ered with Tule and two other small buildings which m the 
middle of the fort, they was afterwards destroyed by fire. At 
the same time we cut a Road through the Woods where the 
City of Sacramento stand, then we made the New Embarca- 
dero where the old Zinkhouse stands now^Af tor tins it was 
toe 'to make a Garden, and to sow some meat &c we broke 
Tthe soil with poor California ploughs, I had a few Cahfo - 
Ins employed « Baqueros, and 2 of them making Cal. Carts 
& stocking the plougs ete. 

Tn the Spring 1840, the Indians began to be troublesome all 

a ! KiUine and Wounding Cattle stealing horses, and 

T"t n^l lulck us en Mass" I was obliged to make Ca- 

threatening to attack u 8eve rely, a little kter 

about 2 a JUU was y e Garrison at home, 

r ' "^ itTZllZ^Zi left with 6 brave men and 2 
Canons ft othei Aim. ,10 ^ ^ light 

Baqnero's m the «■ ^ d » J J ; lost about 30 

the fightmg was a little haul ^ ^ ^ 


Soldiers, with which I has been assisted to conquer the whole 
Sacramento and a part of the San Joaquin Valley. 

At the time the Communication with the Bay was very long 
and dangerous, particularly in open Boats, it is a great Wonder 
that we got not swamped a many times, all time with an In- 
dian Crew and a Canaca at the helm. Once it took me (in 
December 1S39.) 16 days to go down to Yerba huena and to 
return, I went down again on the 22d Xber 39. to Yerba buena 
and on account of the inclemency of the Weather and the 
strong current in the River I need a whole month (17 days 
coming up) and nearly all the provisions spoiled. 

On the 23d Augt, 1841. Capt. Ringold of Comadore Wilkse 
Exploring Squadron, arrived on the Embarcadero, piloted by 
one of the Launches Indian crew, without this they would not 
have found so easy the entrance of the Sacramento. They had 
Whaleboats & 1 Launch 7 Officers and about 50 men in all, I 
was very glad indeed to see them, sent immediately saddled 
horses for the Officers, and my Clerk with an invitation to 
come and see me, at their arrival I fired a salut, and furnished 
them what they needed, they was right surprised to find me 
up here in this Wilderness, it made a very good impression 
upon the Indians to see so many whites are coming to see me, 
they surveyed the River so far as the Butes. 

September 4th 1841. Arrived the Russian Governor Mr. 
Alexander Rottiheff on board the Schooner Sacramento, and 
offered me their whole Establishment at Bodega & Ross for sale, 
and invited me to come right of with him, as there is a Russian 
Vessel at Bodega, and some Officers with plein power, to trans- 
act this business with me, and particularly they would give 
me the preference, as they became all aiquainted with me, dur- 
ing a months stay at Sitka. I left and went with him down to 
the Bay in Company with Capt. Ringold's Expedition, what 
for a fleet we thought then, is on the River. Arriving at Bo- 
dega we came very soon to terms, from there we went to fort 
Boss' where they showed me everything and returned to Bo- 
dega again, and before the Vessel sailed we dined on board the 
Helena, and closed the bargain for §30,000, which has been 
paid. And other property, was a separate account which has 
been first paid. 

On the 28th of September 1 dispatched a number of men 
and my Clerk by Land to Bodega, to receive the Cattle, Horses, 
Mules & Sheep, to bring them up to Sutter's fort, called then 
New Helvetia, by crossing the Sacramento the lost me from 
about 2000 head about a 100, which drowned in the River, but 
of most of them we could safe the hides, our Cal. Banknotes at 
the time. 

March 6th 1842. Capt. Fremont arrived at the port with 
Kit Carson, told me that he was an officer of the U. S. and left 
a party behind in Distress and on foot, the few surviving 
Mules was packed only with the most necessary, I received 
him politely and his Company likewise as an old acquaintance, 
the next Morning I furnished them with fresh horses, & a Va- 
quero with a pack Mule loaded with Necessary Supplies for 
his Men Capt. Fremont found in my Establishment every 
thing what he needed, that he could travell without Delay, he 
could have not found it so by a Spaniard, perhaps by a great 
Many and with loosing a great deal of tome. I sold him about 
60 Mules & about 25 horses, and fat young Steers or Beef tat- 
tle all the Mules & horses got Shoed, on the 23d March, all was 



ready and on the 24th he left with his party for the U. States 
.As an Officer of the Govt, it was my duty to report to the 
Govt, that Capt. Fremont arrived. Genl. Micheltorena dis- 
patched Lieut. Col. Telles (afterwards Gov. of Sinalo) with 
Capt, Lieut., and 25 Dragoons, to inquire what Captain 
Fremonts business was here; but he was en route as the 
arrive only on the 27th, from this time on Exploring Hunt- 
ing & Trapping parties has been started, at the same time 
Agricultural & Mechanical business was progressing from Year 
to year, and more Notice has been taken, of my establishment, 
it became even a fame, and some early Distinguished Travel- 
lers like Doctor Sandells, Wasnesensky & others, Captains of 
Trading Vessels & SuperCargos, & even Californians (after the 
Indians was subdued) came and paid me a visit, and was as- 
tonished to see what for Work of all kinds has been done. 
Small Emigrant parties arrived, and brought me some very 
valuable Men, with one of those was Major Bidwell (he was 
about 4 Years in my employ). Major Reading & Major Hensley 
with 11 other brave men arrived alone, both of those Gentle- 
men has been 2 Years in my employ, with these parties excel- 
lent Mechanics arrived which was all employed by me, likewise 
«ood farmers, we made imediately Amer. ploughs was made 
°n my Shops and all kind of work done, every year the Rus- 
sians was bound to furnish me with good iron & Steel & files, 
Articles which could not be got here likewise Indian Beeds 
and the most important of all was 100 lb of fine Rifle Sz 100 
lb of Canon powder, and several 100 lb of Lead (every year) 
with these I was caref ull like with Gold. 

June 3d 1846. I left in company of Major Reading, and 
most all of the Men in my employ, for a Campaign with the 
Mukelemncy Indians, which has been engaged by Castro and 
his Officers to revolutionize all the Indians against me, to Kill 
all the foreigners, burn their houses, and "Wheat fields, etc. 
These Mukelemney Indians had' great promesses and some of 
them were finely dressed and equiped, and those came appa- 
rently on a friendly visit to the fort and Vicinity and had long 
Conversation with the influential Men of the Indians, and one 
Night a Number of them entered in my Potrero (a kind ot 
closed pasture) and was Ketching horses to drive the whole 
Cavallada away with them, the Sentinel at the fort heard 
the distant Noise of these Horses, and gave due notice, & ime- 
diately I left with about 6 well armed Men and attacked them, 
but they could make their escape in the Woods (where Sac. 
City stands now) and so I left a guard with the horses. As 
we had to cross the Mukelemney River on rafts, one of those 
rafts capsized with 10 Rifles, and 6 prs of Pistols, a good sup- 
ply of Amunition, and the Clothing of about 24 Men, and 
Major Reading & another Man nearly drowned. 

June 16th 1S46. Merritt & Kit Carson arrived with News 
of Sonoma beeing occupied by the Americans, and the same 
evening arrived as prissoners Genl Vallejo, Don Salvador Val- 
lejo, Li Col. Prudon & M. Leese, and given under my charge 
and Care, I have treated them with kindness and so good as I 
could, which was reported to Fremont, and he then told me, 
that prisoners ought not to be treated so, then I told him, if it 
is not right how I treat them, to give them in charge of some- 
body else. . 

Capt. Montgomery did send an Amer. flag by Lieut. Revere 
than in Command of Sonoma, and some dispatches to Fremont, 
I received the Order to hiss the flag by Sunrise from Lt. Re- 

vere, long time before daybreak I got ready w * loading^ 
Canons and when it was day the rowing of the Canons go 
the people all stirring. Some them made long faces » they 
thought if the Bear flag would remain there would be a be ta 
chancetoroband plunder. Capt.FremontreceivedOrders to pro 
ceed to Monterey with his forces, Capt. Montgomery provided 
for the upper Country, established Garrisons in all important 
places, Verba buena, Sonoma, San Jose", and fort Sacramento, 
Lieut. Missroon came to organize our Garrison better and more 
Numbers of white Men and Indians of my former Soldiers and 
gave me the Command of this Fort. The Indians have not yet 
received their pay yet for their services, only each one a snn* 
and a pre. of pants, & abt. 12 men got Coats. So went the 
War on in California. Capt. Fremont was nearly all time en- 
gaged in the lower Country and made himself Governor, until 
Genl Kearney arrived, when an other Revolution took place. 
And Fremont for disobeying Orders was made prisoner by 
Genl. Kearney, who took him afterwards with him to the U. 
States by Land across the Mountains. After the War I was 
anxious that Business should go on like before, and on the 28th 
May 1847, Marshall & Gingery, two Millwrights, I employed 
to survey the large Millraise for the Flour Mill at Brighton. 

May 13th, 1847. Mr. Marshall commenced the great work 
of the large Millraise, with ploughs and scrapers. 

July 20th, 1847. Got all the necessary timber and frame of 
the millbuilding. . 

Auo-t. 25th. Capt Hart of the Mormon Battaillon arrived, 
with a good many of his Men on their Way to great Salt Lake, 
they had Orders for Govt. Horses, which I delivered to them, 
(War Horses) not paid for yet. They bought provisions and 
crot Blacksmith work done. I employed about Eighty Men ot 
them, some as Mechanics, some as laborers, on the Mill and 
Millraise at Brighton, some as laborers at the Sawmill at Co- 


Augt. 28th, 1847. Marshall moved, with P. Wisners family 
and the working hands to Columa, and began to work briskly 
on the sawmill. 

Septr. 10th. Mr. SamT Brannan returned from the great 
Salt Lake, and announced a large Emigration by land. On 
the 19th the Garrison was removed, Lieut't Per Lee took her 
down to San francisco. 

Novr. 1th. Getting with a great deal of trouble and with 
breaking wagons the four Runs of Millstones, to the Mill Sit 
(Brighton) from the Mountains. 

Decembr. 22. Received about 2000 fruit trees with great 
expenses from Fort Ross, Napa Valley and other places, which 
was given in Care of men who called themselves Gardeners, 
and nearly all of the trees was neglected by them and died. 

January 2Sth, 1848. Marshall arrived in the evening, it was 
rainingvery heavy, buthetoldme that hecame on important bus- 
iness, after we was alone in a private Room he showed me the 
first Specimens of Gold, that is he was not certain if it was 
Gold or not, but he thought it might be ; immediately I made 
the proof and found that it was Gold, I told him even that 
most of all is 23 Carat Gold; he wished that I should come up 
with him immediately, but I told him that I have to give first 
my orders to the people in all my factories and shops. 

February 1th. Left for the Sawmill attended by a Baquoro 
(Olimpio) was absent 2d, 3d, 4th, & 5th, I examined myself 
everything and picked up a few Specimens of Gold myself in 



the tail race of the Sawmill, this Gold and others which Mar- 
shall and some of the other laborers gave to me (it was found 
while in my employ and Wages) I told them that I would a 
rin« got made of it so soon as a Goldsmsith would be here. I 
had a talk wilh my employed people all at the Sawmill, I told 
them that as they do know now that this Metal is Gold, I 
wished that they would do me the great favor and keep it se- 
cret only 6 weeks, because my large Flour Mill at Brighton 
would have been in Operation in such a time, which undertak- 
ina would have been a fortune to me, and unfortunately the 
people would not keep it secret, and so I lost on this Mill at the 
lowedt calculation about 825,000. 

March 7th. The first party of Marmons, employed by me 
left for washing and digging Gold and very soon all followed, 
and left me only the sick and the lame behind And at this 
time I could say that every body left me from the Clerk to the 
Cook What for great Damages I had to suffer m my tannery 
which was just doing a profitable and extensive business, and 
1 Yatts wL left filled and a quantity of half «J^£*£ 
was spoiled likewise a quantity of raw hides collected by the 
Irmer and of my own killing. The same thing was in every 
b" n h of business which I carried on at the torn* I began to 
harvest my wheat, while others was digging and washing Gold, 
but eve TL Indians could not be keeped longer at Work they 
^mnatient to run to the mines, and other Indians had in- 
"d'them J 'the Gold and its Value ; and so I had to leave 
more as * of my harvest in the fields. 
Zril isth, 1848, more curious people arrived hound for the 
Aprn i« , . Company with Major P. B. 

fT "IdMr Kembe (Editor of the Alta-Oalifornia) we 
^rSt 4 Days - 1 P-P^ting and found Silver and 

M^tanSn! have done a very large and heavy busi- 

nCSS ' T. t>-a .11 +hP Mormons which has been employed 

May 15th. B«dd th ^M rmo ^^ 

by me, in building these iums became rich and 

of them made their pile, and some , rf *«^£ ^ and 

wealthy, hut all of them «"»™^^ <* ** L ° rf ! 

spent there their fortunes ^to****™^ arrive d at 

May 19th. The great rush *™J»£* d the houses 

^Jrt, ■^^f^S.Kw. to r'r 

and the whole fort, I had only ^ ^ ^ every body 

them roasted B*p, •*« ^ ^ tains , feints, 

else, the Merchant Detor^y ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ & 

etc. all came up and did noi familie s in San Francisco, 

Confusion, all left their -" e J^ ^Doors, abandoned their 
and those which had none locked their ^^ ^^ 

houses, offered them for ^ chea^ p. ^ more) 

House & Lot (Lots which »» T^^ & Some f the Mei- 
some of these men were ju st 1 k g y ^^ vi3lted fte 
ehants has been the mostp u tato* tQ ^^ 

Mines and returned -™« *™ fro = m every where with all 
able business, and soon Vessel ^.^ ^ u 

Kind ,of Merchandise the «ho to & ^^ Ammoai 

^ Vears ««*«££ ~ ^ found a good market here. 

Mexico, Sandwich Islands e 

""i^^^cting ; a" very large ^"^g 
done an immense business, connected with Howard & Green , S. 

Fr Mat C 21th Saml Kyburg errected or established the first 

good Indians attending to the Ferry boat and every night 
came up, and delivered the received Money for fcWto* 
after deduction for a few bottles of brandy, for the whole of 
them, perhaps some white people at the time would not have 

" Ma^r The travelling to the Mines was increasing from 
day to day, and no more Notice was taken, as he people ^ar- 
rived from" South America, Mexico Sandwich Islands Oregon 
etc All the Ships Crews, and Soldiers deserted. In the be 
Jnnint of July, Col. Mason our Military Governor with Cap 
C (Secretary of State) Cap, Folsom Quartet, and 
an Escort of which some deserted, and some other Gentlemen, 
travelled in Company with the Governor. 

A we wanted^ celebrate the 4th of July we invited the 
Got ™r and his suite to remain with us, and he accept d 
Kvbur" aave us a good Diner, every thing was pretty well ar 
ant ! ^kett was the Orator. It was well done enough 
for °such a new Country and in such an excitement and Con- 
fusion Ana from thistime onyouknow how every hing was 
■ ™ Wp One thine is certain that the people looked on 
mHr per y as tZ own", and in the Winter of 1849 to 1830. 
7Iar N umber of horses has been stolen from me, whole 
Manats of Mares driven away and taken to Oregon etc. 
NeS my whole Stock of Cattle has been Killed, several 
fhousandTand left me a very small Quantity. The same has 
W done with my large stock of Hogs, which was running 
Uke ever ulder nobodiel care aud so it was easy to stea, them 
I haHot an Idea that people could be so mean, and that they 
wmild do a Wholesale business m Stealing. 

On the upper Sacramento, that is, from the Buttes downward 
to the point or mouth of feather River, there was most all my 
Stol rinnin. and during the Overflow the Cattle was ma 
nt hands on hi«h spots like Islands, there was a fine chance 
1* n»l them in small Boats and shoot them, this business 

ITelty — uUy done by one party of 5 Men (part- 
n s?whilh had besides hired people, and Boats Crews which 

th lnt a hfs P rin» of 1850, these 5 men divided their Spoil of 
SG0000 clea profits made of Cattle, all of them eft or the 

fllfntic state- one of them returned again in the Winter 
Atlantic State one ^ ^^ iQ mow ih 

Te husLss nd kiil of the balance of the few that was left. 
STC««o. found out this Nest of thiefs in ther Camp 
butcherin' just some heads of my Cattle, on their return 
CXmedmewhat they have seen, in the neighborhood 
ofTh same Camp they saw some more cows shot dead winch 
the Bascal then butchered. Immediately I did send to Nico- 



laus for the Sheriff (Jas Hopkins) as then at the time we had 
laws in force ? ! ? after all was stolen and destroyed the Sher- 
iff arrived at Hock farm I furnished him a Posse of my em- 
ployed Men. they proceeded over on the Sacramento to where 
the thief's were encamped, as the Sheriff wanted to arrest 
them they just jumped in their Boats and off they went, the 
Sheriff threatened them to fire at them, but that was all, and 
laughing they went at large. 

One day-toy Son was riding after Stock a few miles below 
Hock farm, he found a Man (his name was Owens) butchering 
one of our finest milch Cows (of Durham stock of Chile, which 
cost $300). He told the Man, that he could not take the Meat, 
that he would go home and get people, and so he has done, and 
he got people and a Wagon and returned to the Spot, but 
Owens found it good to clear out. Two brothers of this Man, 
was respectable Merchants in Lexington, Mo. and afterwards 
in Westport well acquainted with me, he came one day in my 


house and brought me their compliments, I received him well, 
and afterwards turned out to be a thief. How many of this 
kind came to California which loosed their little honor by 
crossing the Istmus or the plains. I had nothing at all to do 
with speculations, but stuck by the plough, but by paying such 
high Wages, and particularly under Kyburg' management, I 
have done this business with a heavy loss as the produce had 
no more the Value like before, and from the time on Kyburg 
left I curtailed my business considerable, and so far that I do 
all at present with my family and a few Indian Servants. I 
did not speculate, only occupied my land, in the hope that it 
would be before long decided and in my favor by the U. S. 
Land Commission ; but now already 3 years & two months 
have elapsed, and I am waiting now very anxiously for the De- 
cission, which will revive or bring me to the untimely grave. 

All the other Circumstances you know all yourself, perhaps 
I have repeated many things which I wrote in the 3 first sheets, 
because 1 had them not to see what I wrote, and as it is now 

several months I must have forgotten, well it is only a kind 
of memorandum, and not a history at all, Only to remember 
you on the different periods when such and such dings hap- 
pened. . .. 

I need not mention again, that all the Visitors has allways 
been hospitably received and treated. That all the sick and 
wounded found allways Medical Assistance, Gratis, as I had 
nearly all the time a Physician in my employ. The Assistance 
to the Emigrants that is all well known. I dont need to write 
anything about this. 

-I think now from all this you can form some facts, and that 
you can mention how thousands and thousands made their for- 
tunes from this Gold Discovery produced through my industry 
and energy, (some wise merchants and others in San Francisco 
called the building of this Sawmill, another of Sutter's folly) and 
this folly saved not only the Mercantile World from bank- 
ruptcy, but even our General Govt, but for me it has turned 
out a folly, then without having discovered the Gold, I would 
have become the richest wealthiest man on the Pacific Shoie. 


James C. Ward, who visited General Sutter in 1848, says of 
him: — 

" A Swiss by birth, he held during the reign of Charles 5. 
the rank of captain in the French army. He purchased the 
buildings at Ross, just north of Bodega, of the Russians, and 
as he proposed to settle the wilderness to the north of the bay 
of San Francisco with European immigrants, the Mexican 
Government made him a grant of eleven leagues of land on 
the Sacramento River. After landing, he camped, surrounded 
by hostile savages, in the open plain where the fort was after- 
wards built, and the next morning, after dressing in full uni- 
form, he went, accompanied by his Indian servant, both well 
armed, to the Indian village in the woods near by. The sav- 
ages were informed through the interpreter that he came to 
them as a friend, and if they would help him a little with their 
labor, he would make them presents. 

" The Indians were set to work to make adobes, of which 
the fort was built. It is a parallelogram in form, with two 
bastions. In the middle of the square is a building two stories 
high, containing four rooms, and a counting-room up stairs. A 
blacksmith shop, mill for grinding corn, serape manufactory 
and dwelling are around it, built against the walls of the fort. 
At one time he had a well-drilled force of thirty Indians with- 
in its walls, with guards posted night and day for its defense. 
No one reached it without being fed and lodged. 

" I passed the evening of my arrival, after supper, in his 
company. His manners are polished, and the impression he 
makes on every one is very favorable. In figure he is of 
medium hight, rather stout, but well made. His head is 
round, features regular, with smiling and agreeable expression ; 
complexion healthy and roseate. He wears his hair cut close, 
and his moustache trimmed short, a la militaire. He dressed 
very neatly in frock coat, pantaloons and cap of blue, and with 
his gold-headed malacca in hand, you wouM rather suppose 
him prepared for a saunter on the Boulevards than a consulta- 
tion with Simplon, his Indian alcalde, about hands required 
for the day's work, or ox teams to be dispatched here and 


•?■**. 10 

3Z'/h 2' 


, i 


1 . Soil and effluvium . . ME'AIL SE;Gft»Ni_DF 

2. Conglomerate. |^>%^i? MBUNTAINS 

3. swe. aantaP uZ " 

4-. Sandstone. ■■" .. _ Prepared Br $ 

B.Limestone. p.^.^°w^o^,f^-p- * kffl^lp?^ 

S.Melamoipnic. .. + M^^W " " 

7. Granite- M A-^^pS^^-^ 

$-5 ■ S rT. 

The Climate, Botany, Geology, and Health of Santa Cruz and Adjacent Region 


I propose to speak of Santa Cruz and adjacent region as a 
place for Homes. 

Anil in doing so it will be necessary to discuss somewhat 
particularly the physical conditions of this region, including its 
Geology, Botany, and Climate, in their relations to health and 
homes! For without health and comfort of body, of what good 
to us are all the beauties and resources of nature— all the allure- 
ments of art? We have no eyes for glowing scenes of earth and 
sky, no ears for concord of sounds. 

It must be true, therefore, that the physical conditions which 
contribute most toward a healthful body, and spread before us 
an esthetic outlook to nourish and invigorate the mind, must be 
the most desirable place for a permanent home. 

It is also true that a large part of the human race are seeking 
a country where they may find the blessings of health and a 
genial climate, with such natural surroundings as may give 
variety to some simple, it may be, but beautiful home. 

It is possible such a place might be found on some of the 
southern islands of the Pacific— Tahiti or the Fijis— but these 
are not so easily reached, and many of the qualities that enter 
into the idea of home are wanting there. 


Santa Cruz is near the line of the 37th degree of North lati- 
tude. It looks out toward the south on the Bay of Monterey 
and the Pacific Ocean. Panama steamers maybe seen in the 
southwest- Monterev, the ancient capital of California, at times 
may be dimly outlined, 2G miles across the bay, a little east of 
south- Santa Lucia range of mountains looms up as a back- 
ground to the height of three or four thousand feet, beyond 
Monterey The Gavilan Mountains stand in bold relief m the 
south-east, guarding as it were the entrance of the Salinas River 
into the Bay of Monterey. Looking towards the east, through 
and beyond the valley of the Pajaro, some 60 miles, may be seen 
Pacheco Peak, and other peaks in the Monte Diablo range- 
Northeast, and 20 miles distant, stands Mount Bache ; (" Loma 
Prieta,") the highest point in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The 
northern region contains the valleys of the Aptos Soouel and 
Zvante Creeks and San Lorenzo River. These valleys are nar- 
row (canons in places) winding, and with their tributaries are 
densely timbered; whilst the mountain sides, often to then- sum- 
mits are clothed with a dense flora of trees, .shrubs, and smaller 
nlants This verdure, much of it evergreen, gives to the sea- 
ward slope of these mountains a dark green appearance, as we 
look at it from the bay or ocean. 

And a person coming by ship from the south after seeing only 
WrPn smooth mountains, with but occasionally a spot of tim- 
bHong Z southern coast, would at once conclude that here 
on \he B°ay of Monterey is a sheltered, well watered and fertile 
region. And so it is. 


The winds that blow froin the northwest in-etty constantly 
ine wiuu» Santa Cruz Point, 

vT, mg The timber Covered mountains on the northerly side 
Valley. The timber ^ ^^ 

large part of the time, stands the City of 

of which, during 
Santa Cruz. 

This movement of the air currents along the coast has been 
noticed by Prof. Davidson, of the Coast Survey. When the 
north-west summer winds are bluw'mg with considerable force, he 
has observed a counter land current, or a sort of eddying of the 
laud breeze. The configuration of the coast on the northern side 
of the Bay of Monterey favors the production of a wide eddying 
air current, extending some 15 or 20 miles inland. So that 
what is not uncommon on a small scale along the coast, north 
ami south of San Francisco, is magnified in the region about 
Santa Cruz. These eddies of air are always mild. They are 
usually warmed by the land and the sun, and favor largely the 
growth of vegetation. As a means to give regularity to these 
eddies, a gate or opening in the coast is necessary. For example: 
At San Francisco, the " Golden Gate " admits a large air current, 
which spreads out on the Bay of San Francisco, flowing off into 
the numerous valleys, and becoming equalized with the sur- 
rounding air in temperature an 1 other qualities. This renders 
mildness to the climate of San Rafael, Berkeley, Oakland, etc., 
by the counter currents so modified. 

A wider and more extensive opening exists on the southeastern 
coast of the Bay of Monterey— the Salinas Valley. This opening 
is about six miles wide and extends for one hundred miles back, 
offering hut little obstruction to the inland flow of the strong air 
current which sweeps across the bay. No such gates exist for 
several hundred miles north of San Francisco; in fact, until the 
mouth of the Columbia is reached. And none south of the Bay 
of Monterey, to any great extent, until we approach the valley 
or plains of the Los Angeles; although an extensive air eddy is 
in the region of Santa Barbara, giving that place a very mild 
and genial climate; yet this does not depend on an opening in 
the coast range, but rather an a point of land projecting into the 
ocean current and breaking its force, thus causing a counter 
current on the margin of the main flow. 

Attention is called to a map on an adjoining page, prepared 
to illustrate the wind currents of the Pacific Coast from AprU 
to October, and to show the points where the yearly and monthly 
temperature and rain-fall has been ascertained, as explained in 
tables accompanying this article. The scale of the map from 
north to south is much shortened, in order to bring the most 
important coast openings within a short space. 

On the Pacific Coast, the ocean and air currents during the 
summer season, say from April to October, very nearly coincide. 
Prof. George Davidson says that " a southwest wind is extremely 
rare " during this part of the year, and that the prevailing cur- 
rents of air Ind water are from the northwest. Ships sometimes 
make a long tack even to the 140th degree west longitude, where 
the currents are more northward. The wind current follows the 
trend of the coast, gradually drawing towards the land, passing 
through "wind gaps." The Professor confirms what I have 
already said in regard to counter currents on the land. He has 
noticed these when some 15 or 20 miles hack on some high peak 
or mou ntain. When the wind blows down the coast, overlapp ;ng 
the land, and flowing over capes and promontories with a strong 
■ current, two or three miles inland the air is often calm and 
j warm. Such is remarkably the case in the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains. We may observe the white caps a mile or so out, whilst 




standing on some high point, scarcely a couple of miles inland, 
we enjoy a very mild breeze. 

The whole coast from Sitka to San Diego is mountain walled, 
having but comparatively few gates. Hence the currents are 
compressed, and forced with considerable rapidity along the 
,, .aat southward, Opposite or above Santa Barbara they begin 
to bend westward> the equatorial or return Japan current. A 
portion however, pass toward and above the land, spreading out 
easl ward from Los Angeles to San Diego. This wind, however, 
is mild and genial, and adds much to the pleasantness of the 
region bordering on the Santa Barbara and San Pedro chan- 
nels. And were it not for occasional siroccos, that come from 
the deserts eastward, this would be the most favored region in 
the world as regards climate. North of Santa Barbara these 
desert winds are seldom felt— perhaps, never north of Monterey 

Fogs are prevalent during the summer season in the line of 
the northwesterly air current. These fogs are the effect of a 
cold current slowly penetrating a warm current of air, or vice 
versa. The vapor contained in the warmer body of air is con- 
densed, becoming clouds at or near the surface of the earth. 
The condensation of this vapor, giving out its heat, usually ren- 
ders the fog mild in temperature and not unpleasant. This is 
especially the case where there are eddying currents. As soon 
as the temperature of the different bodies of air are equalized 
the fog disappears. As we pass southward from Cape Mendo- 
cino these fogs become milder especially as we recede from the 
main current of air which begins to spread wider as we 
approach the Bay of Monterey on account of the eastward trend 
of the Coast line, and the north equatorial current towards 
China and Japan. We may remember, as a rule, along the 
central Pacific Coast that places exposed to the northwest have 
more fog in the season of northwest winds than places open to 
the southward. And also that the rainfall is greater in the 
latter places than the former, because our rains come with the 
southerly winds. Of course this applies to places of nearly the 
same latitude, remembering that the rainfall decreases from 
north to south. (See meteorological table.) As an illustration 
of this rule the rainfall at San Francisco is 21.79 inches. It 
should be less at Santa Cruz and Watsonville because they are 
situated 50 miles south of San Francisco. But they stand with 
a southward exposure and .consequently receive 22 to 23 inches. 
We should expect, if we had any way of measuring fog, that 
San Francisco and places of like exposure would receive propor- 
tionately a greater amount than the Santa Cruz region. 


The rainfall along the Coast north of Monterey is always 
sufficient. Taking Santa Cruz as a representative central point 
we may say that so far as agriculture is concerned there is sel- 
dom a deficency injurious to vegetation. Together with the 
direct rainfall and the fogs there is always enough moisture to 
mature crops. The summits of the Santa Cruz mountains 
receive almost double the amount of rain that falls near the sea 
level. This has been demonstrated at the Springvale Farm, the 
home of Mr. D. M. Locke, who has kept a record of the rainfall 
for the last 3 or 4 years, showing a total each year of nearly 
double that of Santa Cruz. Thus the Santa Cruz mountains 
become a reservoir for a large amount of water, a good part of 

which finds its way to the sea in small streams like the Captos, 
Soquel, and San Lorenzo creeks. In fact almost every mile 
from the Pajaro to Pescadero is furnished with a perennial 
stream The groves of redwoods and other trees by their dense 
root fibers hold this rainfall like sponges only giving out as it is 
required and drawn away by the surrounding dryness. 


It may be asked, if these groves of timber in these mountains 
should be cut away would not the region become as barren as 
the mountains north and south of them. I think not. The 
redwood is especially hard to kill; for a score of young sprouts 
will immediately spring from the stump of a fallen tree, and the 
certainty of the rains would in a little time bring into existence 
a crop of trees to take the place of the fallen ones. Although 
the supply of timber is very great in these mountains it cannot 
be considered inexhaustible. The rapid increase of population 
and consequent demand for building material and fuel will in 
time lead to the denudation of the regions nearest the large 
cities. Consequently a preservative policy should be adopted at 
an early day by which a portion of the land should retain, at 
least, the younger growth for future use. It would indeed be a 
wise policy to enforce a law to this effect if it cannot be done 
otherwise. The general future good of our State requires it, 
and especially the places in and near the timbered lands. 


Temperature has much to do with our comfort and health. 
It is true that man may live in almost any climate on our globe 
by the aid of clothing, shelter, food, and other artificial heats. 
But it is certainly more pleasant and conducive to longevity to 
live in a climate where the minimum of such aids are necessary; 
— where it is not required to spend one half the year in prepara- 
tions to keep from freezing and starving the other half. Neither 
is a tropical climate the best. It fosters indolence by an excess 
of heat, and need of an occasional cold and stimulating air. 
The tropical climates in addition are usually prolific in diseases, 
and the atmosphere is rare and humid, producing and favoring 
debility. North of Cape Mendocino the rainfall begins to be 
unpleasantly abundant, although the temperature is not unfavor- 

One would therefore prefer a climate medium in these respects. 
It should be warm enough and only enough to require but little 
confinement indoors. There should be range enough in temper- 
ature to give variety, and not enough to shock the human sys- 
tem by sudden changes of heat or cold, humidity or dryness. 

These are conditions generally agreed upon by the best 
authorities, not only for the well being of invalids suffering 
from the principal diseases that the flesh is heir to, but for those 
in robust health that they may remain well. Any climate, 
therefore, characterized by sudden and violent changes of tem- 
perature, cold and humid ; or even dry and irregular, with ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, is not favorable to good health ; espe- 
cially is it conducive to. diseases of the lungs. A climate where 
people must remain indoors a large portion of the time on ac- 
count of its inclemency must engender disease. 

It would seem then that so far as temperature is concerned, 
the central and southern region of the California Coast, when 
sheltered from the northwest winds and free from the siroccos 
of* the east, within the flow of the mild eddying currents of air 
that have just arrived from the broad expanse of water and 



been warmed by the sunshine and heat of the land, would be of 
all places the most healthful. In these localities the thermometer 
seldom rises above 80 deg., and rarely comes down to the freezing 
point. Out-door life is practicable at all seasons and almost 
every day in the year. Oppressive heat is seldom felt, and 
nothing colder than a slight freeze during the coldest mornings of 
winter. During all the summer months, from April to November, 
there is a steady temperature of air a few miles out from the 
land. At the Farallones, 42° is the constant summer stand- 
ard— (the mean annual temperature of Sitka nearly 20° further 
north.) This is cold, — especially when accompanied, as it 
nearly always is, with a strong wind. But near the coast 
the water and air are rapidly modified, as is illustrated by the 
following table, for which I am indebted to the Rev. Dr. Willcy 
of Santa Cruz, at least for the Santa Cruz observation. I have 
added for comparison the water temperature at a place on the 
Atlantic Coast near Newport, R. I., taken by Capt. R. J. 
Edwards; and also the air and water temperature at Santa 
Monica, Los Angeles County. All these observations were made 
in the year 1876. 













J l_ 

58. ti 









54 7 

Santa Cbdz. 




52 2 
52 2 


Santa Monica. 


68.0 65.5 65.2 
09.5 68.0 65.5 


Newport, R. I. 


30 7 



52. £ 




43. '1 


The observations for Santa Cruz and Newport were taken at 
from 9 to 11 o'clock A. M., in water 8 to 10 feet deep. The air 
temperature was taken in the shade of the powder null wharf, 
ZZZ the water. At Santa Cruz, sea-bathmg > not uncom- 
mon in the winter season, and the temperature quite endurable. 
Z Santa Monica the water temperature of the four summer 
months seems to stand above air temperature. The water where 

ravTbirrrt n^tem"in the Fourth Keport of the 
State Board of Health, of California. 


• ! vnevience is that water at a temperature between 
The genwal experience «, ^ ^^ 

70and H 90 "Ttenot bring ib'out'a tonic and stimulating 
initeefiect. It does not Bring ^ when 

feeling so <^*J^££l tituttons ™ ^^ 
invalids and persons of ratto t ^ ^ the opm warm 

become accustomed te« * J ^ ^ g() ^ tl 

air, say o0 to 60 deg ^ should at first , howe ver, be 

are invigorated. ^ ,\ . about in j ur i us congestions of 
carefully made, so as not to bi g J ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

the internal organs. Only ^^ 0tnenvise , 

then allowing the ""*£", ^ hot bath , 95 to 105 de- 
sueh persons would do better const itution, may be 

grees. But P-^JT the winte r sea bathing, which 
still further strengthened by ev 
is often enjoyed in Santa Cruz. 


A word in regard to humidity. In this respect the coast 
region is very accommodating. Humidity is not indicated by 
the rain-fall. * It is the amount of watery vapor contained in 
the air. This can be measured pretty well with the wet and dry 
bulb thermometer. At the beach, and near the surface of the 
water, the air is almost or quite full of watery vapor at nearly 
all times. As we recede from the shore toward the summits of 
the mountains, the air becomes dryer. We may find almost any 
degree of humidity required within 15 or 20 miles of the coast. 

There is very little malaria. Possibly in some of the moun- 
tain and forest closed basins, during the latter part of Autumn, 
malaria may be generated. But generally the air is pure, be- 
cause these valleys are regularly swept, almost every day, by 
the sea breeze, coming with its ozone as a disinfectant. The 
sweeping is so gentle that the inhabitants are not disturbed, and 
yet poisonous gases are dispersed. 

Aside from rain-gauges hygrometers, thermometers and such 
things, all useful in their way, and helps to a correct knowledge 
of climate, we have a single and more certain test. It can be 
read and applied at a glance. It is the flora of a country. If 
we know the plants, we may he able to describe the climate. 
The botany of the Santa Cruz region tells, with peculiar em- 
phasis, the qualities of the climate. 

The number of plants is so great that to make a full catalogue 
of them would only be of interest to the professional botanist. 
I shall not attempt much more than a general description, except 
to owe a list of the trees. They will indicate somewhat the 
character of the smaller plants. They will also indicate to the 
horticulturist the kind of plants that may be successfully grown 
here for fruit, ornament or other uses. 


This county is rich in the abundance and quality of the native 
forest trees, 'in has been a question some- 
times where to draw the line between trees and shrubs. Some 
of what mio-ht be called shrubs in less-favored climates, grow to 
be trees here. There is quite a list of shrubs not included in 
this list, but several shrubs, properly so called, will be found 


Rhammus CALTTOBNICA-Alder Buck thorn. -Ten to twenty feet high,; terming 
thicket,; wood soft, like Alder. The fruit contains a seed hke the coffee 
gr,m, hence is called " Wild Coffee," and the seeds have been used as coffee, 
but the plant is quite distinct from the Coffee plant. 
CWothus THYRSIFLOHES-California Lilac— Six to eighteen feet hi^h; bor- 
ders of forest; wood hard, makes good fuel; flowers fragrant and handsome. 
O PAPILL03U3.- Resembles the last; not quite as large; 6 tJ 10 feet high, 
a INCANUS.-Himlly a tree, but a large, straggling shrub along creeks. 
C. CEASsrroLiDS.— Six to twelve feet high. 

Enosymus Occidental- Spindle Tree-Eight to fifteen feet high; not 

iBBOOLUs CAL^OENiCA-Buckeye, Horse Chestnnt-Ten to thirty feet high. A 

really handsome and ornamental tree when properly tranien. 
ACB E MAcnoPHVLLUM-Big Wed Maple-Fifty to ninety feet high; some- 

what abundant; wood soft but valuable. 
Neg u N do OAUFOwmaJM-ft* Elder-Fifty to sixty feet high; abundant. 




Rhus Diveimilolba— Poison Oak.— From a small shrub, three or four feet huh, 
to quite a tree, 20 to 30 feet high, and six inches in diamater. A great peat 
on account of its poisonous qualities. 


Lupinus Arborrps— Tree Lupine.— Four to ten feet high, with a variety of 
fragrant flowers. 


PituNUS Ilictfolia— Wild Cherry.— An evergreen, 15 to 40 feet high. 

Nottallib Cerastformib— Oao Berry.— Two to fifteen feet high. 

HeTEROMELES ArbotbjOLIA— Photinia.— Foor to twenty feet high, with beau- 
fid red berries, ripening in December. 

Amklanchiek Alnifulm— June or Service Berry.— Eight to twenty feet, on the 
Sun Lorenzo river; berries edible. 

Adenosioma Fasotculatctm— Chaparral, Ohamiral.— Eight to twenty feet high. 

Rises Speoiohoti— Wild Currant.— Six to ten feet high; has beautiful Fuchsia- 
like flowers. 
R. SaNlsdinkum. — Growing to be a small tree, 12 feet high; beautiful flowers. 

Cornds Nuttallii.— A small tree, 20 feet high; resembles the "Flowering 

Do»wood " of the East, but more showy; northern part of county. 
C. California.— On stream banks; 10 to 15 feet high. 

Sambucus Glauca — Elder. — Grows to be quite a tree, 10 to 30 feet high, and 
often a foot or two in diameter. 

Of this very large family of plants, so abundantly represented in this county, 
only one or two assume anything like the proportions of a tree. 
BiUELovTA Arborescens. — A shrub 4 to 8 feet high, but growing with the. 

habit of a tree, on dry hills, with Pines and Manzanitas. 
BaCCHaris Pilularis — Groundsel Tree. — The California Botany says, " 2 to 4 
feet high," we have it 8 to 12 feet high. 


Arbutus Menztessh. — A handsome tree, called " Madrono. " by the Spaniards, 

because it resembles the Strawberry Tree of the old world. One of our 

most attractive trees. 
Arctostaphyxos Tomentosa — Manzanita. — Six to twelve feet high; berries 

abundant, edible. 
A. Andersonix — A large tree, 10 to 15 feet high. So far only found in vicinity 

of " Big Tree Grove." by the author of this paper. 
Rhododendron Californicum. — The California Rhododendron is found in the 

northwestern part of the county; a beautiful shrub or small tree, (3 to 8 

feet high. 
R. Occidentale — Azalea. — Ten to fifteen feet high, flowering all the year, giving 

fragrance and beauty to the woods; everywhere about springs. 


Oreodai*hne Callfornica — Bay Tree or Mountain Laurel. — A valuable tree for 
cabinet and furniture work, 30 to 10U feet high, and one to three feet di- 
ameter. Beautiful for inside finish of houses. 


Dirca Palustris— Leatherwood. — A bush li to 10 feet high; same as the East- 
ern species of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and New England. 


PlATANUS RaCEMOSUS — Sycamore or Buttonwood. — In valleys bordering the 
coast; 50 to 100 feet high; wood valuable, receives a good polish; durable. 


Quercus Lobata — White Oak. — Differs from the Eastern "White Oak;" on 
open mountain spaces; timber useful; abundant; 50 to 70 feet high. 

Q. Aquifolia — Live Oak, Evergreen Oak. — Abundant; forming groves near the 
ocean; 30 to 00 feet high. 

Q. Dkssiklora — Chestnut Oak. — Very abundant; furnishes tan bark of the 
best quality. 

Q. Crvsolepk— Canyon Live Oak.— A valuable timber tree, with tough fibred 
growth; next to the Eastern White Oak; Ben Lomond and vicinity. 

CASTANOPSia CHRT30PHYLLA— California Chestnut.— Generally shrubby, but 
B ■mutinies 50 feet high. A variety called Pumila, shrubby, on sandy hill- 
sides; Chincapin. 

ConYLUS RodTRATA-Hazelnut.— Eight to ten feet high, bearing abundance of 



Mvrica California— Bayberry or Wax Myrtle.— Moiat places; 15 to 20 feet 
hi"h; evergreen. 

Alnus Vlrldis— Alder — The charcoal of this tree is used extensively in pow- 
der manufacture. 


Salix Bwelovti— Bigelow's Willow.— Ten to fifty feet high; common. 

S. Lasiandra— Shining Willow.— With preceding; 40 to 50 feet high. 

S. Laevigata— Smooth Willow.— With the preceding; a handsome tree, espe- 
cially when in bloom; 20 to 40 feet high. 

S. SrrcfiENSis— Sitka Willow.— Has a beautiful silky leaf underneath; near the 
running streams; 10 to 15 feet high; generally reclining. 

S. Brachystchy3.— On hillsides, where the male plant lights up the borders of 
openings with white, woolly catkins, early in February; 8 to 20 feet high. 

Popular Monllifera— Cottonwood, Poplar.— Large trees along the creeks; 
there are probably two or three species, as yet not fully decided. 


Pinus Insiunus— Monterey Pine.— Sparingly in northern section; well known 

as the most common cultivated Pine; of rapid growth, reaching 60 feet 

high in a few years. 
P. Tuberculata— Knotty Pine. — A handsome little Pine, 40 to (JO feet high, 

with symmetrical clusters of cones. 
P. Ponderosa— Yellow Pine. — High, sandy ridges; a valuable timber, reaching 

100 feet in hight. 
Abies Douglasii— Douglas Spruce. — Next to the Redwood in size and value 

for lumber. 
Sequoia Sempervirexs — Redwood. — Sometimes reaching 300 feet in hight. 

Very abundant. 
Torrya California— Nutmeg Tree. —A valuable timber. The nuts are not 

like the Nutmeg, except in appearance, outside. The meat is edible, but 

the squirrels usually get it; grows 50 to 80 feet high, and two or three feet 

in diameter. 
Taxu8 Brevu-o li a— Western Yew.— Rare; 30 feet high. At Laguna Falls. 
Cupressus Macrocarpus — Monterey Cypress. — Northern part of county; 
abundant; in cultivation as an ornamental tree; 30 to 51) feet high. 

Other trees may be discovered. The recesses of valley and 
mountain have not all been explored; as yet, by the botanist, 
and it is likely many additions to the flora of this region will be 


The herbaceous flowering plants are so numerous that we can 
only speak briefly of the members of a few families. 

The buttercups are represented by the Ranunculus Califor- 
nicus, which, during the whole year, may be seen with its 
yellow flowers, in moist, grassy places. A clematis may be seen 
climbing over trees and bushes along our creeks. Where th e 
white, silky flowers are gone, the fruiting, with its long white 
tails (one to two inches), gives the trees over which it twines, a 
beautiful appearance during the winter months. We have the 
little " wind flower," Anemone Nemorosa, so much loved in the 
East. With us it grows larger, anil none the less beautiful. 
The columbine, Aquilegia trwncata, has a beauty not inferior 
to any of its relatives, and the larkspurs, of which there are 
four or five species, all pei'ennialj have great beauty. 

Of the barberries, we have three or four shrubby plants, all 
worthy members of that family. Some are used in medicine, 
and others have berries not unpleasant to eat. 



The Poppy family is represented by three or four beautiful 
species, worthy of cultivation, the Eschscholtzia and two species 
of Platystigma being among them. 

There are four species of beautiful violets, three in the woods 
and one in the fields. 

Two species of " Spring Beauty," Claytonia, are found in 
abundance. Also a beautiful mallow flowering early in the 
spring in fields, quite attractive, and among the first spring 

The lupines are numerous, and nearly all handsome — about 
ten species of the forty to fifty belonging to California. We have 
also a large proportion of the clovers — ten out of the twenty-six 
credited to California. Many of them are showy and singular 
in shape ; besides, they furnish good forage for horses and cattle. 
We cannot say as much for the lupines. Wild peas abound, and 
cattle get fat on them in the mountain ranges. 

Two wild roses, one in the woods, and the other on the open 
lands, are found. They are both very fragrant, both beautiful, 
but not as showy as cultivated roses. 

Evening primroses, two or three members of the family, are 
well worth cultivation, especially Zausckneria, Clarhia, one or 
two species of CEnoteera and Godetia. 

Twining over trees and undergrowth, there is a vine some- 
what like a cucumber. It is Megarrhiza, commonly known as 
" Big Root." It bears a fruit about the size of a peach, covered 
with prickles. Often the root is twelve to fifteen inches in 
diameter, and four or five feet long, whilst the vine may be fifty 

feet long. 

Another vine, often found with the above, is a convolvulus 
(0. occidentalism It has white flowers, large and handsome. 

Conspicuous along the shaded streams and moist hillsides, are 
several species of the " Monkey Flower," Minulus Douglas^ M. 
lutens M moschatus (the musk plant), and on dry grassy hills, 
the M glutinosus. With the latter, and about moist cliffs, the 
CollinBia bicolor grows. This has a beautiful flower, and is 
often cultivated. 


In March or April, in May or June, whenever we choose to 
look there is a glow of bright colors on fields and hdMes. The 
air is perfumed with a pleasant fragrance. There is such a pro- 
fusion of flowers, we cannot count them. The lupine, the ortho- 
carDUB grindelia, wyethia, erithichium, beria and malvastrum, 
and others too numerous, bnt not unworthy to mention, mingle 
their colors and fragrance, and we stand enchanted in a field of 
beauty. Botanical names and terms are but luggage to worry 
and perplex. We forget it all, and only feel and know the 
charm that surrounds us. _ 

Or if we go to the woods in the summer time, after the fields 
begin to brown with age and ripeness, and find some shady 

brook passing under the alders, the bay trees, the pines and the 
broom pass g 1kk fervm , Here are the 

oaks.weshaU n^the^en ^ ^ ^ ^ 

ferns, a n ^ er °"\~ PX „ uisi ta, orchids, sedges, holy grass 
Here are bte, «*«** -1 ^ ^ ^ tree tops , and 

^ l"71 S s alnVof content as it goes joyfully towards the 

Ze wnl not try to entice the trout from their native ele- 

sea. We will not t y ^ ^ ^ QUr &h 

Ctt'Ter u! fiu Z letter with treasures of the floral king- 
dom for our home decorations. 

With the first rain, usually in October, plant life starts anew, 
or, rather, the old are refreshed, and flower buds, checked by 
the dry weather, burst and come into bloom. Gra^s springs up, 
and the hills begin to be green. It is rather the waking up 
from a long summer sleep, for not until the first of February, 
can we say that spring really begins. Then the ««w buds 
begin to swell and open with the warm days and the bountiful 
rains that have fallen. 


But if we choose a different scene, we may find it in all its 
strangeness, on our beaches at low tide. There we shall, at all 
seasons, find abundance of sea plants — the algte. The coast 
from Aptos to Pescadero, abounds in the greatest variety of 
" sea moss " and other marine plants. First of organic forms 
these grew in the sea, when there was no law for the flora of the 
land. These are the pioneers of the vegetable kingdom, the first- 
born of creation. They deserve our especial and particular 
attention, not only for the beauty that many species possess, but 
as coming more directly from the Creative hand, in that day 
when the waters were commanded " to bring forth abundantly." 


It may be well to say a few words additional in regard to the 
influence of climate on pulmonary and other diseases, tending 
towards consumption. There are certain conditions of climate 
where the physician can do but little good, owing to relapses 
from climatic causes. And with each relapse the hope of recov- 
ery becomes less. A change should be made early to a climate, 
the flrst requisite of which should be pure air. Temperature, 
elevation and humidity should next be taken into the account, 
according to the requirements of the case. 

For a long time the southern part of France has had a repu- 
tation as a favorable resort for consumptive patients. The little 
town of Cannes, and other places bordering on the Mediter- 
ranean, where a row of hills rises within a short distance of the 
sea side, there have been erected at various altitudes, villas and 
hotels, to accommodate the numeroup persons who resort there * 
for recuperation from disease. Many cases have been cured, 
and in others the disease has been stayed by moving up into 
these hills. Those who are suffering with pulmonic fever, obtain 
almost certain relief by moving from 300 to 500 feet higher 
than where they may be living. This benefit comes, not only 
to those suffering with consumption, but as a rule to all cases 
of disease accompanied by a quick pulse, high temperature, 
debility, and deficient state of nutrition. 

Northward of the bay of Monterey, the elevations rise gradu- 
ally with terraces and plateaus, so that almost any desirable 
elevation up to nearly 4,000 feet, can be obtained within a 
distance of ten or fifteen miles. 


Furthermore, invalids must have some physical and mental 
employment to the extent of their strength. In this region 
there is ample scope. Within a comparatively small area, there 
presents a great variety of resources. And the person who will 
not make an effort by some active pursuit, to overcome all 
physical debility, is beyond the help of this or any other climate. 
These mountains, brooks, forests and fields, the hidden, unex- 
plored and undeveloped wealth, the sea shore, with its exhilarat- 
ing air and bathing facilities ; mineral springs of undoubted good 



qualities tried and untried; scenery that in all its beauty of 
earth, sky and water, is unsurpassed; all these, and many more 
must stimulate and inspire the most despondent with fresh and 
bright ideas of life, and a resolution to overcome and break the 
fetters caused by disease. _ 

Stock and fruit raising, manufacturing and utilizing the 
abundant natural resources of this region, would give employ- 
ment to a very large population. And any taste, disposition or skill 
prisons might have, would find congenial openmgs for their use. 
I do not speak of this region as a place only for invalids, as a 
place for summer or winter resort. Although in many cases, 
invalids may be benefited by a short sojourn here. But it is a 
place to make a permanent home— to recover health and to re- 
tain it. There are many persons who have accumulated for- 
tunes in other lands— perhaps at the expense of health. Disabled 
in that respect, they cannot enjoy their homes. A change of 
climate becomes necessary. A few weeks or months might do 
good, but a permanent change in many cases must be deter- 
mined upon. There are many places with sunshine and a genial 
climate. But these alone are not all that is needed. Employ- 
ment and contentment generally mean the same thing, and good 
health is often their attendant. 

Persons with ordinary intelligence, to guide willing and in- 
dustrious hands, with or without capital, would scarcely fail to 
find somewhere in the region 1 have thus imperfectly outlined, 
remunerative investments, bodily restoration, if needed, and 
most assuredly comfortable and happy homes. 


The Santa Cruz range of mountains may be said to extend 
from the Golden Gate to the bay of Monterey and the Pajaro 
Valley. It lies between the Santa Clara "Valley and the Pacific 
Ocean. It has an average width of 25 miles, including foot- 
hills, and a length of about 80 miles. There are many places 
1,500 feet above the sea level— some points 2.500 to 3,000 feet. 
The Loma Prieta rises to 3,790 feet. This point (sometimes 
called Mt. Bache, for Prof. A. D. Bache, late Superintendent 
of the Coast Survey), lies nearly northeast from the city of 
Santa Cruz, about 15 miles by an air line, and nearly south 
from San Jose almost an equal distance. 

The map accompanying this article, shows a section of the 
Santa Cruz range, as it would appear if all the groups of forma- 
tions were present at one place in their natural order. But this 
seldom occurs. These formations are very much broken and 
disturbed, presenting a great variety of structures. 

1. Soil and Alluvium. — As might be predicted from the 
rocks and vegetation of which this is the debris, this formation 
is exceedingly rich for agricultural uses. It is present, and 
covers almost the entire surface of this region. The higher 
hills and valleys are not deficient, as a general rule, in depth of 
soil, and in some of the many little basins it reaches a depth of 
15 to 30 feet, deep enough to hold and support groves of im- 
mense trees. 

2. Conglomerate. — This is a deposit of boulders, shale, clay, 
sand, and fragments of all the lower strata, worn and loosely 
cemented with calcareous matter. It was deposited when most 
of these mountains were under water. We find in it evidence 
of floods and washings of the sea. The fossils are fragments of 
wood, bones, mostly of marine animals shells of mussels and 
other mollusks, turtles, such as we find now in our creeks, with 

occasional impressions of sea weeds. It has no regular thick- 
ness. Sometimes found piled up against the shale in deposits 

30 to 40 feet thick. 

3 Bituminous Shale.-This is the « chalk rock. It varies 
from a white to a dark color, from a very fine to a coarse tex- 
ture, and from a softness that crumbles between the fingers, to 
a Hinty hardness that withstands the hardest steel. In it are 
tree-like concretions of very hard sandstone, 50 to 100 feet m 
length. In this we find bones of marine monsters, such as 
whales and seals. Occasionally there are beds of lignite, an im- 
pure kind of coal, three or four feet thick. Some of this coal is 
of good quality, and may prove valuable some day. We find 
small smooth pebbles, beds of shells and other remains of animals 
and plants, all marine as far as our discoveries extend. In the 
white and gray chalky beds we find microscopic remains of 
diatoms, sponges and other organic structures. In fact, most of 
this formation is the debris of these microscopic beings. Also, 
we find asphaltum oozing from minute crevices, especially in 
the flinty shale. This formation took place under the water at 
a time when the Santa Cruz range was near the level of the 
sea. Some places it is metamorphosed. 

4. Sandstone.— This differs but little from the shale, except 
in the quantity of sand contained therein. It is not very firmly 
cemented, and mixes more or less with the shale in alternating 
layers, The fossils are pretty much the same as those in the 
shale. Many places to a large extent, it is saturated with petro- 
leum, which seems to enter by capillary attraction from 
springs, the source of which remains a mystery. These depos- 
its have been worked for petroleum -without much success, but 
will doubtless some day become available for some useful pur- 
pose. There are works at present being constructed for collect- 
ing petroleum, with reasonable prospects of success. 

5. Limestone. — This formation is more or less metamorphie, 
and the rock is crystalline. For economical purposes, the lime is 
of the very best quality, and when properly selected, serves as an 
excellent building material, and is easily worked. In quantity 
it is amply sufficient for all the demands of future ages. In 
places there are caves of considerable and unexplored extent. 
No fossils, except on the eastern side about New Almaden, as 
far as I know, have been found in it, yet it is possible that some 
exist in other places, and may be discovered. It is not in dis- 
tinct horizontal strata, but generally in masses, as though it had 
been thrown into heaps when in a semi-plastie state, by the 
upheaval of the underlying formations. It gradually runs into 
the metamorphie on which it is superimposed. 

6. Metamorpkic— This formation is of varied composition. 
Originally stratified, it is now broken and thrown into endless 
confusion. There are alternations of granite, quartz, slates, lime- 
stone, gneiss, etc. It is the most prevalent rock of these moun- 
tains, cropping out and occupying a large portion of the area. 
It contains iron, gold, copper, quicksilver, and probably, in 
places serves as basins for holding petroleum. I apprehend that 
the real economic value of this formation in these mountains is 
but little appreciated or known as yet, not having received that 
study and investigation it seems to require. 

7. Granite. — Only in a few places have we discovered a 
strictly granite formation, or what might be termed a forma- 
tion distinctly igneous in its origin. Even the granite that we 
find in these mountains, has probably at some period been strati- 
fied, although nearly all traces of stratification have been lost. 



In the northern part of the range, but south of Pescadero Creek, 
there is a ridge of granite running nearly parallel with the 
coast, and some four to six miles back. Where it is exposed it 
crumbles readily, being disintegrated by exposure to water and 
winds for many centuries. 


The age of this range of mountains belongs to the Pliocene 
and Miocene Tertiary, as indicated by the fossils, some forty or 
fifty per cent, of which belong to species now living in the adja- 
cent waters. On the ocean side the formation is more recent 
than on the northern and eastern slope. There the age gradu- 
ally approaches the Cretaceous period, which is well marked in j 
the Mount Diablo range further east. 

The richest quicksilver deposits perhaps in the world, lies on 
the eastern slope of these mountains. 


The " Ruins," so called, on Mr. D. M. Locke's ranche, six 
miles north of Santa Cruz, are in the sandstone (No. 4). The 
columns, that look somewhat like the ruins of an ancient city, 
are composed of sandstone cemented inte rings three or four 
feet in diameter, and these rings l'.e one on the other, forming 
variously sized vertical shafts with capitals. The nueleu on 
which the sand formed into these fantastic shapes are numer- 
ous fossils, fragments of echinoderms (a star fish , winch fur- 
nished the lime for the cement. Similar "^f^ 
the sandstone has been formed into 
bone of a seal. 

rial in 
built at 

ing and extracting this gold has been profitable. In the vicinity 
of Felton are deposits of moulding sand us e d in foundries for 
castings Bricfc <-■!>> <l is abundant in many localities. 

In the foot-hills near Santa Cruz are extensive lime deposits, 
of the Post Tertiary age, which proves to be a va uable mate- 
the manufacture of hydraulic cement. Works have been 
Santa Cruz at a considerable cost, to work this mate- 
rial. After many experiments, the prospects are fair for success 

in this enterprise. 

Thus I have enumerated some of the resources of this reg.on, 
north of the bay of Monterey, anl to incidentally hmt at then- 
employment and development. A country so nchly endowed 
with plants, soils, minerals, waters, climate and scenery, must 
be unusually attractive. And whether a person is sick or well, 
rich or poor, there are strong inducemeats to seek a spot here- 
abouts suitable to taste and conditions, and make that place a home. 

The following table, compiled from the reports of the State 
Board of Health, will show the mortality in twelve of the prin- 
cipal cities and tewns of California, having a populate of 
3,000 ,nd over. The record is for 1874, a year of average 
health throughout the State, except San Jose winch is for 
1870-71-twelve months-as no record for 1874 was w.thm 
my reach: — -— = ==^=== ====L " 


D^tha per 

seen along the beach where 

chimneys, the nucleus being a whale bone or 


At some places there exist what are called « ^magnetic spring. 
There is one about six miles northeast from Santa Cruz owned 
bX Hatht It is quite a resort for invalids and pleasure 
by fill. Haigruv i me dicinal qualities of a I 

seekers, and the wa « l ^ ms ! ter is co i dj has a pleasant 
kind favorable te> *^Vȣ? 8 *J Aeed mag netic by 
softness, and agreeable ta,te Hon is - u * d to get 

emersion in the water for ^J^J^St in L 
its magnetic quality from passing over ma a 
metamorphic rocks. geological character 

Theve are, . one ^^^.£ .£*,* all pos- 

of these mountain* ^~ a pities, according to proper 
seasmg more or less good m 4 ten miles 

judg ment m «« ^ a J e all 4 favorable reputa- 
aperient, containing carbonates of *on 

San Francisco... 



Los Angeles . . . 


Santa Barbara.. 


Napa City 

San Jose 

Redwood City 
Santa Cruz 

Total Mean 













14. bO 
LI. 00 
11. bO 


57SS.AS with other years, I find that the results would 

cely be changed from those given, were it possible to presen 

for a large number of years. The table show 

a place favorable for health, having the lowest 

southwest from 

tion. It is tonic and 

and soda in large quantities 

The Aptos miner 
coast, on Mr 

■al water, 


the average 
Santa Cruz as 
per cent, of mortality, 
highest per cent., but 
the chief resort for invalids in perhaps 
and other diseases that no 

been included in her mortality list 

It also shows Santa Barbara with the 
necessarily unhealthy, because it is 


fiowino- out of the shale near the 
B C Nichols place, is of a peculiar composition. 
*7tL of the sulphates of magnesia, lime, 
[t contains large ^^^ Quantity of common salt, 
soda, the persulphate Ol iron ^^ ^^ 18g gram£ 

and considerable silica. S ^^ ^^ ^ dipntheri ti c an c 

i^2££^*W with proper iudgment in its use, 

repU tationfoi thecui ; ^ _ 

We find at various places a remar^ 1^» ^ ^ ^ 

factureotgto- ^Vj £old . In some instances, wash- 
containing a small quantum of t ol 

the last stages of con- 

. _ climate can cure, and 


^^^a^ualnrortali^o^o,, .,,.,„.,•„ -iti;, 

«f the United States, is set at 2o per 

tan of these twelve cities and towns of ■ ,' if— ■ n^y 

ing a city population of over 

1 000 population. 

Of course the mortality of large cities 
that of towns and rural districts. 

much lower, even down to 8 01 7. me avcia^ 

and country of the eastern United States, or 

antl couuiiiy v , ,. ., * j ea ths, considered 

■■ normal death rate isfixedatl,. ^^ lt( f Alaboveth is 

„m voidable by statisticians, is fixed at 11 to 1 ,uuu. ^ 

IT oU to ^preventable in healthy countries. Butth^ntoJ 

Shfulness is seldom reached. City mortahty when under 20, 

lows a high standard of health; but when. t reaches 30 and 3b. 

tT^lL years, owing to epidemics, the degree . alarnnng. 

1,000 inhabitants, the 
,f Call 
300,000 persons, is only 16 to 

much greater than 
In Great Britain the average 
whilst the average of the coun- 
ty localities will gc 
rage of town, citj 
what is called the 

General Description of the County. 

Santa Cruz, although one of the smallest counties in the 
State is more celebrated for its manufactures than for ite agri- 
cultural products, even though it embraces some of the richest 
land in the State, bung the second in importance-San 1 rancisco 

^/iftte second coast county south from San Francisco, San 

Mateo County lying between it and the city, and distant there- 
from seventy miles by steamer. 

It comprises an area of 320,000 acres, of which 236,826 im aie 

on the Assessor's books as taxable property, outside of the towns. 

Present population, about 16,000. It is a narrow strip of land 

of some 40 miles in extreme 

length from northwest to 

southeast, by some 15 miles 

in extreme width from the 

Bay of Monterey, on north 

side of which it lies, to the 

summit of the Santa Cruz 

range of mountains that sep- 
arates it from Santa Clara 

County on the north. San 

Benito and Monterey Comi- 
ties join it on the east. 

Forty thousand acres are 
the richest bottom lands along 
the various streams (occupied 
principally as dairy farms), 
of which the principal are 
the Trancas, Waddle's, San 
Lorenzo, Soquel, Aptos, Val- 
unciaandPajaroRiver. Fifty 
thousand acres of agricultu- 
ral land forms terraced plat- 
eaus, as the land rises from 
the bay in benches, or steps : 
as it were, back to the sum- 
mit of the mountains. Loma 
Prieta, also called Mt. Bache 
by first surveyors, lying 
northeast from the county 
seat, being a coaspieuous land 
mark, some 18 or 20 miles 
distant, its highest point be- 
ing 3,780 feet above the level 
of the sea. Snow is occasion- 
ally seen on its summit for 
a day or two in the rainy 
season. The county is heavily timbered along the gulches and 
uplands. Pasture lands remaining green and fresh throughout 
the entire year. On the uplands, although the grasses wither in 
the summer season, they lose none of their nutriment, and cattle 
thrive equally as well as on the fresh. 


Some 20,500 acres are in cultivation, that averages of wheat, 
27 bushels to the acre; barley, 38; corn, 48; potatoes, 3£ tons, 
and sugar beets, 9 tons; 215,000 acres of mountainous land pro- 
duce fabulous growths of redwood, oak, fir, and the finest quality 


of all varieties of grapes. Through this mountainous region runs 
a thermal belt, within which frost is seldom seen, even in the 
coldest seasons. As a consequence of the mild climate within 
the limit mentioned, strawberries bloom and ripen in large quan- 
tities in the open air at all seasons of the year; orange trees wear 
a perpetual Every of golden fruit and blossoms, and the delicate 
almond dons its fragrant dress of blossoms in February, when 
other sections of the country are hibernating, waiting for the 


Let us now take a retrospect of another division of pioneer 

labor, in the fields of horti- 
culture, which, though not 
so pretentious in its growth, 
at the same time exercises 
not less abiding influence on 
our well-being. It has been 
said, " Fine fruits are the 
flowers of commodities." A 
tree planted is an heirloom 
for future generations; it is 
a sign of expanded culture 
and civilization ; its shade as 
grateful to the wayfarer as 
its owner, without diminish- 
ing his substance. The Mis- 
sion fathers early planted 
orchards of such kind as it 
was then possible to trans- 
plant from Mexico or Spain; 
they had several varieties of 
pears, a few apples and alm- 
onds. Pomegranates, figs, 
olives and grapes were more 
assiduously cultivated — the 
gTapes,in ashed and f erm en ted 
in large rawhide vats, yield- 
ed an amber juice celebrated 
for its sugary and fruity fla- 
vor. With the expansion of 
settlements, such trees and 
vines were sparsely planted 
by the rancheros. 

On the advent of the 
Americans, fruit of any kind, 
and especially grapes, bore 
... fabulous prices, inducing 

many from the innate love of the occupation, others carried by 
the money point, to bend all their energies, supported by cap- 
ital, untiring industry and perseverance, to obtain from foreign 
countries the choicest and best varieties and acclimate them in 
our midst. Unfortunately, the majority of trees thus obtained 
at exorbitant prices proved worthless, as not true to name, or 
not suited to the climate, or not satisfactory to public taste; 
many were planted in improper locations, some dried up, and 
more were killed by irrigation or overflows. 

The experience now gained in the manner of cultivation, the 
selection of favorable locations, the knowledge of varieties desir- 



able for certain uses, the way of preparing them for market, and 
the ready foreign demand now created for those products, makes 
the venture now certain of pecuniary profit. 

This county, within hail of San Francisco, with the most 
perfect climate, possesses also the richest of soils, and admirable 
locations. Here a slope, basking in the full sunshine, fit to distil 
the sugar-essence of grapes; there a low, moist, cool valley, the 
home of the apple and plum, or a rich, mellow, alluvial soil, 
sheltered, cosy and warm, where the peach blushes as a rose, and 
gives challenge for its sugary juiciness. All this ground, if well 
cultivated, is abundantly watered by the dews of heaven, carried 
on soft wings to this their resting place. The choicest varieties of 
grapes grow to . perfection. Pomegranates, olives, figs and 
almonds'find a congenial home. Oranges require but little shelter 
when young, not more than in Italy or Spain, soon get accli- 
mated, and the golden fruit ripens well. 

Tons of grapes and pears are annually shipped from some of 
the mountain fruit farms of Santa Cruz to Chicago and other 
eastern cities. 



The following account of the Sixth Senatorial District Agri- 
cultural Association is furnished us by Roger Conant:— 

The Farmers' Club was organised at the Court House m 
Santa Cruz on the 6th day of November, 1869, with a member- 
shir) of 18 A Constitution was adopted, and the following 
officers were elected to serve one year: J. S. Mattison, Prudent; 
John Wood, Vice President; Martin Kinsly, Treasurer; and J 
W Morgan Secretary. The meetings of the Club were held 
monthly for the purpose of discussing subjects pertaining to the 

"oletbefmS, the name of the Society was changed 
In jNovemw, , Senatorial District Agn- 

of the State of California^ ^ ^ 

\ § - l^JfJZT^ M^LnTndV Kinsly have 
Roger Conant, Secretly rf ^ society . The 

SST^SltA- B— y of every month, at the 

Court House in Santa Cruz. 


There are five shipping g-- ***** JJ* ££ 
eleven saw mills, ">^%g*^ running, over two 
annually; five tone lata «»P JJ^ o{ ^ in the 

hundred men, produemg the ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 
country, supplying seve fom , lal . ge tanneries turn out 

eapable of unlimited -~, J^ & ^^ „, 

immense quantities o lath > ^ on ft g 

loeated one ^ d ^ e titl connecting with the Felton RB. 

Lorenzo river, with Sid to* » ^ month . a glue 
manufacturing thousand o(^^ OP ^ ^ ^ ^ „ a 

an d chair factory »° ™C mills, all of which are con- 
fuse factory; also f "'" 1 ^ e beet sugar manufactory, makmg 
»tautly employed; aboaJaigc ^B ^ imporfcant f all 

ft. finest ^i^bliBnienteisthe 
these manufacturing esu 

The manufacture of gunpowder is the foremost industry of 
Santa Cruz County. It is conducted by an incorporated com- 
pany, known as The California Powder Works, founded in 

1 Up to that time, Eastern manufacturers, intent upon gain, 
and without other interest in this new mining region, had par- 
celled out the California trade, and combined to extort prices 
sometimes as high as $18 per keg, and that too for powder 
impaired in strength by a six months' sea voyage. 

It having become evident that this severe monopoly retarded 
the development of our mines and discouraged pubhc improve- 
ments, some gentlemen identified with the State, united, under 
the lead of Captain John H. Baird, of San Francisco, to erect 
powder works upon our own soil, to be operated in the interest 
of California. 

Such was the origin of The California Powder Works. 
The works, comprising 21 powder mills, 10 shops, 6 magazines 
and stores, and 35 other buildings, are situated upon the banks 
of the San Lorenzo, commencing half a mile above Santa Cruz 
City, and stretching along the river the distance of a mile. 
Water, for power, is taken from the river yet another mile 
higher and is conveyed to the works through a tunnel pierced 
in°a spur of the mountain. The whole fall of two miles, amount- 
ing to 80 feet vertical, is utilized; and in the summer season all 
the water of the river is diverted through the tunnel. 

This grand motor determined the site of the works, although 
the location possesses other recommendations The San ^Lorenzo 
basin abounds with choice woods for charcoal and w*h tab er 
for construction, for fuel, and for kegs. The equabe climate 
offers an inestimable advantage in the manufacture of powder, 
the finest qualities of which cannot be made at a freezing tern 

^The'ciose proximity of the works, and railroad connections, 
wH* their own wharf and stores at the city front, afford cheap 
transportation, and whilst the facilities of a city are w.thin had 
the intervening hills shelter its inhabitants from the effects of 

eX Thein g ual advantages, combined perhaps at no other pow- 
der works, have been supplemented, under the direction o skill- 
ful engineers, with the latest machinery that science has devised 
and art perfected; and in the administration strict discipline is so 
tempered with consideration that good will animates the em- 
cloves to hearty efforts. 

The results are, that Santa Cruz powder has rescued the public 
from the unconscionable grasp of Eastern manufacturers and 
optically driven them from every field within reach-from 
Site Mexico; from the Ocean to the Rocky Mountains; 
tf at the vast mineral wealth of this slope has been freely devel- 
oped • that stupendous railways have been driven through almost 
^practicable mountains, and that whilst th» rmmense ^service 
W been rendered the public, the Calif orma Powder Works have 
Inched a pitch of prosperity unsurpassed in American industry. 
A area* work crowned with success is a pride of a community 
Tht people of Santa Cruz, proud of their powder works, point 
to hem as a main fcatureof the county. They moreover, form 
^"b panorama, viewed from the highway above; and with- 
in furnish fresh beauties at every turn. 



Visitors find delight in that great valley, whose shady retreats I 
give no token of a hazardous business, or follow with interest 
the many processes by which seven and a-half tons of harmless 
substances are daily converted into terrible gunpowder. 

These processes, selfishly kept secret at many works, lest some 
real or supposed improvement might be transported by rivals, 
are here freely exhibited, although here, with perhaps better 
reason than elsewhere, might secrecy be practiced. 

The mill for glazing mining powder, invented by the Super- 
intendent, contains cylinders, rotating upon hollow shafts, 
through which hot water circulates, and hoth dries and glazes 
iifteen thousand pounds of powder every twenty-four hours, 
never failing to turn out round grain, so polished that it runs 
into a drill hole like quicksilver. Here is a mill that saves two 
days' time in the fabrication of powder, and insures a perfect 
finish, and such a mill is to be seen nowhere else in the world. 
The shortening of the time in powder making, by two days, and 
the omission of one dangerous process — the separate drying — 
mean the saving of human life. The Superintendent, more dis- 
posed to save life than to monopolize the profit of his invention, 
opens his mill to all comers, and explains its operation. 

One of the presses, substituted for the Bramah press, attracts 
especial attention. It is actuated by the weight of a column of 
water, dispensing with pumps. The power can be accurately 
graduated from zero up to three hundred and eighty tons, and is 
applied and withdrawn by the turn of a valve. Whilst this 
mammoth press strikes every visitor with its massiveness and 
precision, its merits, particularly for military powder, are mani- 
fest to the scientific. The desired density once attained, and 
the safety-valve set at the corresponding pressure, each subse- 
quent operation gives powder of the same density, without 
further attention, a uniformity unattainable, with incessant 
care, by the Bramah press. 

We make particular mention of these two mills, because their 
like is not to be seen elsewhere. But all the machinery and pro- 
cesses appertaining to gunpowder — from the distillation of wood 
for charcoal, and the refining of nitre, to the final packing of 
the polished grains in kegs of wood and metal, made upon the 
premises — are of uncommon interest, and we recommend so- 
journers at Santa Cruz to visit the powder works, where 
strangers meet with a polite reception. 



In presenting the dairy interest of Santa Cruz County, I 
represent but a small section, which is devoted exclusively to 
dairying, and extending from the city along the coast to San 
Mateo County line. I .have endeavored to obtain the statistics 
of each dairy, but failed in a few instances. 

In leaving Santa Cruz, we come first to the dairy of Mr. 
Richard H. Hall, of fifty cows, leased to Mr. E. S. West, who 
supplies milk to the city; the product I have not obtained. It 
is called " Natural Bridge Dairy." 

Next we come to the dairy of the Wm. H. Moore estate, of 
100 cows, leased to Mr. E. Bradley. This dairy has produced 
28,000 pounds of cheese and 2,900 pounds of butter, and sold 

5 000 gallons of milk. Mr. Bradley cultivates some beets and 
green corn for feed for his cows, and hay in fall or winter for 
-the cows thus milking, while grass is not plentiful. 

Next comes the dairy of Baldwin & Wilder, who lease to 
Harrison M. Terry, 300 cows; but in the dry season of 1877, 
reduced his number to 260, and in the past year he has made 
from 235 cows, 44,750 pounds of butter, and that season his 
cows were not in as good condition as usual, and this year will 
make more. Mr. Terry cultivates beets and green corn to feed 
in the fall, and in the rainy season stables and feeds hay while 
grass is short. 

Mr. Robert E. Merrill has a small dairy of 20 cows, from 
which I could not obtain the annual product, but for the month 
of May, in flush of feed, his cows averaged 72 pounds of cheese 
per day. Mr. Merrill puts his cows in stable evening and morn- 
ing before milking, during the whole year, and in the dry 
season takes good care of them by giving green feed and hay. 

Then comes Baldwin & Wilder's second dairy, let to Charles 
W. Einch, of 120 cows, milked 112, and sold 16,800 pounds of 
butter. Mr. Finch does not cultivate enough feed to get the 
full benefit of his daily. 

Next is Mr. L. Almstead's dairy, leased to Mr. A. Sylvia 170 
cows, from which he has made 30,000 pounds of butter. Mr. 
Sylvia cultivates corn and beets for the dry season, and Mr. 
Almstead has quite extensively gone into irrigation, which is a 
benefit to the quantity and quality of his butter, as he has green 
grass throughout the whole year. 

Then comes Mr. H. Gushee's dairy of 150 cows, let to the late 
Mr. Warner, and from him we get no report, as by moving, the 
record has been lost. 

Now in order is the ranch of Mr. R. M. Brangon, in charge of 
Mr. Wm. Chalmers. He has milked the past season 180 cows, 
and made 36,000 pounds of butter. Mr. Brangon has stabling 
for 200 cattle, and in the fall and winter he puts his cows in 
stable. Besides using green feed and hay, he uses many tons of 
bran, which shows good care of stock and a large yield of butter. 

The ranch of George P. Laird keeps 177 cows, engaged 
mostly in making cheese, but could not get a report. 

Next comes Z. Moretta, with 78 cows. He has made the 
past season 13,000 pounds of butter, which shows good attention 
to the wants of his dairy. 

Mrs. Archibald, on Scott Creek, has a dairy of 120 cows, 
leased to Adam Gilchrist, and from 108 cows, sold 8,750 pounds 
of butter, and 21, 954 pounds of cheese. He has stable for all his 
cows, and cultivates feed for the dry season, and hay for winter 
or the rainy season. Then we come to the last on the coast, 
in Santa Cruz County, Mrs. Archibald's upper daily, leased to 
Ambrose Geanona, who has 100 cows, from which he has made 
9,088 pounds of butter, and 10,000 pounds of Swiss cheese, the 
past season. He cultivates green feed for his cows, and hay for 
the wet season. 


The expense of cultivating some feed for cows is but little, as 
all dairymen have to employ men in proportion to the number 
of cows milked (about one man to twenty cows), and after the 
milking is done, there is not much other work to employ them 
all. The dairy season usually commences the first of September 
or October, and runs one year from commencement, that being 
the time ranches are leased or date from, and to commence farm 
work for the year ensuing. These ranches are mostly owned 



by men who have been residents of Marin County, and been 
engaged in dairying there. As that is the noted county of the 
State for good butter, and most of us have been engaged in it 
for the past twenty years, we find the climate, grass and tem- 
perature pretty much the same as Marin, which requires a cool 
temperature, fresh, breezy air, good sweet grasses, pure water 
from our numerous springs and streams, and with cleanliness we 
are not excelled in the manufacture of good, sweet butter by 
any place in the State. 

" The product of these eight daries is 161,288 pounds of butter, 
and 59,950 pounds of cheese." 

On a visit to the celebrated dairy of Baldwin & Wilder, we 
obtained the following information in regard to the manufacture 
of this noted butter. Mr ..Baldwin was an old resident of Marin 
county, California, extensively engaged in making butter, which 
was surpassed by none, as is well shown by the butter being 
sold in Washington Market, San Francisco, since 1858. The 
market stall has often changed hands, during this time, but the 
occupants were always anxious to obtain the products of this 
dairy, which was put up in packages of about four and a half 
pounds weight, of square form, and for which, after the first 
two years the owner of the stall always allowed him the highest 
market price and charged no commission. The cash was always 
ready each month for the quantity sent the preceding month. 

His mode of manufacture is, to keep the temperature of his 
milk room so as to have the milk change in about 36 hours, 
after which the cream is taken from the milk before the milk 
gets thick, as he has found by experience that the only way to 
make good, sweet butter, of a fine quality and grain, is to take 
the cream from the milk as soon as the milk is changed. 

Baldwin's mode of manufacture has been to temper his cream 
before churning, by setting the cans near the fire. After churn- 
incr rinse the buttermilk from the butter, and work in salt 
thoroughly the first time it is worked, at the rate.of one pound 
to twenty, and the next day work just enough to mould and 
cloth it, and immediately put in a box ready for market. 

Messrs Baldwin & Wilder have built a dairy-house on the 
ranch occupied by Mr. Terry, which they consider an improve- 
ment upon the old plan of having windows upon the sides. 
Theirs is lit by sky-lights, and ventilates from the top with air 
let in at the bottom. Except when at work, the light is mos fly 
excluded, this-gives more room for setting mJk, and excludes 
flies ! which visit all dairy rooms in summer. They have room 
sufficient for the milk of 250 cows at one time. 

Milk is strained into a large tank in a room outside .where* 
is partially cooled before going into the milk room. From tins 
it I drawn from a faucet extending through a partihon into 
the milk room. The milk is put into ten quart pans set full. 
t \u ^ ■,*♦ nf the season, about 600 pans are set per day. 

Tn! SJdiTto is sufficient for 280 to 300 pounds 
of L^Chi'h is from the cream of one day, and is churned 

K^C^^^^ Ms own priva^brand, 

stamtea upon one end of each package, or square like this, 




All sold without this brand is not genuine. 


On this ranch is the noted Natural Bridge, formed by the 
action of the tide and waves, at some remote time. It will be 
noticed in the view of this bridge, in connection with views of 
the dairy ranch, that it is wide enough for the passage of teams 
over the top of the arch, as shown in picture, while beneath, 
when the tide is high the waves roll under the arch with terrific 
force. At other times people may pass through the archway 
out to the ocean. This bridge will well repay for a visit. 
From the Courier we gather some facts with reference to 
the sugar factory at Soquel, which is converting beets into the 
purest and best of sugars. 

"It is now turning out about 70 centals or 3£ tons daily, 
nearly all of which is shipped to San Francisco. Directly and 
indirectly, about 160 men obtain employment through the 
running of this establishment, and about $75,000 a year is paid 
out in this county by it. The company has $250,000 invested, 
which pays a good dividend. 

" The market for the beet sugar this year is as good as the 
average. The mill is running at full capacity. 5,000 tons of 
beets were raised in the Pajaro valley for the factory. The 
land in that valley seems specially adapted to this culture, in 
some cases yielding as high as 25 tons to the acre, and averag- 
ing 20 all around. At $4.75 per ton, the price paid cultiva- 
tors, the average return from the land in this crop was $95 
per acre. The land is so rich down there that some of the 
beets grew too large, but that can be obviated by planting 
more closely." 


It is beautifully situated on an elevated plateau overlooking 
the bay, and the soil is all that could be desired for a safe and 
fast traek. A dark, rich loam, with sand enough in it to make 
it lively and easy to be cut up by the harrow. The surface is 
level and as smooth as a billiard table, and it is evident that 
the best care is taken of it by the proprietors. 


We copy the following article from the Santa Cruz Courier: 
" The warm belt, so called, is from four to ten miles wide, 
and extends the entire length of our county, containing in all, 
it would be safe to say, 75,000 acres of land, on which could 
be raised all the tropical fruits at any time of the year. 
Probably only about half of this land would serve for cultiva- 
tion. Now ten acres of the ground, rightfully attended to, would 
fully occupy the time of any one family, and it would pay 
them from $100 to $500 per annum for each acre cultivated, 
according to the kind of fruit raised. 

" At least 20,000 people could find homes within this area we 
have mentioned, and if they understood anything about the 
business, would meet with the remunerations we have above 
stated. This is a field that is almost new, is comparatively 
unoccupied at all, it would not interfere with any other inter- 
est now existing in the county, and the harvest from its acres 
would at all times find a ready and remunerative market. 

" It is destined to become known in all parts of the world, 
provided its facilities are utilized. Its early peaches, apples 
and pears could by means of refrigerator cars on fast freight 
trains, be rushed into the eastern markets long before the 
same kind of fruit would have matured in that section, and 



they would bring enormous prices. The strawberries, rasp- 
berries and blackberries growing here in the open air while 
the country east of the Sierra Nevadas is chained in ice and 
wrapped in snow, could be picked a week before Christmas 
and grace the festal boards on the Atlantic shore during that 
holiday. There would be no danger of that line of business 
being overdone, either, as the demand would be illimitable. 

As regards what will grow here, we are told by those 
who have tried it, that everything, from a hardy apple 
or persimmon to an orange or lemon, will flourish and do well 
in the same orchard; almonds, English walnuts and pecans 
will do especially well. Hazel nuts grow wild there every 
year. Now let us see what the different fruits and nuts would 
pay. Estimates on the profits of fruit are based on returns 
obtained by orchardists in Santa Clara Valley. Prunes, per 
acre, $400; Bartlett pears, SG50; strawberries, $300; black- 
berries, $450 to $500; pie plant, $200; asparagus, $500; grapes, 
from $100 to $300; currants and raspberries, 8300; almonds, 
from trees 8 years old, calculating on from 280 to 300 pounds 
per tree, and 100 trees to the acre, $3,000; English walnuts, 
oranges, limes and all such will pay equally as well if not 
better. If so much fruit should be raised that it all could not 
be shipped in its green state to a ready market, fruit dryers 
could be brought into requisition, as the profits by so doing 
would not be in any way decreased. 


Sixteen years ago not a single vineyard was in existence in 
Santa Cruz County. The hills were valued only for the quan- 
tity of good grass and water they could produce for the no- 
madic herds, or for the amount of fire wood, shakes and lumber 
that could easily be taken from them. The favorable climate 
and rich soil finally led to the cultivation of vineyards and 
orchards, however, and now the generous vine covers the 
spot formerly consigned to the perpetual shade of the redwood, 
and the perfume of the orange, almond and peach is dis- 
pelled where the scrub oak and chapparal once flourished in 
their pride. We have no tempests to rive their delicate organi- 
zations. No blighting frosts to nip their tender leaves, no 
scorching sun to parch their blooming loveliness ; but a happy, 
delightful medium of temperature that has no superior. 

Vine Hill is located from 1,000 to 1,200 feet above the level 
of the sea, is subject to no sufficient to injure vegetation 
in the least, and will also produce the finest variety of all kinds 
of choice fruits. Ripe tomatoes have been picked all winter 
from vines growing in the open air. There are in all some ten 
vineyards in the immediate vicinity of Viae Hill that cultivate 
the vine for the market. At any of the cellars all kinds of 
wine will be found, as well as brandy. The total manufacture of 
wine at the vineyards we have mentioned is 81,000 gallons ; but 
in all probability the whole amount made in the county will 
sum up 100,000 gallons. From several of the premises the 
view of the surrounding country is grand in the extreme, some 
of the dwellings occupying dizzy nights that might well be the 
resting places of lordly castles. But the wine-growing interest 
in this county is only in its incipiency. The day is not far 
distant when the stream of purple grape juice flowing from our 
hill sides will only be equaled or surpassed by the perpetual 
mountain streams dashing down the rocky canyons. Of the 
kind of wine now made the market is well supplied, and it 
will only be when the population of the State is much larger, 

or when we can successfully compete with France and Italy in 
quality of wine, that any much greater production of the 
beverage will be stimulated. 


Mount Bache, as it is called by modern writers, is one of 
the third grade of mountains among the sentinels of the Pacific. 
It is in the form of a truncated cone. Its height is given at 
3,780 feet, and is situated about the center of the Santa Cruz 
range of mountains. Its dark form is seen from a long dis- 
tance. The ridge on which it is situated is the' dividing 
water-shed of this range. Its top is covered with brush and 
its sides bristle with tall redwoods. From its summit what 
a grand and magnificent view is presented to the eye of the 
admirer of the beautiful and sublime in nature ! Standing on 
this elevation the eye takes in at one glance the Bay of ' Mon- 
terey and the Gabilan range beyond, and sweeps along the 
coast line on the north side of the bay, and looking north 
and east, the great valley of Santa Clara, the Bay of San 
Francisco and Mount Diablo range are spread out in one 
grand panomaric view, and this same magnificent spec- 
tacle presented itself to the view of the Jesuit Fathers 
a century ago, and they were charmed and enraptured at 
the sight. Father Juanepero Serra standing on an eleva- 
tion overlooking the bay of San Francisco, supposing it to be 
a continuous body of water beyond, exclaimed : " I now thank 
my God that mine eyes have been spared to see the end of 
this goodly land." This elevation is above the thermal belt, 
and at a greater altitude than redwood will grow; the timber 
here is principally pine and oak, and the sandstone formation 


Amongst the fish taken in Monterey Bay are the whale, 
porpoise, shark, blue fish and a great variety of smaller denizens 
of the deep, some of which will tickle the palate of an epicure 
— for instance, a nice "sole" on the iron, or a luscious '"'pom- 
pino." The latter fish is sometimes to be seen in the San 
Francisco market, but loses its flavor in transitu. 

"Whale fishing is carried on to considerable extent in the 
Bay. Most of the whale fisheries are situated on the opposite 
side of the Bay near Monterey. The whalers go, well out to 
sea, in the usual size whale-boats. In the bow of each boat is 
placed a bomb-lance ready for immediate use, and lines and a 
buoy at hand — for as the monster receives his death wound he 
gradually sinks and with him unceremoniously takes the full 
length of line, with the buoy attached, and after selecting the 
safest place in old ocean's bed, his spirit is wafted to some oily 
region where the wicked never go. After a few days his body 
floats, or if it does not float, it is indicated by the buoy attached 
to the rope he took with him. 

The innumerable small streams in the mountains are filled 
with trout, affording the choicest fishing. These same ravines 
are the hunter's paradise, where all kinds of game abound, 
from the quail to the grizzly bear. 


The following description of this beautiful tree, growing so 
plentifully on the Santa Cruz Mountains, we take from the 
columns of the Sentinel : — 

"The Madrona is found in the Coast range of mountains — 
seldom east of this range — from the Mexican boundary on the 

south to British Columbia on the north. It will grow in 
almost any soil, but prefers gravelly ridges and 1 slopes oi moun- 
tains. We often, especially in the latitude ot Santa .Cruz, find 
tee. two or three feet in diameter and forty to fifty feet m 
altitude. Somewhat late in the spring the Madrona sends out 
its flowers They are beautiful and fragrant, and it u a joylul 
thin- to see them so profusely and tastefully hanging m pure 
white enters, as we pass through the forest No wonder 
that Dr. Newberry, on his exploration tour for the Pacific Rail- 
road, should say that it was "one of the handsomest trees 
which I saw at the west." Its fruit is a small, many-seeded 
berry juicy, acid-sweet, somewhat insipid, much loved by 
pigeons squrrels, rats, etc., to say nothing of Indians, who dry 
it sometimes for food. The berries are red when ripe, and are 

qU The°wo a od "ofthe Madrona is valuable for a great many 

things. And doubtless there are uses innumerable, as yet 

undrscovered. The wooden stirrup of the Spanish saddle is 

often made of it, and a wood suitable for such a use must be 

touch and close-grained enough to answer many other pur- 

poses It seldom grows straight. Some of the crooked imbs 

are used to make anchors by binding, them around stones^ 

£™ quantities are brought into market for fuel, or which it 

is .considered by many as equal, if not superior, to the "live 

oak "The leaves have been used successfully in tanning some 

of the lighter skins, and are said to answer the purpose almost 

as well Is sumac, which is brought to our State at a heavy 

ToTee in our forest is more attractive. With bark pol- 
ished and red, with evergreen, varnished leaves ; with branches 
iefudly bending, the Madrona ^ tree to be^ — It 

KSS£2 tZ a t^rU, - Azaleas and May 
twers the Bosebays, and the Cranberries. It is pronounced 
ZZLk which is the name for the "strawberry tree. 


The Sentvnel has compiled the following from the Assessor b 
books for the year 1878:- ^^ 

Money on hand 179,865 

Value of Merchandise - "" 6g9 g 6 

"Wagons, 1,513 "" _ 37,740 

Horses, American, 525..-.- - ■ " 46,378 

Half-breed, 1,327 18533 

Spanish, 1,027 "' 9415 

Colts, 403. " " """■ "" 21,144 

Cows, American, 1,112 - -■- 38,590 

» Mixed, 2,570 
» Spanish, 35.. 

Calves, 859 - 

Stock Cattle, 928.. 
Beef Cattle, 166... 

Goats. 659 

Sheep, 749 

Jacks and Jennies 

Mules, 160 

Oxen, 809 

Hogs, 2 



Business Fixtures 

Musical Instruments, 304 - " " l502 

Wines, gallons, 15,000 » ..... 0,663 

Liquors, 2,826 - 12,825 

Lumber, M. 1,635 " " " 19,439 

Wood, cords, 9,274 ....... 70,950 

Land, acres, inclosed " 20,400 

•« cultivated - - 7,100 

Wheat, acres - ■""" 3,640 

Barley, " ■-- 1,120 

Oats, " " ..."/."----- 1-780 

Corn, " 14 

Buckwheat, acres - 243 

Beans, acres - - 580 

Potatoes, acres - 4,148 

Hay, " " ".. 18 

Hops. " " " ""_ 1,617 

Beets, " - " " " 8,000 

Value of fruit crop ^QOO 

Almond trees - 5 

Olive trees, bearing. . - - 140 

Grapes, acres " " 3,000 

Irrigating ditches, 2 — ..... 350 

Acres irrigated - - - " " 95,950 

Railroads, miles, 3034 - " 2,216 

Telegraph lines, miles, 53 --- 1S,<100 

Estimated population, No 3)5g0 

Registered voters, No... 


The following aptly written description of living in Santa 
Crawls Lt published in the Rural Press, and wntten by a 
lady of Santa Cruz : — , 

«We are havingthe most charming weather that can be 
imagined In fact, we have charming weather aU the time at 
Cla Craz ■ If it rains, it is charming ; such soft, balmy south 
" nds S" me the sweet breath of a little child. Who ever 
Lard of a cold rain at Santa Cruz I Such a thing liveth no 
in'he memory of the oldest inhabitant. The papers say that 
L past winter has been an unusually cold one for California 
but we have had green peas on the table every month foi he 
lit eighteen months, and there has been only three weeks 
"ween March 1st, 1878, to March 1st, 1879, that the vege- 
tate man has failed to bring fresh strawberries for BMe; and 
not a 

d ay during the past winter tf>at he had less than en 













varieties of fresh vegetables in 

his basket, besides salads and 

Butter, pounds, 10,050 ... 1,150 

Cheese, pounds, 13,875 36 g0 

Grain, tons, 164 - 9,141 

Sewing machines, 675 - " "" 11,078 

Watches, 476 - - "' 1,495 


1 . A friend of mine who owns a ranch in the hills five miles 

from town has harvested the third crop of good potatoes from 

"e of land during the year ending March 1st the as, 

crop were volunteers. In my garden, which sets on a hill on 

the ellt side of the river about sixty rods from the bay, the 

tearots fuchias, heliotropes, callas, geraniums, arbut.lons and 

hosts of o her choice flowers, have been in blossom every day 

a w the nast winter. I have a Camellia Japonwa that has 

fl : w fe a ""ntlr in the open garden. My white Brutjman. 

harlot lost a leaf this winter, and they are tender plants^ 

Wno says that we have had a cold winter? We have had 

rooins meadow larks, thrushes, linnets and many other buds 

all th winter to serenade us with their tuneful notes and 

tLeUnot been a sunshiny day this winter but the huin- 

ming W were darting about beautifying the flower garden. 

Situation of the Pajaro Valley. 

Br Ed. Martin, of Watsonville. 

Time in its rapid flight has wrought such magical changes 
that one hardly realizes that the Pajaro Valley of to-day, with 
its well tilled farms, its fertile and well cultivated orchards, 
vi i H*y;i n Is, and the many neat and substantial homesteads 
dotted all through the valley, giving unmistakable evidences of 
taste, thrift, enterprise and industry, was at one time nothing 
but a vast pasture for the wild cattle of the first settlers, the 
native Californians. 

Under the old dispensation the entire valley was devoted to 
the vast herds that roamed at will, through meadows, hills, and 
canons, undisturbed save by the vaqueros, who would at stated 
intervals drive them to the rodeo ground to be selected for 
slaughter or for the purpose of branding. 


Hides and tallow were the principal if not the only articles of 

It is within the memory of some of the oldest native Cali- 
fornians still living here that quite a thrifty business was done 
in hides and tallow with the Russian settlers of Bodega who 
used to visit this section and barter and exchange calico and 
other articles of commerce for the staple products of the valley. 
Although possessing the richest soil to be found anywhere, very 
little farming was done. 

The virgin meadows remained undisturbed. The ground 
yielding bountifully when necessity required a little farming 
done, a fanega of wheat sown, the earth tickled with a plow, 
similar to the kind still used on the banks of the Nile, and illus- 
trated elsewhere in this work, comprised the entire stock of 
agricultural implements. A brush fence, barely affording 
sufficient protection against the cattle, was built to guard the 
growing crop till harvest. "When gathered, away went the 
fence, cattle rushed in and became the gleaners; also tramping 
the seed in the ground prepared it for a volunteer crop. 

Care sat lightly on the native Californians in the days of yore ; 
" they took no thought for the morrow," all was pleasant sailing 
with them. A new era was dawning on them that would 
create a change in their affairs that they little dreamed of. 


In the year, of our Lord, 1851 — "manifest destiny" in the 
shape of an enterprising yankee, J. Bryant Hill, made its 
appearence in the valley. 

This gentleman had heard of the fertility of this section and 
had determined to try his hand at farming. Hill pitched his 
tents on the Salsipuedes Ranch at that time owned by Don 
Manuel Jimend, from whom he had rented about 2,000 acres of 
choice land. 

The following season a splendid crop of barley, wheat and 
potatoes was raised, which commanded enormous prices — barley 
and wheat about ten cents and potatoes sixteen cents. 

To J. Bryant Hill belongs the credit of first bringing the 
valley into notice as an agricultural region. 

In the fall of '52 and following spring large numbers of 
settlers cam.' into the valley, and took possesion of lands on the 
various ranches in regular squatter style. 


The progress in establishing land titles was slow; the suits 
were delayed in the courts for several years, hence improve- 
ments of various kinds were kept back. 

Happily for all concerned, the land disputes were settled a 
few years since and purchasers were secured in their lands and 


Contains 31,000 acres of land all under fence, with exception 
of mountain and pasture lands, and all under cultivation. This 
ranch has some of the finest and most productive land in the 
valley, has abundance of wood and is well watered. 

There are several well improved farms to be found in this 
portion of the valley ; many of them contain orchards that yield 
fruit of all kinds in abundance. The Pajaro river forms one of 
the boundaries of this ranch and the Coast Range of mountains 

Gen. E. D. Baker (who fell at Ball's Bluffs in the civil war) 
once owned an interest in this tract of land, in company with 
Hon. Eugene Casserly, W. F. White and others. 

The principal owners now are W. W. Chittenden, F. D. 
Atherton, Eugene Casserly and P. J. Kelly. The remainder of 
the ranch is divided among some fifty persons owning farms 
from 15 to 200 acres each. 

Eugene Casserly is dividing his land into fifty acre farms, and 
has sold some land recently at S80 per acre. Land on this tract 
is worth from thirty dollars to three hundred dollars per acre. 
At the latter price choice, well improved farms and orchards 
are meant. 

The population on this 31,000 acre tract will not exceed three 
hundred persons all told. 

Crossing the Pajaro river we enter that portion of the Pajaro 
valley lying in Monterey county. Here we find two ranches, 
the Rancho Vega del Pajaro and Bolsa San Cayetano, com- 
mencing at the sand cut on the line of the S. P. R. R. and 
extending to the Bay of Monterey. All this land is under culti- 
vation either by the owners of the respective farms or by tenants. 
First class bottom land in this locality demands from S250 to 
S300 per acre with improvements. Land is rented here at high 


The Southern Pacific railroad depot, Pajaro station, is located 
here, about a mile and a half from Watsonville. This is the 
principal shipping point for this entire valley. 

Railroad communication was established here in November, 
1871, soon after extended to Castroville and Salinas City, then 
to Soledad the present terminus of the S. P. R. R. It has been 
suggested by the people here that the name of the depot be 
changed to "Watsonville Station; travelers on arrival at Pajaro 
are generally confused by the name, not knowing that this is 
the connecting place for Watsonville. 

The Santa Cruz Narrow Guage R. R. connects at Pajaro for 
Santa Cruz and intermediate stations. This road was first 
opened for travel in May, 1876. 




Another shipping point distant four miles from Watsonville, 
at the head of Elk Horn slough, the entrance being on the Bay 
of Monterey at the' mouth of the Salinas river. 

Goodall and Perkins, line of steamers run here regularly, carry- 
ing produce and passengers to and from San Francisco. This 
enterprise was started by Breman & Co., who were the pioneers 
in this business. The shippers in the valley are favored over 
other localities by having water communication open at all times, 
preventing any monopoly of the freight business by other 
carriers, as they can ship freight to San Francisco per railroad 
or by steamer, and by Santa Cruz R. R- 


Crossing the river here brings us back to Santa Cruz county, 
to the " Bolsa del Pajaro." t 

This ranch contains 5,496 acres, and with the exception of 
that portion on which the town of Watsonville . built, is nearly 
all first class bottom land and the best improved portion of the 

'"TTis tract is occupied principally by the pioneer, the old 
settlers of the valley, who take delight in relating then- early 
JS£ their trials, struggles and hardships endured m eariy 
davtand are now proud of their work and are enjoying the 
well dlrved fruits of their industries. We have a shipping 
point on the beach at 


Used very extensively before the completion of the railroads, 
and still doing an active business at harvest time 

Goodall an! Perkins' steamers call at this landing for freight 
a wle and commodious warehouse is used for storing grain and 
otteproduee; a wharf extends into the bay a convenient dis- 
tance, from which the steamers receive cargoes. 


This is also a bathing resort in the summer time. Moonlight 

excursions to the beach, a dance in the "big warehouse by 

anl hght are often participated in by the young folks, who 

cancue iig ^ q{ ^ and frollc Thls 

23LS fivlrnu efLn Watsonville. Leaving the landing we 
cross over to the 


Containing 8,911 acres, about half of which is under cultiva- 
tion the W^ consisting of wood, chapparal and some sw^mp 
W- part of the latter has been recently reclaimed by Titus 
h!' Z wiU in time he very valuable. This tract oHand was 
pranted to Don Joaquin Castro; a large number of his descend 
ante ait hvin. on the ranch yet, are not in very good cu-cum- 
Inces howev°er, as a large portion of the ranch was used up in 

^Interviewed Bon Jose Castro, - -£«-£SE 
SSotKKt^i ^hundred and fifty ac^ 
!f Td 1 ft. A good harvest was reaped by some parties, who 

portions of the ranch rating as high as 8d per acre. 


Known better by the title of the Amesti ranch, granted to 
Jose" Amesti, contains 15,000 acres; joins the San Andreas, Bolsa 
del Pajaro and Sal si Puedes ranches; extends to the summit ot 
the Coast Range of mountains; has good bottom and uplands. 
Prices vary according to locality and improvements, say from 
S10 to $200 per acre. 


A tract of land was thrown into the market a few years ago, 
in the northern portion near the base of the mountains, and was 
soon disposed of at fair prices, ranging from S3 to $10 per acre. 
This is now one of the best portions of the tract and is known 
as Green Valley school district. The scenery here is picturesque 
and romantic, climate is milder, and altogether is a very delight- 
ful retreat. The pioneers of Green Valley deserve credit for the 
energy and enterprise displayed; they have created beautiful 
homesteads and have well tilled farms. As the result of then- 
labors, after a few years privations, they now find themse ves 
surrounded by all the comforts, of civilized life, and are a standmg 
rebuke to the idle and shiftless who are waiting for some one 
else to help them instead of putting their own shoulders to the 


On the Amesti ranch is located the Roman Catholic Orphan 
Asvlum for boys, and the first Catholic church erected in the 
Valley The Asylum is under the control of Francisca Friars 
Rev. Father Coelina being the principal manager Mr. T Cur- 
ran has charge of the school and proves himself a kind and 
capable instructor to the seventy boys under his charge. 

The college and orphans' home is situated on the margin of a 
ma-nificent lake. The grounds are well improved being laid 
in neat walks and surrounded by flower gardens. Ah the work 
about the place is done by the boys. _ 

The dining room and dormitory are large and spacious. On 
a recent visit we inspected the various departments of the insti- 
tution and found everything in good shape. The boys seemed 
happy and cheerful; the rules and regulations of the institute 
are carried out with firmness and kindness. 

A view of this institution is given on another page and 
correctly represents the situation. The lake spoken of near the 
asylum would be a fortune in itself if located near a large city. 
It abounds with perch and other fish, which at certain seasons o 
the year are very edible. Before many yem e apse we expect 
this to be a place of great resort, for rowing, fishmg, and hunt, 

m Thttenery and drives in this immediate vicinity are magnifi- 
cent Leaving this section we will wend our way towards the 
lumber region. Passing through Freedom, a village about two 
miles from Watsonville on the Santa Cruz road, we come to a 
small valley of rich arable land, worth at least SoO per acre. 
W. H. Patterson, a lawyer of San Francisco, owns about a 
thousand acres here. . 

At the Corners, or Cross Roads, W. H. Martins keeps a good 
hotel where the traveler can rest and refresh. 

A short distance from here we strike the town of 


About a mile and a half from the Santa Cruz road and about 
eight miles from Watsonville is the little village of Corra htos. 
\ has a post-office there; also has a two story school house. 



School kept open ten months in the year. Corralitos flour mill 
is located here; run by water power; has two run of stone; 
capacity 100 barrels in 24 hours. 

Water power is furnished by the Corralitos Creek that starts 
from the mountains, runs through the village, winding along 
through the valley and empties into the Pajaro River. The cli- 
mate In this section is milder and freer from the Coast fogs, and 
sheltered from the frosts. 

All kinds of fruit and vegetables are raised here, and are 
brought to market ahead of other portions of the Valley. 

Following the Corralitos Creek towardb the mountains we 
strike a large belt of Redwood timber, from which we draw our 
main supply of timber for building, fencing and other purposes. 

There are four saw mills located in this section representing 
the Watsonville Mill Co., and the Corralitos Lumber Co. 

Each of these mills furnishes employment to twenty-five or 

thirty men. 

In addition to labor employed at the mills, the Redwoods are 
thickly settled by a class of people who live, move and have 
their being in the woods, making pickets, posts, slats, shingles, 
&c., some owning their own claims, others paying a certain 
amount as " stumpage." 


Coal was found in this section and some money expended in 
developing the mine, but the enterprise was abandoned as un- 


The climate is healthy and bracing, neither scorching hot in 
summer nor freezing cold in winter. 

Any person seeking for a good healthy location, where work 
can be done out of doors every day in the year, where the same 
clothino- can be worn summer and winter, where sleep can be 
obtained every night without being disturbed by extreme heat, 
can be accommodated here. 


Apples, apricots, pears, currants, blackberries, and other 
small fruits grow abundantly, and our market is well supplied 
in their season. Fruits of all kinds except peaches do well, 
and are abundant and cheap. 

Hares, rabbits, deer, quails, geese and ducks are numerous in 
this section. Occasionally a grizzly bear can be found, though 
of late years have not been sought for very' extensively. 

Trout is to be found in the various streams, perch in the 
lakes and surf fish at the landings. Flounders, mackerel and 
other of the finny tribe are to be had in the proper season. Oc- 
casionally a whale is driven ashore by stress of weather or 
other causes. 

We do not pretend to say that here are any cheap lands, or 
that farms can be obtained for a song. We have a climate 
that permits work at all seasons of the year, we have one of 
the most fertil soils in the world; we have plenty of wood, 
water and other resources, within our control. The great 
drawback seems to be a lack of capital. The valley abounds 
in capital, most of the farmers are wealthy, many of them in 
independent circumstances. 


We have now made the detour of the Valley and imperfectly 
described the various sections. The Pajaro Valley is from 

twelve to fifteen miles long and has an average breadth of 
seven miles. , , 

Within this small area is one of the garden spots of the world, 
and no lovelier sight can be seen than the Valley at the present 
time of writing. 

Standing on the summit of the Coast Range and taking a 
view of the scene beneath, the waving fields of grain, the elegant 
homesteads, the beautiful orchards, the Lakes shining with 
pristine beauty, the tall Redwood trees standing like sentinels, as 
it were, on the mountain tops, old ocean with the heavy surf of 
the Pacific forever rolling, all these present a scene unequalled 


The Pajaro Valley has had the honor of having several of her 
citizens called to fill places of honor and responsibility. Among 
them we may mention — 

Hon. J. K. Luttrell, member of Congress. He was a pio- 
neer of this Valley and at one time taught the public school. 

Ex-Gov. Blaisdall of Nevada was once a " spud " raiser in 
Pajaro Valley. 

W. W. Stow, the distinguished lawyer, served two terms in 
the Legislature and was once speaker of the House. He was 
elected from this county. 

Hon. Thos. H. Beck, Sec. of State, has long resided near 
Watsonville, which he considers his home. 

At the late Constitutional Convention this Valley was repre- 
sented by three delegates as follows: — 

Daniel Tuttle, W. F. White (Workingmens' candidate for 
Governor),. and Ed. Martin. 

pioneers of pajaro valley. 
The pioneers of this Valley are still too numerous to mention 
all that first settled here; to enumerate their early struggles and 
difficulties, or relate their personal histories would fill a much 
larger volume than this. 

The local history of this Valley is perhaps only a counterpart 
of every other section of the State. We had good seasons and 
bad seasons; good when crops paid big prices and bad when 
produce was low. We have never yet known, however, any 
season that the crop was an entire failure. 

We have a climate that permits work at all seasons of the 
year; we have one of the most fertile soils in the world. 
Nature has been very lavish with her bounties. 
Industry has been well rewarded; with no capital to start on 
but labor and muscle, men have not only acquired a competency 
but have become independent. 

In the struggle of life, here as elsewhere, some have succeeded, 
others have failed. Credit is due to those who have been active 
in building up the town and Valley. 

In works of benevolence and charity some have ever been 
foremost and will be till that work is done. 

To particularise would be a pleasant but difficult task ; some 
have shown more conspicuously than others; each one has per- 
formed his part in this little drama of ours here, for twenty-five 
years past, to the best of his ability ; their works are to be seen 
all around us. 

This closes Ed. Martin's contribution to the History of 
Santa Cruz County, and we here append personal notices of 
citizens of prominence in their respective localities, together 
with descriptions of their homes. 





The "big trees" of Santa Cruz County were the first to at- 
tract attention, and were brought into notice by General 
Fremont, who measured them in 184,6, and gave publicity to 
their existence. Their size seemed incredible, and the report 
was not generally, in the East, relied upon, and they were tor- 
gotten until the discovery of others much larger at a later date. 
The tallest of the Santa Cruz trees is given at 300 feet but is 
not as large in diameter as one only 276 feet high, winch is 62 
feet in circumference four feet from the ground. The top ot 
tins tree has been broken off, and the piece must have been at 
least 25 feet long. In this grove are many fine trees lney 
are situated about eight miles from Santa Cruz, near Eelton, m 
the Coast Range of mountains, and in the vast forests of red- 
woods. The engraving represents one of these trees in winch is 
a hollow forming a large room, in which various parties are re- 
ported to have lived at an early date. Two windows were cut 
through the skies, and a hole for a stove-pipe The entrance 
was closed by a blanket. In this grove, Graham and Ware, 
about 1848, tanned leather by cutting vats out of a fallen red- 
wood tree. These vats still remain, and are each about ten feet 
long, four feel wide and four feet deep. They tanned mostly 
boar and deer skins. Near by is where apit was dug for whip- 
sawing lumber. A visit to this locality will well repay for the 
time, as they are easily reached from San Francisco by the n, ? v 
naiiw-miage railroad to Santa Cruz. There is a small hotel m 
the grove, and every convenience for pleasure parties. 

Hollow Bio Trbb and Hotel near Fulton. 

In this connection, we give accounts of other tag trees of the 
State, by way of comparison, and among the firs to attract 
attention was the Calaveras Big Tree Grove, seated in a gently 
sloping and heavily timbered valley, on the divide or ridge be- 
f^n the San Antonio branch of the Calaveras River and the 
north fork of the Stanislaus River; in lat. 38 degs. north, tog. 
10 min. west, at an elevation of 2,300 feet above Murphy 
Camp and 4,585 feet above the level of the sea, at a distance of 
wTmte from San Francisco, 123 from Sacramento, and 73 

from Stockton. 

When the specimens of this tree, with its cones and foliage, 
we sent to England for examination, Professor Lmdley, an 
eminent English botanist, considered it as forming a new genus 
and accordingly named it (doubtless with the best intentions, but 

still unfairly), " Wellington* gigantea; " but through treph- 
inations of Mr. Lobb, a gentleman of rare botaxnc^l at — £ 
who had spent several years in California devoting .hunsett to 
this interesting, and, to him, favorite branch of study, it is de 
eided to belong to the Tedium family, and must be efeoed 
to the old gmus Sequoia ■mpmma; and, ^™ <** 
is not a new genus, and as it has been properly exaimned and 
classified, it is now known only, among scientific men, as the 
Sequoia gigantea and not - Weffingtonia," or, as some good and 
laudably patriotic souls would have it, to prevent the Engb* 
from stealing American thunder, "Washington gigantea There 
are but two species of this genus, the sequoia, gigantea^ 
Tree- and the Sequoia sempervirens, or California redwood 

With an area of fifty acres, there are ninety-four trees of a 
goodly size, twenty of which exceed twenty-five feet m diameter 
at the base, and, consequently, are about seventy-five feet incur- 

cumference. „ , - f 

Let us first walk upon the » Big Tree Stump, not far fiom 
the hotel. You see, it is perfectly smooth, sound and teveL 
Upon this stump, however incredible it may seem, on the 4th ol 
July thirty-two persons were engaged in dancing four sets ot 
cottons at one time, without suffering any inconvenience what- 
ever; and besides these, there were musicians and lookers-on 
Across the solid wood of this stump, 6* feet from the ground 
(now the bark is removed, which was from 15 to IS mches in 
thickness), it measures 25 feet, and with the bark, 28 feet. 
Think for a moment; the stump of a tree exceeding nine yards 
in diameter, and sound to the very center. There is a frame 
around the stump which forms the base of the house enclosing 
it This is ninety-three feet seven inches in circumference at 
the ground; The spurs in some places projecting beyond the 
frame, while in others they are within it. This tree when stand- 
ing, was 302 feet high. .... . _ ., 

Only a portion of the great trunk remains, and this is partly 
embedded in the soil; yet, from the ground to the upper edge, 
its measure is nineteen feet. _ 

This tree employed five men for twenty-two days m felling 
Uwnot by chopping it down, but boring it off with pump 
augurs After the stem was severed from the stump, the up- 
rightness of the tree and the breadth of its base sustained it m 
its position. To accomplish the feat of Wing it over, about 
two and a half days of the twenty-two were spent in insei m 
wedges and driving them in with the butts of trees, until, ,* £* 
the noble monarch of the forest was forced to tremble and then 
to fall, after braving "the battle and the breeze for ^ nearly 
3 000 years In our estimation it was a sacriligious act, althougn 
it is possible that the exhibition of the bark among the unbe- 
lievers of the eastern part of our continent and of Europe may 
have convinced all the "Thomases " living that we have great 
facts in California, that must be believed, sooner or later ims 
is the only palliating consideration with us for this act of dese- 

oration. . » , . 

Now let us walk among the giant shadows of the forest to 
another of these wonders- the largest tree now standing, which, 
from its immense size, two breast-like protuberances on one 
side and the number of small trees of the same class adjacent, 
has been named « The Mother of the Forest." In the summer 
of 1S54, the bark was stripped from this tree by Mr. George 
Gale, for purposes of exhibition in the East, to the height of 116 
feet;' and it now measures in circumference, without the bark 



at the base, 84 feet; 20 feet from base, 69 feet; 70 feet from 
base, 43 feet 6 inches; 116 feet from base, and up to the bark, 
39 feet G inches. The full circumference at the base, including 
bark, was 90 feet. Its height was 321 feet. The average 
thickness of bark was 11 inches, although in places it was about 
two feet. These measurements were given us by Mr. J- L. 
Sperry. This tree is estimated to contain 537,000 feet of sound 
inch lumber. To the first branch it is 137 feet. The small 
black marlcs upon the tree indicate the points where two and a 
half-inch augur holes were bored, into which rounds were in- 
serted, by which to ascend and descend, while removing the 
bark. At different distances upward, especially at the top, 
numerous dates and names of visitors have been cut. It is con- 
templated to construct a circular stairway around this tree. 
(When the bark was being removed, a young man fell from the 
scaffolding— or, rather out of a descending noose— at a distance 
of 79 feet from the ground, and escaped with a broken limb. 
We were within a few yards of him when he fell, and were 
agreeably surprised to discover that he had not broken his neck). 

Calaveras Bio Thee. 

Now the lifeless and desolate form of this noble tree, bereft of 
its foliage and glory, stands at once an object of pity, as of re- 
proval, to the vandal hands that wrought its destruction. 

Respecting the age of these trees, there has been but one opinion 
among the best informed botanists, which is this, that each con- 
centric circle is the growth of one year; and as nearly 3,000 con- 
centric circles are said to have been counted in the stump of the 
fallen tree, it is correct to conclude that these trees are nearly 
3,000 years old. " This," says the Gardener's Calendar, " may 
very well be true, as it does not grow above two inches in diame- 
ter in twenty years, which we believe to be the fact." 

It is to be regretted that many names have been attached to 
trees of men who have never given their personal history to the 
world in noble deeds, or in great works, to benefit our race. 
The marble slabs, or n e fastened up, now wrested off and broken, 
tell their own expressive story, how injudicious friendship may 

sometimes consign the names of those they wish to honor to 
justly merited obloquy and derision. 

The following personal notes of different trees in this grove 
were made in the summer of 1S76: — 

At the entrance of the Calaveras Grove stand two fine trees 
named " The Sentinels," between which the road passes to the 
hotel. The one on the western side measures 69 feet in circum- 
ference at the ground, and 53 feet 6 inches above it. Height, 
270 feet. This illustrious pah- stand about 18 feet apart at the 
base, while then- natural leaning toward each other causes their 
tops to meet and interlace. 

The " Beauty of the Forest," from its symmetrical trunk and 
graceful foliage, is well named. This measures at the ground 
to feet, and five feet above it, 42 feet in circumference. Height, 
263 feet. 

The prostrate trunk of the " Father of the Forest," although 
limbless, without bark, and even much of its sap decayed and 
gone, has proportions that still prove that at one time he was 
king of the grove; and although fires have burned out much of 
his heart, and consumed his giant limbs, the following measure- 
ments will prove that " there were giants in those days," and 
which even in death " still live." 

From its roots to where the center of the trunk can be reached, 
it is 90 feet. The distance that one can ride through it on 
horseback, is 82 feet 6 inches. Height of horseback entrance, 
9 feet 4 inches; of arch to floor, 10 feet 9 inches. Across the 
roots it is 28 feet; to where one would have an idea of standing 
to chop it clown, 23 feet 2 inches; 10 feet from the roots its 
diameter is 20 feet 8 inches; 100 feet from roots, 12 feet 1 inch; 
150 feet from roots, 10 feet 4 inches; extreme length to where 
any sign of top could be found is 365 feet. When standing, 
this noble tree must, with its foliage, have exceeded 375 feet in 
height. When it fell, one of its branches, three feet in diame- 
ter, struck " Hercules " — 250 feet distant — and made an em- 
brasure that is still visible. 

Measurements were also made of " Hercules," " Pride of the 
Forest," " William Cullen Bryant," " Pioneer's Cabin," " George 
Washington," "Keystone State," (this latter named is " the tall- 
est living tree found on the American centinent," as it measures 
325 feet in height), and several others, but the above will give 
an approximating idea of their wonderful size. 


For several years after the discovery of the Sequoias of Cala- 
veras had astonished the world, that group was supposed to be 
the only one of the kind in existence. But, during the latter 
part of July, or the beginning of August, 1855, Mr. Hogg, a 
hunter, in the employ of the South Fork Merced Canal Com- 
pany, saw one or more trees of the same variety and genus as 
those of Calaveras growing on one of the tributaries of Big 
Creek, and related the fact to Mi-. Galen Clark and other 
acquaintances. About the first of June, Mr. Milton Mann and 
Mr. Clark were conversing together on the subject at Clark's 
Ranch, on the South Fork of the Merced, wdien they mutually 
agreed to go out on a hunting excursion in the direction indi- 
cated by Mr. Hogg and Mr. Clayton, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining definitely the locality, size and number of the trees men- 
tioned. On the summit, of the mountain, about four miles from 



Clark's, they saw the broad and towering tops of the mammoth 
trees— since known as the " Mariposa Grove "—and shortly 
afterward were walking among their immense trunks. A par- 
tial examination revealed the fact that a second grove of trees 
had been found that was far more extensive than that of Cala- 
veras, and many of the trees fully as large as those belonging to 
that world-renowned group. 

Now, although the distance up and back again, including tta 
detour of the groves, is 12 miles, as a good trail is made on the 
grade of a future wagon road, the 2,500 feet of altitude to be 
overcome will not be a very difficult task. Passing the grassy 
meadows of the Big Tree Station, we commence the ascent of a 
well timbered side hill, up and over low ridges, covered in the 
early summer with wild flowers, until at last, with gratified 
pleasure, we welcome the first sight of the grove. Once there, 
who can describe its long vistas, its immense tree stems, extend- 
ing hither and thither ; now arched by the over-hanging branches 
oAhe lofty Sequoias, then by the drooping boughs of the white- 
blossomed dogwood. How regret fills the heart, while lingering 
among such thrilling scenes, that the Indians, in years that are 
passed, should have set fire to these magnificent groves, so that 
even now burned stumps of trees frown down upon us as we 
gaze. Indeed, many of the largest and noblest looking, eke- 
where as well as here, have been badly deformed from this 
cause. Still, beautiful groups of from three to ten m each, and 
others standing alone, are quite numerous. 

Professor J D. Whitney, when State Geologist, measured 

nearly the whole of the trees in this grove and from whom we 

glean the following: « The grant made by Congress tc » tie State 

I two miles square, and embraces in reality two distinct, oi 

nearly distinct, groves. The upper grove is in a pretty compact 

bdyf containing, on an area of 3,700 by 2,300 feet in dimen- 

ZL iust 365 toes of the Sequoia gigantea, of a diameter of 

S>t and over, besides a great number of smaU ones _ The 

lower grove, which is smaller in size and more scattered, lies m 

alouthwesterly direction from the other -- e * rees S r °™| 

q rite hi"h in the gulches on the south side of the ridge which 

ZZrtL the two groves. Several of the trees in this grove 

have bTen named, some of them, indeed, half a dozen times; 

toareno names, however, which seem to have become cur- 

rent « is the case in the Calaveras Grove. The average size of 

Inezes in this grove is greater than those of Calaveras (th 

Prof Zr had not seen the South Park Grove), and the he lg ht 

fi There is a burnt stump on the north side of the grove 

i 11 crnne but indicating a tree of a size perhaps a httle 

n :HT^t:^ S here. T k e« y? ^ 

Sosa Grove has been sadly marred by the ravages of fire, winch 

STeSy swept through it again and agam, almost rummg 

nas eviafmy V ^ appearance of the 

IZ — £d and impost There are about 125 

the ™ve where probably they have been destroyed by fir, 
Arofnd the base of several of the large trees, on the outskirts o 
Around tn o Nations of young Sequoias of all 

^ZCZo ^ inches in diameter, but only a few as, up to sue or e, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

large as tins. J«<* fa the full symmetry f a vigor- 

and «^™^^, ^although not asstupendous as the 


The southern division of the Mariposa Grove, or Lower 
Grove as it is usually called, is said to contain about half as 
many trees as the one just described. The largest tree m the 
Lower Grove is the one known as the Grizzly Giant (we chris- 
tened it Grizzly Giant eighteen years ago), which is ninety-two 
feet seven inches in circumference at the ground, and sixty-four 
feet three inches at eleven feet above. Its two diameters at the 
base, as nearly as we could measure, were thirty and thirty-one 
feet The calculated diameter at eleven feet above the ground 
is twenty feet nearly. The tree is very much injured and de- 
creased in size by burning, for which no allowance is made m 
the above measurements. Some of the branches of this tree we 
fully six feet in diameter. This tree, however, has long since 
passed its prime, and has the battered and war-worn appear- 
ance conveyed by its name." _ 

By a table given, the " largest tree in the grove is twenty- 
seven feet in diameter, but all burned away on one side, and 
the "highest 272 feet," or fifty-three feet less than the tallest in 
the Calaveras Grove, which is 325 feet high. 

« The -roup of trees consisted of many of peculiar beauty and 
interest. One of those, which measured 100 feet in circumfer- 
ence, was of exceeding gigantic proportions, and towered up 300 
feet- yet a portion of its top, where it was apparently 10 feet in 
diameL, had been swept off by storms. Whfie we were meas- 
uring this tree, a large eagle came and perched upon it em- 
blematical of the grandeur of this forest, as well as that of our 

C °^Near by it stood a smaller tree, that seemed a child to it, 
yet it measured 47 feet in circumference Not far from it was 
I group of four splendid trees, 250 feet high, which we named 
the Four Pillars, each over fifty feet in circumference. Two 
gigantic trees, 75 and 77 feet in circumference, were named 
Washington and Lafayette; these were noble trees. 

ThiTLve of mammoth trees consists of about 600, more or less. 
It must not be supposed that these large taxodiums monopkze the 
one mile by a quarter of a mile of ground over which they are 
sXed- as some of the tallest, largest, and most graceful of 
u^ pines and Douglas firs we ever saw, add their beauty of 
fofm and foliage to the group, and contribute much to the impos- 
ino- grandeur of the effect. 

These are of the same genus (Sequoia, gigantea) as those of 
CatTras Mariposa, and other groves, many fine specimens of 

S the coach/but none ean realize their '-ge proportron.-th- 
out standing up against one, or walking around it. Besides, it 
r"to Ilk a little, and adds mueh to the interest to touch 
^nolous sides. There are about »i.^ 
proportioned, and excellent representatives of the lass_ Two oi 
them which grew from the same root, and unite a few feet above 
the b'Je, are'called - The Siamese Twins." These are about 114 
feet in circumference at the ground, and consequently about 38 
eet in diameter-of course, including both. The bark has been 
cut on one side of them and has been found to measure 20 inches 
^thickness. Near the "Twins" are two others which measure 
74 feet around their base. There is one black stump stil send- 
ing that must have once belonged to a tree not less than 100 feet 
u/circumference, as only a portion of one side remains, ye hat 
measures 30 feet S inches across it, without the bark. There rs 



no more convincing evidence of size than this in either of the 
groves- '-if we except the "Stump" at Calaveras. Within a few 
yards of this grows one of the finest representative of this won- 
drous family to be found, 

Tuolumxe Bio Tree. 

In this grove is the only tree in the world where a stage coach 
loaded with passengers is able to pass through. The archway is 10 
feet wide by 12 feet high, and yet leaves 10 feet 6 inches on one side 
the arch, and 10 feet 2 inches on the other. The tree, when in 
its prime, was 120 feet in circumference, and was, without doubt, 
the largest in circumference in the world. The diameter of this 
tree was over 40 feet; the stump, still standing, without any bark, 
is 30 feet S inches in diameter. 

In order to enable tourists to see these forest monarchs, the 
Coulterville and Yo Semite wagon road was built directly through 
the grove. Dr. J. T. McLean informs us that " there are 50 
Sequoia trees, small and large, here; fully 25 of which are from 
45 to 80 feet in circumference. The large trees are wonderfully 
beautiful and well preserved, retaining their enormous size for 
from 150 to 200 feet of their height; and are as magnificent 
specimens of vegetable growth as are to be found in the world, 
only two or three of the number being injured, and only one 
prostrated, by fire. To those whose time is limited, there are 
many advantages in riding in carriages directly through these 
truly remarkable groves." 


About sis miles from the Calaveras Grove, in a southeasterly 
direction, stands the above named magnificent group of Big Trees. 
It is probably the finest, as it is one of the largest in the State, 
containing 1,380 Sequoias over a foot in diameter. As the 
route thither is also very picturesque and interesting, let us pay 
it a visit. 

By an easy trail, with ah sorts of picturesque turnings upon 
it, the North Fork of the Stanislaus River is crossed. This is 
the dividing line between Calaveras and Tuolumne counties, 
giving the South Park grove to the latter county, Now we 
wind up to the summit of the Beaver Creek ridge, and soon 
descend again to Beaver Creek (where the trout fishing is 
excellent), and from this point wend our way to the lower end 

of the grove. Here the altitude above sea level is 4,635 feet, 
and the upper end 5,115. 

The immense number of Big Trees from 10 feet to nearly 100 
feet in circumference, in all kinds of postures and conditions 
become almost bewildering. To give the size of each seen (and 
we measured many), would simply be tedious, so a few examples 
will suffice: 

The "Massachusetts" measured 84 feet in circumference; the 
"Ohio," 81 feet 6 inches; "No Name," 91 feet; "Grand Hotel" 
(the hollow trunk of this tree will hold 40 persons), 93 feet; 
" Noah's Ark," 90 feet. (This, when standing, exceeded 320 
feet in height. It is hollow for nearly 150 feet; and with a 
little cleaning out, one could ride through it that distance). 
" Adam and Eve " we did not see, but was assured that "Adam" 
measured 103 feet 4 inches, 3 feet from the ground; and that 
" Eve" was nearly as large, with a breast-like swelling about 7 
feet in diameter at 150 feet from the ground. Both of these 
are very thrifty and well preserved trees. Then there is " Old 
Methuselah," a large, dead tree, still standing and defying the 
storm. Just above this is a hollow tree that has held (we are 
told) sixteen horses within the trunk, and measures 88 feet 6 
inches in circumference. 


The following account of a tree in Tulare county is taken 
from the Stockton Herald of September, 1878; — 

" Messrs. McKiernan, Manley and Hubbs, of Yisalia, shipped 
from Tulare City this morning, a section of one of the largest, 
if not the largest, of all the big trees that have yet been dis- 
covered in California. The tree from which this section was 
taken was 111 feet in circumference at the butt, and stood 250 
feet in height, at which elevation it was broken off. At the 
breaking-off place it was 12 feet in diameter. These gentlemen 
have been at work getting this section ready for exhibition for 
nearly a year. This section is 14 feet in height, and was cut from 
the body of the tree 1 2 feet from the ground, the base being so 
irregular in form, the irregularity extending up from the roots, 
that it was expedient to take the lowest party, jAt the distance 
of 12 feet from the ground the tree was 26 feet 6 inches in 
diameter, this being the diameter of the base of the section ex- 
hibited. The top of the tree, or stub, as it really was, was felled 
26 feet from the ground, the labor of felling it occupying four 
men nine days, with axes. It made a noise when it came down 
that reverberated through the mountains like a peal of thunder. 
The work of taking out the section which is exhibited was then 
commenced from the top. The men dug the inside of the tree 
out with axes, these tools being the only ones that could be used 
to advantage. The wood was left 6 inches thick, exclusive of 
the bark, which ranges from 3 to 10 inches in thickness. The 
diameter of the tree where it was felled (the diameter of the top 
of the section that is to be exhibited), is 21 feet feet. This shell 
was sawed down, making fifteen gigantic slabs. This tree stood 
six miles away from a public road, and a road was built this 
whole distance in order to get this section of the tree out. Each 
slab made a load for eight horses. The whole fifteen make two 
car loads, y The owners of this great natural curiosity will ex- 
hibit it in this city during the Fair, after which they will travel 
through the State, thence through the East to Europe. This 
tree is claimed to be four feet larger in diameter than any other 
tree that has been discovered on the coast. 


By Wat. H. Hobbs, Superintendent. 

Santa Cruz, although one of the smallest counties in the 
State in extent of territory, ranks eleventh in the number of 
school census children. The number of school districts in the 
county, and the law giving §500 to each district having not 
less than fifteen census children, brings a free school for about 
eight months in the year, within the reach of almost every 
family in the county, while in the more thickly settled por- 
tions ten months' school is maintained. Thus do the children 
of the county, even in the more sparsely settled localities, en- 
joy school advantages afforded in but few of the older States. 
"While in other parts of our country the cities, towns, and vil- 
lages can boast of their efficient teachers and prosperous schools., 
the country schools in none of them can compare with the 
country schools in California, and the schools of Santa Cruz 
are among the best in the State. And our school facilities, 
together with our increased means of communication, our cool 
an°d invigorating climate, our productive soil, not only in our 
lovely valley, but extending almost to the very summit of most 
of our mountains, is attracting to our county a very desirable 
class of settlers. 

In no part of the State is the climate so well adapted to 
mental exertion. The body is not enervated by the heat of 
summer or chilled by the cold blasts of winter. The mind is 
buoyant and active, and capable of great exertion with but 
little fatigue. While in many parts of the State schools can- 
not be maintained with benefit during several months of the 
summer season, here we have no such drawbacks. The invig- 
orating climate, varied scenery of mountain, plain and sea, 
afford °crreat advantages, and especially to the student of natu- 
ral history Our county is so desirable as a place in which to 
establish homes and revive the exhausted energies, that we 
can always procure the best teachers without paying the high- 
est salaries. Our schools are continually improving. From a 
small beginning, they have in a few years become equal to those 
"older commfnitiel In 1851, Santa Cruz had but 200 cen- 
sus children and in 1861 there were but seven school districts 
in the county. Now we have 37 districts, more than sixty 
schools, and about three thousand eight hundred census 

In the early days of California our schools were supported 
in a great measure by subscriptions and rate bills; each pupi 
would pay tuition according to the number of days in actual 
attendance. Although the poor were not expected to pay this 
rate bill kept many children from school, a part of the time 
at least during which school was maintained, making attendance 
very irregular and advancement slow. Only in the most thickly 
settled portion of the county were schools maintained more 
than three months in a year, the time required by the Consti- 

For several years the school law allowed the division of the 
school fund among sectarian schools, under certain conditions, 
but this was distasteful to a great majority of the people of 
the State, and statutes were soon enacted, devoting the school 
fund exclusively to the support of the public schools, free from 
sectarian influences. And the New Constitution has probably 
put this question to rest forever. 

Although our schools were for years weak 'and inefficient, 
the American idea., that a Republican form of government and 
tfie welfare of the masses depend upon a popular system of 
education, did not allow the people to rest satisfied until a 
good education was within the reach of every child in the 

The people of this county have always contributed liberally 
for the support of schools, and to-day the school tax, although 
it has increased from a few hundred dollars to become one of 
the most important items of county expenditures, notwith- 
standing the great financial embarrassment and scarcity of em- 
ployment, is met with less dissatisfaction than taxes levied for 
any other purpose. The young must be educated. 

In 1854 the county school tax was 5 cents on S100 taxable 
property. In a few years this amount was increased to 10 
cents. In 1861 the rate was 25 cents, 30 in 1865, and from 
1866 to 1870, 35 cents, while in 1870 and 1871 the rate was 
even 60 cents; since that time the lowest rate has been 15 
cents and the highest 32£. 

Of course there have been numerous changes in the school 
law during the development of our school system. Part of the 
time the County Clerk has been ex-officio County Superintend- 
ent, but most of the time the office of County Superintendent 
has been separate and distinct. 

The amount of State Fund is less this year than last, but 
the increase in the State Fund up to, and including last year, 
accounts for the decrease in the county rate. 

The law now requires the State to raise not less than seven 
dollars per census child, and the county to raise not less than 
three dollars, which produces a liberal sum for the support of 
schools, and California to-day standi among the very first of 
States in the amount of money raised for school purposes. 

Our schools do not depend entirely, for their future useful- 
ness and success, upon Constitutions or State laws. They de- 
pend upon the spirit and energy of the American people. The 
firm belief in the principle that it is not only the duty, but to 
the best interests, of the State to give to each and every child 
within its borders a good common school education, will not 
surfer those schools to be injured, or their usefulness impaired. 
They will always be granted a liberal support. 



iS^T^^n^e^ple suffer the schools 
of higher grade to be neglected. The cry raised against them 
b spasmodic and ineffective; as a business proposition the sup 
port of High Schools in our larger towns is wise and econom 
L The acknowledged efficiency of our schools, and the 

Mutation they have abroad, causes many to make 

their tmes among us. The investments of money made on 

a Znt, and the increased valuation of property from 

Wal more than compensates for the extra expense o, 
teaching the higher branches, and snpportmg efficient 


To a man with a family to educate, seeking a home 

that his children can have the benefit of good schools that 
h y can pass through all grades, from the pr^^ 

HM. School, and remain all the time under paternal ca , 

without the change and expense of leaving home, is no small 


This has been one great cause of the prosperity and rapid 
gro"the city of' Oakland. And this, together with the 
other great advantages Santa Cruz 
thilofe of the most prosperous counties in California 

Perhaps nothing would better show the steady increase in 
schoo matters during the last fifteen years than a tew statistics 
taken from the annual report of the County Superintendent :- 


^Seous statistics of the schools. 

Average monthly wages paid male teachers, 

Average monthly wages paid female teachers — - 

Brecon hand beginning of school year, J™ ^ 


Hi 2 Q 

the idea 

30, 1877 

Amount received from county taxes 
Amount received from poll tax 


Amount received from State appoi 

tionmeut 29,394.77 

Amount received from other sources. 


county affords, is making 

Total receipts from all sources 

Amount paid for teachers' salaries - *<** 

Amount paid for rents, repairs, fuel, etc --- 

Amount paid for school libraries 

Amount paid for apparatus. - 

Amount paid for sites, buildings and school farm- 
ture - 







IN 1865. 

Number of Schools in this county was.. 

Number of school census children 

Amount of money received from State 
Amount of mouey received from county taxes 

Total expenditures for school purposes 

Valuation of school property - 


Fund - - S 2 ' 528 


IN 1870. 

Number of schools.. 

Number of school census children. . . 
Amount of money received from Stat 
Amount of money received from county taxes 

Total expenditures for school purposes 

Valuation of school property 



Fund 57,711 




IN 1875. 


Number of schools - - 

Number of school census children '' ' 

Amount of money received from State Fund $24,668 

Amount of money received from county taxes. 15,731 

Total expenditures for school purposes 61 ' o!>7 

Valuation of school property - 


Probably 1880 will not show the same increase in many re-^ 
spects. Total expenditures increase faster than the number of 
schools or the number of school census children. This is due, 
reat measure, to the fact that the average time schools 

in a gi 

Total expenditures 

Balance on hand June 30, 1878. 



In addition to our public schools there are several flourishing 
private institutions of learning in Santa Cruz and Wafaon- 
,;ii. Am nmr the most notable of these is the school of the 

ville. Among the most no 
Holy Cross at Santa Cruz 


maintained was considerably increased. 


In conclusion, we confidently claim for Santa Cruz county, 
schools as effective and prosperous as can be found in any part 
of the country, with teachers as devoted and capable, and 
pupils as studious and obedient. 

State Superintendent Carr says: "In no other State are 
teachers so well paid as in California, and so justly, according 
to service rather than sex. Massachusetts pays her male 
teachers an average salary per month of eighty-eight dollars 
and thirty-seven cents ; her female teachers thirty-five dollars 
and thirty-five cents. California pays her male teachers 
eighty-four dollars and ninety-three cents; her female teachers 
sixty-eight dollars and one cent. And in no State, it is be- 
lieved, in proportion to its age, resources, and population, have 
the educational provisions been more liberal, more wisely ad- 
ministered, or more equal and lasting in their benefits." . 

It is a safe assertion, that bettor disciplined and more har- 
monious schools are not to be found in California. This agreeable 
state of affairs is owing to the fact that the teachers respect each 
other, and work harmoniously together, and are ably supported 
by the Trustees. 

This closes the article on schools, furnished by County 
Superintendent W. H. Hobbs, and on the following pages we 
give some valuable statistics prepared by him. 





Sehool Property of Santa Cruz County, California. 


W. H. HOBBS, Superintendent. 

Name of District. 

Agua Puerca . . . 


Bald Mountain, 

Bay View 

Bean Creek 

Boulder Creek. 






Green Valley... 

Happy "Valley . . 

Hazel Brook . . . 

Highland Hill- ■ • 



Live Oak 


Newell Creek.. 


Powder "Works. 



Rocky Ridge . . 
San Andreas . . 

Santa Cruz 

San Vicente . - . 
Scott's Valley- 




Union ■ 

Vine Hill 

Number of Children between 
Five and Seventeen Years of 










































S § *1 

0! - -j 

a gv 





Total ^JjHi 

Number of Children who have 
attended Public School at any 
time during the Tear. 

1788 ' 3704 






















































i 20 





















.2 m m - S 


> nt W fe 

624 1358 | 2962 l| 1718 













> ai -C 


















Av. 8£|$ 85,900 \% 




> _ u 

■a ° S. 
t. c c- 





























$ 1,125 


S 92,876 





Public Schools of Santa Cruz County, California. 


W. H. HOBBS, Superintendent. 


Agua Puerca . . , 


Bald Mountain . 

Bay View 

Bean Creek. . . . 
Bonlder Creek . . 





Davenport .... 


Green Valley . . 
Happy Valley. 
Hazel Brook. . - 
Highland Hill. 



Live Oak 


Newell Creek . . 


Powder "Works. 



Rocky Ridge . . 
San Andreas . . 
Santa Cruz 
San Vicente . - - 
Scott's Valley - 




Sunnyside. . - . 


Vine Hill . ■ ■ ■ 

^ a 



1,508 82 

$223 00 

T62 70 

223 00 

1,191 30 


§277 00 
371 50 
277 00 
684 50 

B 2- 

§656 10 

1,872 27 

500 00 

3,384 62 

§444 45 

1,038 92 

500 00 

1,788 12 

§211 65 
831 35 

1,596 50 























§20,730 61 

557 10 
223 00 
223 00 
223 00 

1,247 84 
138 00 
716 44 
649 62 
223 00 
223 00 
223 00 
223 00 
223 00 
525 98 
520 84 
223 00 

5,921 70 
223 00 
223 00 
593 OS 
223 00 
557 66 

8,854 28 
223 00 
495 42 
223 00 

1,779 24 
384 43 
223 00 
4S5 14 
223 00 

29,394 77 

335 50 
277 00 
277 00 
277 00 
G9 4 40 
162 00 
363 40 
351 70 
277 00 
277 00 
277 00 
277 00 
277 00 
328 30 
327 40 
277 00 

3,064 36 
277 00 
277 00 
341 80 
277 00 
339 10 

7,814 71 
277 00 
324 70 
277 00 

1,025 40 
197 10 
277 00 
322 90 
277 00 

,18,562 00 




















§72,160 I.'. 

588 85 
473 30 
501 00 
650 50 

2,092 70 
351 05 
992 90 
883 77 
432 90 
536 36 
447 40 
539 56 
401 71 
764 00 
652 07 
458 90 

9,876 62 
498 15 
443 50 

1,058 03 
345 32 

1,387 37 

17,596 17 

573 63 

576 94 

472 22 

3,117 62 
413 95 
555 50 
825 46 
60S 38 

420 21 
166 85 

335 41 

870 33 

9 77 

4S4 69 

766 27 

88 54 

34 59 

62 79 

82 05 

145 96 

500 85 

783 07 

112 59 

2,691 91 

26 S5 
2S2 97 

1,350 13 
154 6S 
487 60 

4,693 45 
519 00 
321 49 

27 78 
633 72 
553 81 

22 15 
407 79 
109 76 

§52,887 40 

§19,272 75 




The first steps toward the organization of this school and 
district, were taken in the year 1868- 

The initial steps were to determine whether a school house 
should be built or not, and if so, where, of what dimensions, 
and for what purposes other than school it might be used. 

Accordingly, a meeting of the residents of the valley was 
called and held at the house of F. Ketchum, on the 13th or 
August, 18G8. At this meeting, N. A. J. Dorn and F. Ketchum 
were chosen to act as a committee in soliciting subscriptions 
and contributions for building purposes. 

It was decided that the building should be for school and 
meeting purposes. 

The site of the school-house was located on a small mil, 
about 300 yards south of F. Ketchum's house, on the New 
County Road leading from Whisky Hill (now called Freedom), 
to Mr Parker's, on the De Roe Ranch. The dimensions of the 
house when first built were 30x24, and 12 feet high, and was 
not very elegantly finished nor furnished. There were no 
ante-rooms attached to it. 

The names of the contributors are as follows : J. Gathers 
eave the lot, which contains one acre: N. A. J. Dorn, H. M. 
Buck J F. Mundell, R.H. Pearson, C. Doyle, F. Ketchum, Wm. 
Arrnpriest, Lewis & Co., Brownston & Co., E. Ferguson, E. 
Ketchum, C. Butric, Brown & Williams, Wbl H Jinkins J. 
Rich, J. W. Aldrich, E. Tindall, Orton & Co., C. A. Molls, Jno. 
Donahue and C. Culetz. 

The Green Valley District was created by an act ot the 
Board of Supervisors, on the first Monday in August, 1868 by 
a division of the Oak Grove District into two parts. The 
western portion in time was given the name of Corrahtos Dis- 
trict N A. J. Dorn, Wm. Armpriest and R. H. Pearson were 
appointed Trustees by the County Superintendent H. E. 
Makinney, to hold until the last Saturday, of June, 1S69. N. 
A J Dorn was chosen Clerk of the Board. 

W H Hobbswas employed as the first teacher, November 
SO 1868 Thus the Green Valley School was organized and 
set on its way. The results of its work will compare favor- 
ably with other country schools throughout the State. 

In due time, additions were made to the building and a 
new and improved style of furniture put into it, and a fine 
Ublry, chart and globe were purchased, the school-yard 
fenced and ornamented, and a house for the teacher to live in, 
built in the school-yard. , 

Among those who have attended this school smce its organi- 
zation appear the names of Miss Ettie Dorn, who graduated 
atlhe St'ate Normal School in 1878, and Marcelus Dorn, who 
m-aduated at the State University in June, 187 J- 
^tlg those now attending school, who bid fair to become 
finished scholars at no distant day are the names of Miss 
Helen Steuart, Miss Lulu Dorn and Fred Dorn. 

The people of this little valley are an industrious, enterpns- 
in.ll of people, keenly alive to the importance o educa- 
"o°n and will allow nothing to stand between them and success. 
Thames of persons who have taught in this school, are as 
follows- 1. W H. Hobbs; 2 H. K Rohrbeck ; . Miss HiU. 
4 Mr.Bepler; 5. Miss Powell ; 6. A P. Bamn; 7. R A- Mm 
ton; 8. Miss M. O. Toothaker: 9. W. T. Haley; 10. W. R 
Wilson ; 11. J- M. Doty. 

The school is now in a nourishing condition, numbering 
about forty scholars, and has a range of study from the chart 
to some of the high school studies. A flattering prospect is 
before us, and nothing is more certain than that the influence 
of this school will be felt in many places outside of Green 
Valley. Mr. J. M. Doty, our present teacher, is giving univer- 
sal satisfaction ; scholars are making rapid progress, and the 
day is not far distant when the labors of to-day will bear an 
abundance of good fruit. 


One of the oldest districts in the County; organized more 
than 20 years ago. The old school house may yet be seen 
about one half mile from the present building, doing good 
service as a dwelling, having been once removed and enlarged 
to suit the growth of the district. Among the first teachers 
in this pioneer district was a Mr. Brown who taught but three 
days and gave it up because there were only small scholars, 
and these he thought were too insignificant upon which to 
spend time and palience ; one of them still lives in the district 
and furnished some of the within facts. Next a Mrs. Knowles 
and later her husband, each taught sometime ; next a Mr. Fall, 
who tau-ht a number of terms. Before this time the old 
school house was moved to where it may now be seen, and en- 
larged One of the pupils, a Miss Wright, succeeded Mr. Fall, 
and taught quite successfully. The next were a Mr. Lloyd, Miss 
Weber, Mr. Burdick, Mr. O'Connelly, F. Cooper, and Misses 

Hall and Fallon. . 

After these Mr E. C. Newell, at present a teacher in the 
Santa Cruz School, taught about two years, being in the 
years 1869 1870, 1871. During this time the attendance 
reached near one hundred and thirty, and the school building 
became inadequate. The present building was built on the 
present site at a cost of about three thousand dollars. Mr 
Newell taught the first term in the new building, being assisted 
by one of his pupils, a Miss Aklridge, and later by a Miss Keith. 
When the school was removed to the new building the name 
of the district was changed from "Oak Grove," the original 
name of the district, to Corralitos, the present name. Since 
that time there have been two departments. The succeeding 
teachers were Messrs. Ingiaham two terms, W H. Weber one 
term C M White one term, Banna one term, Haley one term, 
J F ' Jones one term, A. A. Bailey one term, Ingraham again, 
one term, Klenk one term, C. M. White one term F H Dar- 
W one month, C. M. White one term, J. L. McLelland one 
term J G Underwood six weeks, and the present teacher b. 
Kaney Some of the assistant teachers since Miss Keith ^ are 
Mbs Tyus, Mrs. Jones, Mrs. E. Wright, Miss Basshum, Miss 
Pratt and the present assistant Miss M. L. Wiley. The school 
has advanced gradually in discipline and grade and now com- 
pares favorably with the other schools ot the county The 
building is well supplied with improved furniture, as well as a 
2 ood bell which cost about one hundred and twenty-five dol- 
lars that can be heard distinctly in all parts ot the district, 
which comprises eleven square miles. The district has sev- 
eral times been reduced in size, and now has from 60 to 75 
pupils in daily attendance. There is a good district library of 



about 400 hundred volumes, among them is the American 
( lyclopedia and a volume of this history. There is thorough 
work being done in the school by the present teachers, who 
are graduates of the California State Normal School. 


This district was organized in 1869. The school-house is 
situated about nine miles northwest of Watsoaville, in a very 
picturesque place among the foot-hills. No school has a better 
record than this. A very general interest has been taken by 
all the patrons to keep up the standing of the school, by sus- 
taining good teachers. The present teacher is Mrs. Augusta 
Morgan. We have been unable to obtain the information we 
desired in reference to this school. The present Trustees are 
Messrs. Page, Smith and Steigelman. 


On the 16th of June, 1796, the Governor pf California asked 
Alberto de Cordoba, civil engineer, for a report upon what he 
might consider the best site for founding a town. The latter 
reports, under date of July 2, 1796, and fully and fairly sets 
forth the reasons he entertains for considering the best place 
to be " on the side nearest to Monterey," of the stream which 
he calls " river of the Mission of Santa Cruz," the particular 
place which he mentions being as yet without name, but he 
locates it by allusion and description. The stream mentioned 
in his report was given the name of " San Lorenzo," nearly 
twenty-seven years previously, by Padre Junipero Serra, who 
was the first European that trod the lands afterwards known 
as " Branciforte," the lands of the "Mission of Santa Cruz:"— 
" I should say that the only place that presents advantages 
sufficient for the desired end is that which is situated on the 
side next you of the river of the Mission of Santa Cruz, be- 
cause it is there that is found good land, portions of which are 
susceptible of irrigation, and portions moist enough to grow 
crops, and other portions which are pasture lands for large and 
increasing herds of cattle of all kinds; also having all the 
necessaries, such as timber, stone, limestone, clay to make 
adobe bricks and tiles for the construction of edifices, and 
plenty of water for all uses; also with the advantage of being 
near the sea, which affords an abundance of different kinds of 
fish, and a means of transporting at little cost the fruits and 
grain that may be raised by the settlers, who will be perma- 
nent residents; and it is my opinion and belief the Indians 
will not suffer any damage or drawback by reason of founding 
a new settlement, because at the Mission there will be left to 
them good and large tracts of land, which they can use for 
cultivation, and upon which their animals can pasture. 

" Whenever the Superior Powers conclude to put in execu- 
tion the said project of founding a settlement of Spanish peo- 
ple in order that it progress favorably and with rapidity, it 
should be understood that at the charge of the royal treasury 
the houses are to be built, and that there be given to the set- 
tlers all the agricultural implements necessary for their use, 
and al! kinds of live stock, to the end that immediately upon 
takin" possession of their tracts of land they can apply them- 

selves to cultivation, so that they may be enabled soon to har- 
vest enough for their support. 

"With respect to the Indians of the country, they have 
neither captains nor chiefs, and live where best they can, seek- 
ing herbs and wild fruits upon which they subsist, so it is not 
pt-Icticable to bring into the settlements their captains, and in 
such way be assured of the fealty of their tribes. And the 
only mode there remains to civilize them is to locate a certain 
number at the various Missions, near towns, and set them to 
work, so that in time learning from the Spaniards, they may 
be able to govern and maintain themselves." 

The original village of Branciforte was located on the east 
side of the San Lorenzo river, about where the upper bridge 
crosses the river. It was founded in 1796. A few of the old 
adobe buildings are now remaining. At that time the Mexi- 
can Governor, Sola, resided at Monterey. 

From translations of early Spanish records, made by Mr. 
E. L. Williams, of Santa Cruz, published in the Local Item, 
we obtain some ideas of society and life at that time. 

Gabriel Moraga was appointed to the office of " Commis- 
sioner of the Village of Branciforte," March, 1797. 

Government Order, No. 6, issued from Monterey, July 20, 
179S, is "to cause the arrest of Jose Arriola, and send him un- 
der guard, so that he be at this place during the coming Sun- 
day, from there to go to Santa Barbara, there to comply with 
his promise he made a young woman of that place to marry her." 
The records do not inform us whether Jose fulfilled his 
agreement with the young lady or not. 

A. Bernal, by special license, March 6, 1799, " is permitted to 
drive to Branciforte, from San Jose, a few cattle and sheep 
belonging to his father, that the former may be able to take 
care of them." 

"Monterey, June 3, 1799. 

* * * "I send you by the wife of the pensioner, 
Josef Brabo, one piece of cotton goods and one ounce of sew- 
incr silk. There are no combs, and I have no hopes of receiv- 
ing any for three years. Hermenegildo Sal, 

" Military Governor." 

Just think of the colonist being without combs for three 
years ! 

In November, 1799, Ignacio Vallejo, the father of General 
M. G. Yallejo, of Sonoma, was appointed Commissioner of the 

We make the following extracts from laws sent the colonists 
and bearing date Monterey, March 23, 1816: — 

" All persons must attend mass, and respond in a loud voice, 
and if any persons should fail to do so, without good cause, 
they will be put in the stocks for three hours." 

" Living in adultery, gaming and drunkenness will not be 
allowed, and he who commits such vices shall be punished." 

Another order required every colonist to possess " two yoke 
of oxen, two plows, two points or plow shares (see engraving 
of plow), two hoes for tilling the ground, and they must pro- 
vide themselves with six hens and one cock." 


There is ordered in April, 1802, an election for Justice of 
the Peace. This was probably the first election held within 
the limits of California. The records do not, however, inform 
us who was elected to this position. 


The county seat, Santa Cruz, stands first and foremost, hav- 
ing a population of some 0,000 as intelligent and enterprising 
people as any in the State. The city looks down upon the 
Bay of Monterey, and out upon the Pacific Ocean. A view 
from the higher portions of the town, looking toward the bay, 
is inexpressibly beautiful. The surrounding mountains that 
rise in the distance behind the town, must have been familiar 
to the eyes of the earliest navigators. The business portion of 
the town lies in a basin completely shut in by the bluffs and 
surrounding hills, so as to be sheltered from the cold ocean 
breezes and the "northers" that are so trying in other por- 
tions of the State, while the bluffs give ample space for those 
who like the invigorating breezes and magnificent panorama 
laid out before them. 

Go where you will, there is something to attract attention 
and please the eye. The scenery is magnificent and grand. 
Whether you pass along the lofty cliffs striking the sea, with 
the never-resting waves of the broad Pacific dashing at your 
feet scale the mountain tops, whose seared and rocky sides 
have for a-es withstood the fierce onslaughts of the elements, 
or wander through the narrow valleys, where gurgling streams 
and purling brooks make softest music to the listening ear, 
there is to be found a grandeur and sublimity to awe the 
senses There is beauty everywhere, and weeks can be spent 
in visiting and inspecting the many places of interest within 
a few miles of the town. 

A beautiful beach stretches out on the water front, wheie to 
walk or drive, gather moss and shells, or bathe in the roaring 
surf is a pleasant and invigorating exercise ^ a watering 
Ice Santa Cruz is second to none, and yearly do thousands 
Ssts from all parts of the world gather there to enjoy 
the healthful climate and find recreation in hunting and fishing. 
There are a number of pretty places m and around Santa 
Cruz and its people are hospitable, its hotels are not exorbi- 
tant in their prices, and it is well worth a visit ironi all pleas- 


The attractions for health and pleasure seekers in Santa 

Cruz and vicinity are unequaled in any other part of the 

wM Its chaotic gorges, lovely valleys, towenng g.gantic 

ed'vood redolent of resinous- balsams, and the fragrant world- 

enoXedbay tree, whose leaves constantly d»til their cam- 

v Z Aromatic fragrance, stretches of voluptuous landscape 

lull onet -pose, sand and pebbly beaches on which 

dwelling surf ^£^£3£SE£ 

^^^rwhT 8 — ^hltor. legends 111 each 

Si "otL: ^magnetic in their properties and tonic 


The bathing season lasts from May 1st to September. If 
our Eastern tourists who hie away to the everglades of Florida 
and West Indies, but knew of the unrivaled magnificence of our 
winter climate, thev would turn their steps hither ward and 
avoid the miasma of the Southern clime. Bathing facilities 
have been largely increased during the past year by the erec- 
tion of a magnificent bathing house by Mr. Wheaton. 

The size of the building is 40x100 feet, of two stories, and 
30 feet high. There are 100 separate bath-rooms, with all the 
modern improvements. One of the main features of the build- 
ing, on the lower floor, is the two swimming or plunge baths, 
one for ladies, the other for gentlemen, separated from each 
other by a partition, the size being each 14x25 feet, with a 
depth of from two to seven feet, being heated by steam. The 
bath-rooms are neatly furnished, and said to be superior in 
their appointments to any in the State. The upper floor con- 
tains a refreshment saloon, where at a small cost may be 
obtained any of the substantiate, adjoining which is a ladies 
dressing-room. Next to this is a large dance hall, sixty by 
forty well lighted bv windows on either side, and well ven- 
tilated the ceiling being sixteen high. Adjoining tins hall 
is a bar-room and gents' hat and dressing-room. Two broad 
covered verandas run the entire length of the building. Polite 
attendants are always on hand to attend to the wants of its 


The city of Santa Cruz was incorporated by the Legislature 
at its last session, in March, 1S76. 

The first officers elected under the new charter, were for 

Mayor— Hon. William F. Cooper. 

Common Council— D. Tuthill, Henry Skinner, Charles Mar- 
tin, and Joseph H. Skirm. 


The Court House is roomy, makes a fine appearance, is sur- 
mounted with a dome, and is entirely occupied by Court and 
Countv offices. It is situated in the center of the city and 
is surrounded by a neat fence and well kept lawn. We have 
s elected this structure as the center view of our frontispiece. 


Near the Court House is a good City Hall building, two 
stories high, and occupied by the various city departments. 
There is a good engine house and efficient fire companies. The 
Opera House is an extra fine one, affording ample room in its 
hall and on the stage for the best theatrical companies, or lee- 



The Bank of Santa Cruz County and the Bank of Savings 
and Loan both occupy one building on Pacific avenue, and the 
business of both is managed by one set of officers. 

Directors-Elbert Austin, President; J. S. Green, Vice Presi- 
dent- Wm. Etfey, C. Hoffman, S. J. Lynch, B. Peyton, Chas. 
Steinmete; E. J. Cox, Cashier. The Savings Bank receives 
deposits and allows interest thereon according to time, and 
loans on real estate and government and county bonds. The 



County Bank receives deposits subject to check discounts, ap- 
proved bills and loans on good collaterals, buys and sells ex- 
change on Eastern cities and San Francisco, buys county and 
school warrants, and transacts a general commercial banking 
business. The officers and stockholders are representative 
men, having the confidence of the business community, and its 
busines will continue to increase. 


This is the chief hotel of the city, and is a conspicuous, well 
finished, two-story brick building. This hotel has lately come 
under the management of E. J. Swift, a pleasant gentleman 
who has had a large experience in " keeping hotel." The 
apartments and table are well furnished and supervised. Guests 
receive prompt and polite attention. This hotel contains 100 
rooms, with all modern improvements. Extensive grounds 
containing swings and croquet grounds for the accommodation 
of guests. Two lines of street cars pass the door for the bath- 
ing beach. Sportsmen will find good hunting and fishing. 
Trout and quail in abundance. Coach and carriages attend all 
steamers and trains to convey passengers to the hotel free of 


The St. Charles Hotel is a large frame building, modern in 
construction, and in the introduction of all conveniences. The 
internal accommodations are in perfect unison with the neat 
exterior. All the appointments of table and room are unex- 
ceptionable, and patrons are shown every possible attention. 
Joseph Bloch is the proprietor. 


This is the most modern of all the fashionable summer re- 
sorts in Santa Cruz. The main hotel building is the finest of 
the kind in the city. It is surrounded by ample grounds in 
which are numerous pretty cottages smothered in trees and 
flowers. A few weeks sojourn at Pope's, and daily rambles 
along the coast, a delicious sea bath, or a ride through the deep 
canons and cool forests, will prove delightful and healthful. 
From the verandas of the hotel is obtained, probably, as fine a 
landscape view as can be seen anywhere. The hotel being 
situated on elevated ground, the whole city is overiooked, its 
white homes nearly covered with trees and foliage, while in the 
distance is the beach, the white caps, the sails, and the steamer 
on its way to Monterey, which lies at the foot of mountains in 
the far distance. 


This popular summer resort iB located on the eastern bluff 
of the San Lorenzo River, some forty feet above tide water, 
commanding an unobstructed view of the grand old Pacific, 
the beautiful Bay of Monterey and mountains; the city of 
Santa Cruz, with its background of gently rising hills, the fer- 
tile plains on the north and east, and towering mountains be- 
yond, presenting to the eye in every direction, nature and art 
beautiful beyond description. 

The premises of Ocean Villa extend to the river's erlge, and 
afford rare facilities for boating, fishing, and river bathing. 
Three minutes walk to surf bathing and bath houses. 

Our view of this place is sketched from the water front look- 
ing east. The grounds are handsomely laid out and filled with 
flowers, fountains, arbors and swings. Every attention is paid 

to guests, and every one feels at home under the care of Mr- 
and Mrs. George H. Bliss. 


The city is supplied with pure mountain creek water by 
companies* chartered for that purpose. Another company fur- 
nishes a good quality of gas. These two very essentials to 
health and comfort, add much to the pleasures of living in 
Santa Cruz. 


There are two separate lines of street cars which carry pas- 
sengers from the principal hotels and business houses, to and 
from the beach every few minutes. 


Is one of the best in the city, occupying a prominent place 
near the Court House. In our sketch of this block, we par- 
tially show the Odd Fellows building, which adjoins it. This 
block was erected in 1875. Mr. Ely also built another fine 
building a little further along the street in 1877. He has 
erected several other business houses and a number of resi- 
dences in various parts of the city. If others had done as 
much in proportion towards beautifying the city, it would be 
far in advance of its present condition. 


Next after a good hotel, the traveler seeks a livery stable. 
Scott & Co.'s livery has one of the finest fronts on the street. 
They have a well equipped livery establishment situated on 
Pacific Avenue, where there are prepared with all sorts of con- 
veyances to please the traveling public— either a light carriage 
for a short ride along the beach, or a four-horse stage for a 
camping party, and a trip to the Big Trees. 

The building has a frontage of 4-0 feet and depth of 110 feet, 
with a basement extending under the sidewalk. The premises 
is supplied with water and gas. A pleasant office is on the 
street entrance. 


The tradition of the schools, in the early days, is shadowy. 
The names handed down as among the teachers of youth here, 
previous to 1850, are Mrs. Case, H. S. Loveland, and Geo. W. 
Frick. There was no school-house then, but the place where 
the Methodist society met, at the foot of Mission Hill, was used 
in common, with the understanding that that church should 
have property when a school house might be built. After 
1850, and until the school district was fairly organized in 1857, 
there were a number of teachers paid in part out of public 
school funds, and in part by subscription. 

After the district organization in 1857, we find Mrs. Clara C. 
Adams, teaching at $50 a month, and T. H. Gatch at $1,200 a 
year. Mr. Gatch is now president of Willamette University, 
Oregon. In 1858, we find the name of Miss Fanny Cummings 
(now Mrs. John T. Porter, of Watsonville) as one of the 
teachers. In 1859, S. M. Blakely and Miss Hattie P. Field 
were teachers. In 1860-61, '62, '63, Miss Mary Hill and Wm. 
White taught, among others. 

In 1863-4-5, appear as teachers the names of Miss Mattie 
Webber, Calvin P. Bailey, Robert Desty, Miss N. McDonald, 
and Miss L. Fernald. In 1866, Mr. Broadbent taught as prin- 
cipal for a few months, and was succeeded by H. E. Makinney, 
who continued principal for six or seven years. It indicates 



the increase in the number of pupils to say that in 1866 three 
teachers were employed, whereas in 1879 there are ten. 
Meanwile, besides several good district school houses, a fine 
large central school building has been erected at a cost of nearly 
$25,000, which will accommodate in its various rooms over six 
hundred pupils. It is by far the finest public building in 
Santa Cruz. The principal of the schools, at present, is Prof. 
W. W. Anderson. We speak with pride of this school, as in- 
ferior to none in California. And not only the teachers have 
contributed to their advancement and excellence, but so also 
have the trustees, who have from time to time been chosen 
to preside over them. Among these should be mentioned Doc- 
tor C. L. Anderson and Charles Steinmetz, who have been 
in this office for years, doing its work and bearing its an- 
noyances, and now take a large satisfaction in seeing the 
prosperity of the schools. These school buildings we have rep- 
resented in the frontispiece of this volume as illustrative of the 
type of inhabitants of Santa Cruz, and of their practical belief 
in good schools. The present board of Trustees consist of Chas. 
Steinmetz, Geo. Otto, and Mrs. E. C. Boston. 


This institution, founded in 186K, : fe pleasantly situated in 
Santa Cruz, a short distance from Monterey Bay, in the most 
healthy part of the city. The large buildings and grounds at- 
tached are situated on a commanding eminence overlooking the 
entire city, and across the Bay to Monterey City, twenty-five 
miles distant. The view of city, farms, and water, from this 
point cannot be exceeded anywhere. Everything about this 
school is kept in the utmost good order and neatness prevails 

The course of instruction embraces all the branches necessary 
to the acquisition of a solid English education. 

Terms:— (Per session, boarding pupils.) Board and tuition, 
with use of bedding, Si 50; Music, piano with use of instru- 
ment S00; Music, guitar with use of instrument, 830. No 
extra charge for the languages. Singing in class, drawing, and 
all kinds of plain and fancy needlework. No entrance fee re- 
quired. For further information apply to the Sister Superior. 


This church, of course, comes first. The old Mission Church 
stood from 1794 to 1856, when, one day, while the officiating 
priest was saying mass, part of it fell. Only a few persons were 
present at the time, and none were hurt, but they all had a 
narrow escape. Few traces of the old adobe structures remain, 
and even the double row of beautiful willows-onee forming the 
fence of the old Mission garden, and long after gracing the 
center of the main street-has been destroyed in deference to 
the wants and requirements of the young and growing city 
The modern church was subsequently built, and was dedicated 
on the Fourth of July, 1858, by Bishop Amat. The Catholic 
population under the care of this church numbers about one 
thousand. The baptisms, at present, number about one hundred 
a year while the marriages number fourteen, and the deaths, 
thirty The church is now in charge of Rev. Mr. Adam, an 
able young minister, to whom we are indebted for valuable in- 
formation cheerfully furnished for this work. 


Rev William Taylor, in his racy and graphic "California 
Life Illustrated;' says that he came to Santa Cruz. for the 

purpose of organizing a Methodist Church, about the 20th of 
January, 1850. 

"I found," says he, " a class of about twenty members, 
among whom were four local preachers. On Saturday, at 11 
o'clock in the forenoon, I preached in the house of Elihu An- 
thony. Preached again at night. Sunday, at half-past !), we 
held 'a love feast, and a joyful feast it was. Preached at 11 
o'clock in the forenoon on the Divinity of Christ, to a crowded 
house. After sermon, I administered the sacraments of baptism 
and the Lord's Supper. About twenty persons partook, for the 
first time in California, and a majority of them had been in the 
country ever since 1847. I find here the best school, and the 
largest Sunday School in the country. There were here the 
Anthony, Case, Bennett and Heacox families, and others that I 
took real pleasure in visiting." 

On April 13th he is here again, and says: — 

" We organized our quarterly conference on Saturday, at 4 

o'clock in the afternoon. Renewed the preaching license of E. 

Anthony, A. A. Heacox, H. S. Loveland and Enos Beaumont, 

and licensed Alexander McLean to exhort." 

I have not been able to obtain such notes of the history of 

this church as I desired, but these extracts show that it was the 

earliest Protestant Church in Santa Cruz. 

It long since outgrew its first building, and erected its present 

house of worship, which is one of the best in the city. In point 

of membership and of numbers in attendance upon worship, it 

is one of the largest among us. Its pastor at present is Rev. 

H. D. Hunter. 


In 1S50, Rev. T. W. Hinds came across the plains from Iowa. 
His wife died on the way, and, on his arrival in California, he 
sought a home for himself and his children, and a field for 
Christian work, in Santa Cruz. And so in due time we find it 
recorded that on Sunday afternoon, March 14, 1852, a church 
of the Congregational order was founded in Santa Cruz, and 
that the number of members was nine. But, in the shiftings 
of population, the members of this little church were scattered, 
and it ceased to exist. After five years, in September, 1857, the 
present church was organized, and a house of worship was built. 
This was done under the ministry of the late Rev, J. S. Zelie. 
The cost of the work was something over three thousand dollars. 
The house, as originally built, would hold an audience of about 
two hundred and fifty. ' In 1872, it was enlarged to about double 
its first size, and will now accommodate an assembly of five 
hundred persons. 

After Rev. Mr. Zelie, Rev. W. C. Bartlett was pastor, and 
after bun Rev. Walter Frear, and the present pastor, Rev. S. H. 
Willey, came in 1870. 


'■ This church was organized in 185S. It was afterwards some- 
what broken up by removals of members, but was reorganized, 
January 3, 1867," with a membership of twelve persons. In 
February, 1867, the church resolved to erect a house of worship. 
They had been holding their meetings in the Court-house, and 
in Temperance Hall. J. H. Guild gave the lot, and the cost of 
the house was $2,500. Since then, although the church has 
been much of the time without a pastor, its meetings have been 
regularly held, and its services kept up. Deacon Pollard eonles 
six miles, much of the time afoot, and, though he is an old 



man, and works hard, he is always there. The church has had 
some unusual discouragements, but at present its prospects are 


The first services held, in anticipation of the establishment of 
this church, were on the 11th day of May, 1862, Rev. Dr. J. L. 
Ver Mehr officiating. The vestry was formed, and the church 
took the name of the Calvary Church, March 27, 1864. The 
corner-stone of the church edifice was laid June 29, 1864. The 
large and beautiful lot on which it stands having been given by 
Mrs. Eliza C. Boston, now widow of the late Joseph Boston. 

The building, which is a beautiful one, was completed at a 
cost of $5,000, and was opened for service on Easter Sunday, 
April 16, 1865, Rev. C. F. Loop officiating. The church was 
consecrated on the 26th of October, 1868, Right Rev. Bishop 
Kip, Rev. Mr. Brewer, and Rev. Mr. Loop officiating. 

In September, 1868, Rev. Mr. Loop was succeeded by Rev. 
G. A. Easton, who remained seven years. The minister at 
present is Rev. William Vaux, chaplain in the United States 


In the spring of 1866, Rev. Charles G. Ames came to Santa 
Cruz. He preached through the summer, and in the fall a 
society was organized under the name of the Unity Church. It 
prospered so well that the work of erecting a church edifice was 
undertaken in 1867. Its estimated cost was to be S7,000, but 
as is usual in building, that sum was somewhat exceeded. 

Rev. Mr. Ames remained here until the fall of 1869. Under 
his ministry, the society grew and flourished. He was succeeded 
by Rev. D. G. Ingraham, who remained one year. Rev. Mr. 
Beckwith preached a few months in the summer of 1872. With 
that exception, there has been no regular preaching until No- 
vember, 1875, when Rev. C. Park came. Through all these 
years, when without a minister, this society has shown great 
vigor and perseverence. 


Branciforte Lodge, No, 96, was instituted April 26, I860, 
with six charter members, as follows : F. E. Bailey, F. M. Kit- 
teridge, G. W. White, Robert E. Morrison, S. W. Field, H. S. 
Hill. Number of members, July 1, 1876, was 161. The night 
of meeting is Friday. The present officers are Philip Frank, 
N. G.; B. C. Gadsby, V. G.; Henry Willey, R. S.; E. Price, 
P. S. ; S. W. Field, Treasurer. 

San Lorenzo Lodge, No. 147, was instituted August 19, 1868, 
with nine charter members, as follows: W. W. Broughton, P. G. ; 
Alfred Baldwin, P. G.; Isaac Blum, P. G.; C. D. Holhrook, P. 
G.; F. E. Bailey, P. G.; George Anthony, R. C. Kirby, Thos. 
Butterfield, Alex. McPherson, Jr. Number of members, about 
150. The night of meeting is Tuesday. The officers now are 
D. L. Adams, N. G.; A. J. Hinds, V. G.; S. Fay, R. S.; O. T. 
Bradley, P. S.; Duncan McPherson, Treasurer. 


Odd Fellows' Hall is a new building, two stories in hight, 
with a mansard roof. Surmounting the entire structure is a 
clock tower. The building is sightly, well constructed, and an 
ornament to the city. It was erected in 1872, at a cost of 
$12 000. The upper floor is occupied by various lodges. The 
second floor is used exclusively by the Odd Fellows. On this 
floor is the new library room, lately fitted up and supplied with 

a select library for the use of the members. In the tower is a 
town clock. 


The Santa Cruz Lodge, No. 38, of F. and A. Masons was 
organized at Santa Cruz, July 16, 1853, under a dispensation 
granted by Charles Radcliff, G. M.— there being twenty-one 
Masons present. Henry G. Blaisdell, since Governor of Nevada, 
was elected W. M. 

At present, the Lodge has about 100 members. The Lodge 
meets each Saturday, on or before the full moon. 


The first temperance society was organized in 1848. Mr. B. 
A. Case was the first President, and Dunlevy "Vice President. 
Meetings were held every week for years. This was probably 
the first temperance organization organized in California. Pre- 
vious to this Mr. A. A. Heacox 'set about doing what a single 
individual could, to counteract this evil. He drew up a total 
abstinence pledge, and signed it, with his family. Then he ob- 
tained the names of one or two young men who had crossed the 
plains in his company. This pledge he carried with him in his 
pocket, and at every convenient opportunity he sought to get 
a signer. 

Temperance movements, however, were not very much wel- 
comed then. On a certain occasion, somebody circulated notice 
that a temperance lecture would be delivered. But it is said 
that the Alcalde, in his gentle justice, put an extinguisher on 
the project by forbidding people to go to hear the "temperance 

A Division of Sons of Temperance was organized in 1852, and 
this was the first one established on this coast. They built a 
hallinl860. A Lodge of Good Templars was organized in 1855. 


J. F. Simpson's flour mill occupies a prominent corner near 
the St. Charles Hotel, in the center of the business part of the 
city. It was established in 1878. He does a general milling 
business as well as commission business, and deals in wood as 
well as grain. The mill has a capacity of about 400 sacks of 
flour per day, and is run by steam power. He is prepared to 
grind grain or saw wood to order. Mr. Simpson is an early 
settler of California, having arrived in the State in 1853. He 
has a nice little farm near the city, and is among the active, 
busy men of Santa Cruz. 


This establishment is situated in the eastern part of the city. 
It is a fine two-story building, erected in 1871, and is 100 by 
40 feet. Attached to the brewery is a large pleasure garden, 
fitted up with swings and arbors, and filled with flowers and 
trees. The proprietor, Henry Bausch, was born in Germany 
in 1827. He came to Pennsylvania in 1849. In 1853 he came 
to Santa Cruz on foot over the mountain trail from San Fran - 
cisco, and to-day, by prudence and economy, he owns one of 
the finest breweries in the State, besides other property. 


E. and J. Lodtmann manufacture soda at their works near 
town. They supply this county and portions of Monterey, 
with a superior soda water. They have all necessary machin- 
ery to carry on a successful business. It was first started in 
1876, and has gradually increased until large quantities are sold 



and kept in all chief places. E. Lodtmann came to California 
in 1849 After going to the mines, which was the usual course 
pursued at that time, he went into business in Stockton, and 
now resides at Knight's Ferry, Stanislaus County. J. Lodt- 
mann came to California in 1855, and after farming five years 
near Stockton, he joined his brother in the brewery business 
at Knight's Ferry, and in 1875 came to Santa Cruz. 

R^al estate in Santa Cruz can hardly be said to have quite 
escaped the effects of the general depression of the part year or 
two on this coast, but it certainly has escaped the equally gen- 
eral affliction of previous inflation in values, which has insulted 
so disastrously for investers in some of our Cahfornian resorts, 
and in very many, if not all, of the Eastern cities. 


Santa Cruz has more neat pleasant residences than any other 
place in the State. Some are elegant mansions, like those of 
Hon F A Hihn S. J. Lynch and others. All, both cottage and 
mansion, are cosy, neat, quiet homes, with yards and flowers, 
and a home-like appearance. The city has the look of a New 
England village, embowered in trees. The first settlers built 
in memory of the old ones left behind them. To them is due 
in a large measure, the beauty of the town, as by their thought- 
fulness, trees were planted along the streets, and their grateful 
shade and fine foliage add a charm, as well as value, to the 
surroundings. Many of these homes are more fully described 
elsewhere As soon as the new railroad brings these charming 
homes and building sites within a few hours ride of the 
metropolis, they will be sought after for country residences by 
the more refined and wealthy. 




In this interest we give a view of the "Exchange and Mart " 
a ,vell organized real estate and insurance business recommend- 
f .tmncrlv as a highly respectable and perfectly trust- 
ify tgen^in tht important "business. Here strangers and 
SS find the leading home and English newspaper, 
ZTwilTbe cheerfully finished all local information in regard 
I'lullly Orally, and all its most desirable features will 
be pTted outto those in search of pleasure or business. 


lD 18 50 Santa Cruz was a very small place, and here are 
the names respectively of all the women and maternal heads 
of families in the county then:— 

Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, Mrs. B. A. Case, Mrs. Elihu .Anthony, 
Mrs. Hiram Imus, Sen., Mrs. Hiram Imus, Jr., Mrs. Phillip Bice, 
Ms John Pinkham, Mrs. John Woods, Mrs. James Gordon, 
M John Hames, Mr, John Daubinbiss, Mr, Otis Ashley, 
Ms John Haze, Mr, M. A Meder, Mrs. C. A. Heacox Mr, 
T Kettleman, Mr, J. O. Arcan, Mr, Silas Bennett. Mr, James 
Williams, Mrs. Isaac Williams and Mrs. James Bean. There 
may have been two or three others. 

Felton on the San Lorenzo River, seven miles north of 
Santa Cruz, is the central point and depot of the extensive 
lime works in its immediate vicinity, and the junction of the 
Felton Railroad with the S. P. 0. Railroad, now being com- 
pleted to that point. 

The San Lorenzo Flume, with a capacity for transporting 
60 000 000 feet of lumber per season, connects the upper San 
Lorenzo mills and "tie" camps with the Felton Railroad, 
whence their productions are brought to tide water 

Many people are attracted hither by the fame of the large 
trees growing in the vicinity. The scenery on the road to 
Felton is full of grandeur. The road from Santa Cruz to Fel- 
ton is of even grade, and affords one of the most magnificent 
drives imaginable. The road skirts the edge of the stream 
and from great elevations, views of its clear waters are obtained 
down in the deep and silent gorges. The solitude is almost 
death-like, and the majestic giant redwoods, seeming to pierce 
the sky, force upon one an utter and complete realization ot 
his comparative nothingness. 

The village has three hotels, depot, shingle mill, and a good 
school house. Messrs. Talbot & Co. manufacture safety iuse 
for blasting and mining purposes. The factory was erected in 
1869. The making of the fuse is a secret, and is performed by 

members of the family. 



. Lorenzo, some eight miles above Felton, near the b«™, 
the mountains and the head waters of the river is a delightfu 
mountain town and great summer resort, hundreds ot camps 
being established amid the redwoods, whose white tents pre- 
: e nt°a Picturesque and weird aspect amid the balsamic ever 
lens while the laugh and merry prattle of women and happy 
!Xn mingle withthe music of the dancing rills, transforming 

he mountain altitude into an Eden of happiness and enjoyment. 
The place is a mere hamlet, comprising one hotel, one stoie 
and a few dwellings. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged m 
makL shingles or cutting logs from the interminable forests 
Tredwoods One saw-mill, not working, is in the v.cimty of 
fte town. Thislocality is a favorite one with sportsmen, game 
and fish being plentifully abundant. 



Watsonville is situated in one of the richest agricultural 
regions of the State, is an incorporated town, and contains a 
population of about 2,500 inhabitants. 

The town -was laid out in 1852 by Judge John H. Watson 
and D. S. Gregory, and derives its name from the first named 
gentleman. In 1854 a post-office was established. 

Owing to the troubles connected with the title to the site on 
which the town is situated, and the interminable law suits inci- 
dent the progress of the town was for many years retarded. 

A final solution of the difficulty took place by the decision of 
the District Court in the suit of Rodrigeuz vs. Comstock which 
had been on the docket for several years and at last decided in 
favor of Rodriguez, under whom the majority of the people had 
derived their titles, and the purchasers felt greatly relieved. 
Improvements commenced soon after, and the uncertainty and 
suspense that had been hanging over the town disappeared. 

New buildings were created, more taste being shown in the 
design, and presenting a more solid and substantial appearance, 
indicating that the owners intended to stay and make this place 
their home 

From that time to the present "Watsonville has been slowly 
but steadily improving, and is now considered one of the most 
attractive and healthy towns in the State. 

The finances of the town are carefully managed ; at the pres- 
ent time it does not owe a dollar. The town owns an elegant 
two story building, the upper part used as a town hall and the 
lower portion for an engine house. 

About the center of the town is the Plaza, a public square en- 
closed by a neat substantial fence. Numerous shade and orna- 
mental trees make it a desirable and attractive place of resort. 
A fountain is soon to be added, as we have before mentioned. 

"Watsonville is distant from San Francisco 100 miles. Is 
reached by S. P. R. R. f two trains daily in the summer season, 
20 miles from Santa Cruz, the county seat, one train daily by 
the Santa Cruz Narrow Gauge Railroad. 


"Water is furnished to the town for domestic and fire pur- 
poses by two water companies. The Watsonville Water Com- 
pany obtain their supply from perpetual springs and artesian 
wells within the town limits. 

The water is forced into a large reservoir by steam power, 
and the supply is ample for fire and domestic purposes. 

The Corralitos Water Company obtain their water from the 
Corralitos Creek, carried by a flume to a reservoir about five 
miles from town, at an elevation sufficient for fire purposes. 

The town is greatly favored in this respect, water being fur- 
nished at a very low rate for domestic purposes, and furnished 
free to the town for fire purposes. 


The fire department is under the management of Pajaro Engine 
Co., has a good hand engine and two hose carts, and has rendered 
efficient aid in several instances where fires have occurred. 

Water for fire purposes is supplied through hydrants distrib- 
uted at available points through the town. Other hydrants 

will be added as the wants of the place require them, so that the 
town will be amply protected against fire at all times. 


The Methodist Episcopal is the pioneer church, Rev. M. 
Deal, pastor. 

First Presbyterian Church, Rev. F. L. Nash, pastor. 

Christain Church, Rev. J. D. Connell, pastor. 

Grace Mission, Episcopal Church, Rev. D. O. Kelly. 

St Mary's, Catholic, Rev. M. Mahoney. 

A branch of Joseph Smith's church, reorganized, have a 
small church on First street. Services occasionally by visiting 
ministers of the Latter Day Saints. 

All the above churches have Sunday-schools connected with 
them, and are doing good work in this department. 

The various benevolent and temperance societies are well 
represented, Masons, Odd Fellows, Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Good Templars and Sons of Temperance. The 
members of one (the Butterfly Club), have succeeded in raising 
sufficient funds to furnish the town with a fountain, which 
will soon adorn the center of the Plaza, and will ever remain & 
handsome tribute to the memory of the young ladies. 


Pajaro Lodge, No. 90, 1. O. 0. F., has a well selected library 
of 1,500 volumes, comprising many of the standard works, 
writing, belle lettres, and the current fiction of the day. 


The Good Templars have recently opened a public reading 
room in connection with their order, where all the leading 
magazines and periodicals of the day are to be found. 

In addition to these well known societies, other local clubs, 
were formed for the purposes of amusement and entertainment. 


The traveler whose business or pleasure calls him this way can 
rest assured that there are plenty of good, comfortable,hotels, and 
landlords " who know how to keep a hotel," ready toreceive him. 

The Lewis House is a fine two story wooden building, situ- 
ated on the main street, in the center of business. It is well 
furnished in every respect; rooms are lighted with gas. 
Under the management of N. R. Griswold, guests' every want 
is supplied. The table is first class, and everything is kept in 
the best of order about the house. The traveler for business 
or pleasure will find no better home. A full page view of the 
Lewis House accompanies this work. Kennedy's Livery adjoins 
the Lewis House, where is kept a good livery stock. 


This fine hotel is 90x100 on the ground, situated on Pajaro 
street and Plaza, commands a full view of the valley with its 
splendid scenery, has 65 rooms, with gas and water in each. 
Fine billiard and reading room connected with the hotel 

Among other hotels is the Washington, kept by Thomas 
Mooney, a pleasant place to stop, and the comfort of the trav- 
eler assured. The Scandinavian House, Western Hotel and 
Scott's boarding house are generally well patronized. 




Several handsome and tasfcy dwelling houses have been 
built during the last few years, all displaying considerable 
taste and design in their construction. Shade trees line the side- 
walks of many of the streets, forming quite a pleasing and 
picturesque attraction, enhancing the value of the lots, and 
adding beauty to the homesteads. 


The town was first lighted by Maxin gas, but recently coal 
gas works have been erected, and a superior quality of gas is 
obtained, with which the street lamps are supplied. 


The first public school in Watsonville was taught by Seneca 
Carroll in the church building of the Methodist Church South, 
in the year 1853, he being employed by Thos. M. Davis, Geo. W. 
Williams and Walter Lynn, who acted as trustees for that pur- 
pose, they being selected by Judge Watson. Next, John K. Lut- 
trell (now Congressman) taught the school, and was followed suc- 
cessively by Miss L. Robinson, Prof. Dunne, since District Judge 
of Nevada, John Grant, a successful physician, Miss Fanny Cum- 
ming, now Mrs. John T. Porter, who occupied the church at differ- 
ent times until the year 1860. During that year Mr. L. D. Hol- 
brook arrived in town from Placer County with his family, built 
a dwelling house on Fourth street, and engaged to teach the 
school at a salary of $100 per month, he to make out the rate 
bills and collect them, and furnish his own room. He was ex- 
amined by C. K. Ercanbrack and Milton Anderson, Trustees, 
and was pronounced " qualified." He taught the school two 
years in the upper part of his dwelling, then Mr. A. P. Knowles 
taught two or three terms in Scott's Hall. S. F. Breed also 
taught for some time in the same place. 

In 1862 an election was held to ascertain whether or not the 
people of the district would tax themselves to build a school 
house, which resulted in an emphatic " no," but another election 
•was held the following year and a tax voted for that purpose. 
This last election was held in April, 1863. Soon after the 
Trustees called a meeting at Scott's Hall of the inhabitants of 
the district to select a site for the " new school-house." 

On the evening of the meeting an embryo brass band was 
practicing in the hall. When the hour of meeting arrived, 
Judge R. F. Peckham and G. M. Bockius, Trustees, had put in an 
appearance. The band suspended playing, and the meeting was 
called to order; present, two Trustees and the band. The band 
instructed the Trustees to purchase the site on which the first 
school-house was afterwards built, and resumed playing. The 
Trustees, acting under their instructions, purchased the site, and 
it being at the end of the school year, an election for Trustees 
was held, which resulted in the choice of T. D. Alexander, G. 
M. Bockius and L. D. Holbrook. They immediately entered 
upon their duties, and the school-house was rapidly pushed to 
completion. Professor William White (now engaged as Profes- 
sor of Mathematics in the Boy's High School in San Francisco), 
was engaged, with Miss Gates, of Massachusetts, as assistant. 
Under their able management and care the school flourished for 
several years, when a change was made, and H. P. Tuttle, now 
a successful physician at Salinas City, was employed as Prinm- 

pal, and was followed by C. T. Johns, and Woodbury, 

successively, as Principals. 

February, 1866, a special tax was levied, and two ad- 

ditional rooms, with stair facilities for the whole, were built. 
These, it was thought, would accommodate the children of the 
district for all future time, but the capacity of the people of 
Pajaro Valley was underrated, so that in the winter of 1875-6 
the Trustees procured an act of the Legislature authorizing the 
district to issue bonds to the amount of 812,000.00 redeemable 
within fifteen years. The bonds were issued and sold at a pre- 
mium, and a school-house erected by L. D. Holbrook, contractor, 
under the supervision of James Waters, the architect of the 
building. The building is 55x84, two stories, each story 16 feet 
in height (see illustration). It is divided into eight school rooms 
with a hat room to each, a private room for the Principal, a 
library room, and a wide and roomy hall in each story, and two 
broad open staircases to the second floor. The whole is sur- 
mounted by a neat belfry, from which an excellent view of the 
valley can be had. It is one of the most substantial, best venti- 
lated and convenient school buildings in the State, and challenges 
the admiration of all. The Trustees, Messrs. J. L. Halsted, 
Jerome Porter and E. A. Knowles, deserve great praise for their 
zeal and fidelity to the best interests of the district. And more 
especially J. L. Halsted, who still occupies the position of 
Trustee, in conjunction with Owen Tuttle and J. M. Ripley. 
He has been at his post from the inception of the new school 
building to the present time, ever watching and guarding the 
interests of the district and the welfare of the schools. By his 
wise management the amount of the bonds outstanding has 
been reduced to $10,500.00 without any hardship to the inhabi- 
tants of the district, and if the same plan is pursued, only eight 
years will be required, instead of fifteen years, to cancel the last 
bond, thus saving to the district about $5,000.00 as interest and 
costs of assessing and collecting. Its management is worthy of 
the consideration of districts contemplating the erection of new 
school buildings. 

Professor J. W. Linscott succeeded C. T. Johns as Principal 
of the school in 1872, and has occupied the position until the 
present time, to the apparent satisfaction of the patrons of the 
school. He was born in the State of Maine, in 1848, and received 
his education in the schools and seminaries of that State. 

The school as organized at the close of the term ending June 
13th, 1879, comprised the following teachers: — 

John W. Linscott, Principal; Miss Minnie M. Cox, 1st Asst.; 
Miss Hattie L. Barham, 2d Asst.; Miss Lizzie Hopkins, 3d Asst.; 
Mrs. Josephine Morris, 4th Asst.; Miss Ada McAdams, 5th 
Asst.; Miss Mary Gallagher, 6th Asst.; Miss Julia Gilman, 
7th Asst.; Mrs. S. F. Kidder, 8th Asst.; Mrs. Bell Rodgers, 9th 
Asst. Mi-. G. W. Hursh at Bay School House. 


This institution was encorporated in 1874 and owns a fine two 
story brick building, the lower portion is used for the business 
of the Bank and the upper story fitted up and rented for oflices. 

President, Chas. Ford; Cashier, J. N. Besse. Directors: 
W. G. Hudson, Chas. Ford, P. J. Kelly, G. M. Bockins, Thos. 
Walker, John T. Porter. Authorized Capital $200,000. Paid 
up Capital $140,000. 


J. F, Cox, Daniel Tuttle, A. Atteridge, Alvin Sanborn, Trus- 
tees; Ed. Martin, Chairman Board of Trustees; George W. 
Peckham, Clerk; Otto Stoesser, Treasurer; T. M. Davis, 
Assessor ; W. S. Neal, Marshal ; N. J. Kitchen, Night Watch- 
man ; L. D. Holbrook, Thomas M. Davis, Justices of the Peace. 




This is the third village in size in the county, and beautifully 
located in the valley of Soquel creek, about 2 miles from its en- 
trance into the bay. 

It is quite a thriving little village, containing a number of 
stores and business houses, two hotels, livery stable, flour mill. 
school house, blacksmith and carriage shops. There is a very 
neat Congregational Church, with tower and bell. The works 
of the California Sugar Beet Co. are located here. The fine 
residence of the pioneer, J. Daubinbiss, is situated on an emi- 
nence overlooking the rest of the village. 


Is on the main road about one mile from Soquel. This tan- 
nery was established in 1853, and has been, of course, very 
much enlarged and its business extended. Some years its busi- 
ness has been quite extensive, and 25,000 hides were tanned an- 
nually, mostly upper leather. 

In the view of this property, the artist has sketched it from 
an elevation on the north, thus presenting the tannery buildings 
in the foreground and the handsome residence of B. F. Porter in 
the distance, while further on is the railroad, the bay and Mon- 
terey mountains, twenty-five miles distant. The Messrs. Porter 
are stirring, active business men from New England, and are 
now among the most influential and respected citizens of Santa 


Carries on a general blacksmithing, carriage and jobbing busi- 
ness in Soquel. His factory is in the eastern part of the village 
near his residence, which is illustrated in this work. He man- 
ufactures wagons and carriages of every description. The upper 
part of the building is used for painting and trimming. Mr. 
Tucker conducts the wood department of the business. 

Mr. Hall was born in Brookline, Mass., in 1824, and resided 
there until 1850, when he cast his lot with the people of Bur- 
lington, Iowa, where he resided for seven years, and then moved 
to California. After trying the mines one year, he worked at 
his trade in San Francisco, and then established himself at 
Soquel in November, 1S68. 

He has a very pretty residence, with large yard and an abun- 
dance of trees, shrubbery and flowers. His wife's name was 
Abbe Gage, of Londonderry, N. H., and was married in 1849, at 
Braintree, Mass. 

Is situated two miles above Soquel on a branch of Soquel creek. 
The firm have a tract of 800 acres, 500 of which is timber land, 
covered with those large and beautiful redwoods found only on 
the coast range of mountains. The first mill, built further up 
the stream,' was erected in 1866. The present one, which is 
more favorably situated, was constructed in 1877. It has a 
capacity of 25,000 feet per day, and saws all sizes of stuff 
required in the market. In connection with the mill the firm 
have a lumber yard at Santa Cruz, and a planing mill, and are 
prepared to furnish everything required in the wood depart- 
ment for building purposes. The firm consists of J. L. Grover, 
S. F. Grover, and D. W. Grover. 


This is a favorite watering place, affording especial accommo- 
dation for campers and bathers. Every facility is afforded for 
fishina, hunting and bathing. Small cottages can be obtained 
on very reasonable terms, where families can live in accordance 
vnth their fancy. The beach is not exceeded for surf bathing. 
The mountains near by afford a vast field for hunting and fish- 
in- It is on the line of the Santa Cruz Railroad, where passen- 
gers in crossing the high bridge look down upon houses, cottages 
and white tents. Here a fine horse and buggy, and there an old 
style of " prairie schooner ! " Here they fish, hunt, gather shells 
and moss, or bathe in the surf: At night they can dance, or sit 
by the large camp fire and "spin yarns!" S.H.Hall has charge 
of these grounds, and board can be obtained at reasonable rates. 

This is the name given to the home of Thomas H. Tarleton, 
situated a little west of Soquel, on the road to Santa Cruz. He 
was born in Epsom, Merrimac County/New, in 1821. 
He is of English and Scotch descent, and was one of a family 
of nine children. 

He married Susan A. Tattle, of Concord, N. H., and has 
educated a family of four children, named respectively Agnes 
E John K., Frank A. and Millie H. Tarleton. 

He arrived at Mormon Island, California, in December, 1854. 
Like nearly all new comers at that date, he tried mining a 
short time, and then teaming from Sacramento to the mines, 
after this farming in Natoma Valley. From there removed to 
Folsom, and engaged in carpentering. Then to San Francisco, 
thence to San Jose, remaining four years. He went to Oak- 
land as contractor and builder; lived there four years ; finally 
moved to Santa Cruz County and settled on the Peck farm, 
half a mile from Soquel, and l\ miles from the beautiful Bay 
of Monterey. He considers this as one of the loveliest places 
on the American continent, on account of its surroundings and 
magnificent view from the residence, of land and water. 

Henry Winkle was bom in Prussia, February 15, 1822. He 
worked his way through life unaided since he was twelve 
years old, and immigrated to America in 1S44. Landed at 
New Orleans and worked on the Mississippi Biver and at St. 
Louis, Missouri, six years. Left St. Louis, April 15, 1850, for 
an overland journey across the plains, arriving at Placerville 
in October same year. Engaged in mining and packing mer- 
chandise for seventeen years, enjoying the many pleasures of 
this excitable life, and also suffering many hardships of camp 
life from exposure, being afflicted many weary months with 
rheumatism. After traveling over a large portion of Califor- 
nia, he came to Santa Cruz County in 1866, and bought a 
ranch of 180 acres, where he now resides in Branciforte Dis- 
trict at the Rodera Gulch, near Soquel. His present busi- 
ness is farming and dairying. He keeps twenty cows, mostly 
Durhams, and a fine lot of horses and other stock. 

He married Fredreca Hagemann June 23d, 1867, in San 
Francisco. She died October 7th, 1871. He married his 
second wife, whose name was Lucie Fischer, December lst^ 
1873. His family consists of four children. Mr. Winkle de- 
scended from long lived ancestory, and is now in the enjoy- 
ment of sound health, and in a fair way to live many years 
and enjoy a quiet life on his valuable farm, which is supplied 
with everything desirable — valley land, hill, stream, orchard, 
garden and flowers. 



John S. Mattison, who has a 6ne residence west of Soquel, 
was bom at Hudswell, near Richmond, North Riding, of York- 
shire, England, January 18th, 1823. His parents soon moved 
to Richmond, where they resided until 1839 when they and the 
rest of the family came to the United States. They purchased a 
farm in Yates Co., N. Y., and there the young man lived unti 
1846 when he started for the so-termed "West," landing m 
Chicago in May, of that year. In July he went to Michigan 
City Ind., and started a boot and shoe manufactory, in which 
business he was engaged when the California gold fever broke 
out. On the seventh day of March, 1849, he started for Cali- 
fornia, going by stage to Chicago, where he connected himself 
with others about to start for the « New Eldorado." He traveled 
with oxen through Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, and on the 
seventhly of May crossed the Missouri River. He traveled 
the old trail until he arrived within sixty miles of the sink of the 
Humholt when he unfortunately followed Hudspeth and Myers 
on what is called the « Greenhorn's Cut-off;" so that he did not 
arrive in Sacramento until the seventh day of October, 1849. 
From here he went to Auburn, on the North Eork of the Amer- 
ican River, where he voted for the first State Constitution. 

Left soon after for San Francisco, where he was engaged to 
g0 to Santa Cruz, in which place he arrived Christmas day 
1849, after having been two weeks atsea. The next spimg he 
went to the mines where he remained during the summer and 
then returned to Santa Cruz, where he engaged in hemanu ac- 
ture of saddles. In the fall of 1853 he went back to the State 
of New York-where his father still lived- expecting to return 
soon; but his health getting poor, his physician advise 1 urn not 
to take the trip, so he had to postpone his return. In the spung 
he visited his friends in Chicago and Indiana 

He returned to New York and attended the session of he 

National Division of the Sons of Temperance which was held m 

June! 1854, at St. Johns, New Brunswick where he represented 

the State of California, of which State he had been G. W. *. 

"Li summer of 1855 he again went to ^Indiana and engaged 

SZ^Panln^d Vent immediately onto the £o ^ere 
he now resides, having bought the same m 18d2. This , cons^ 
Z, of 96 acres, is beautifully situated about one mile from the 

the former and three miles from the latter place. 


The mineral spring recently discovered on the farm of B. C. 
Nichols, seems likely to become an important addition to the 
resources and attractions of Santa Cruz county, if properly 
Utilized Physicians have pronounced the water to be highly 
beneficial in dyspepsia, general debility and kindred diseases, and 
in some cases have prescribed it for use by their patients. The 
spring whs discovered while digging a tunnel, the water perco- 
lating through the rocks. It is collected in basins dug in the 
bottom of the tunnel, and the neighbors and visitors take it 
away by the gallon. Mr. Nichols informs us that various de- 
grees of strength can be obtained, the water in some places 
being more strongly impregnated with minerals than in others. 
This discovery may eventually make Aptes a noted sanitarium 
Mr Lan-e, chemist, of San Francisco, recently made a careful 
analysis of a quantity of the water, and gives the result in the 
following letter to Mr. Nichols :— 

« I take pleasure in informing you as to the result of Lhe analysis of 
you mineral water. I find, upon examination, that the iron (which is 

Anally in the state of a protoxide) become. converted into an «d* 
in consequence of its coming in contact with the air and light. By its 

1 n pTperties, the spring ranks among the iron and ^»W 
ChalyLe waters are divided into carbonated and sulphuretted, the 
fomr beng brisk, sparkling and acidulous, the later containing sul- 
nlTe They are of service in anemia, chlorosis, and in cases of great 
a e my, not attended with plethora, fever or inflammation. The, use 
blackens the stools. One-half a gallon contains. *&*?*?£ 
Ifi7 75 ■ sulphate of iron, 19.35 ; sulphate of magnesia, 17.72 , sulphate 
oflune, tf&icJlodd- of sodium, 1.90 ; silica a trace. Total grains, 

262 - 83 - Ernst Lange, 

Analytical Chemist." 

Mr Nichol's residence is delightfully situated, looking out 
upon'the tall, graceful redwoods in front, and upon the passmg 
ZL in the L, The Aptos station is only a short distance 
off The farm is in a good state of cukWmn, and will pro- 
duce fine crops of grain. The orchard and garden produces an 
abundance for family use. The farm indicates he success ul 
manatment of its owner. Its favorable situatron and valu- 
able mineral spring gives it a permanent value. 



This place is chiefly noted foTThe magnificent hotel and other 

inib pw** - snreckles as a summer resort. It is 

buildings erected by ^ M /^™ ™ Q It derives its name 

and who have ^J^J^ZZ^ junction of the two 

Aptos »■*•**•*£» ^ZZtj road crosses each branch 

branches of Aptos £«fc The co y ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

of the creek by budges or the 

tw r y ^■srsrs^a Ki *- — - 

water. The Santa oru erected by general 


and one store. 

This fine hotel building, known - ^"ts 1 cTz 

erected by Joseph Arano, at the Aptos depot, on the Santa Cruz 

Rauroadand about one hundred yards from the beach, on a 

ntleve plateau, between two of the finest trout streams na 

fce SUte The house contains, on the first floor, one fine store, 

Postoffice and bar-room. The hotel proper contains 28 fine 

We and sunny rooms, all of which are m elegant order. The 

^nds contain one and one-half acres of land, *£*£££ 

buildings, and plenty of good mountam water. The ^house* 

new and elegantly finished. It is m every respect a first-class 

hotel Spell terms can be made for famrhes who ™h a 

number of rooms, or to remain for the season. Our Jlustrafon 

Zt he situation of this fine property close to the .railroad 

111 view of the hills in the immediate rear. Attached to 

Z hotel is a fine yard and garden, with arbors and fountams. 




This magnificent hotel, its surrounding buildings and cot- 
tages, is the largest and finest summer resort in the State. The 
main hotel building is 170 Feet front by 130 feet in depth, two 
stories in hight, well and substantially constructed, with fane, 
large, broad halls; spacious and elegantly furnished rooms; lit 
with gas throughout, and supplied with first-class conveniences 
of every kind. It is hard finished throughout; its dining-room 
large, roomy and pleasant. The table is supplied with the best. 
Situated about 200 feet from the hotel, to the west, but in 
pleasant view, is the pavilion, a neat, tasty, handsomely orna- 
mented building, one story in hight; in which are contained the 
billiard room, ten-pin alley, and room for private games. Here 
is, also, a well-conducted bar, supplied with choice liquors and 
cigars Here, with a little legerdemain, an impromptu ball- 
room is prepared where delightful hops take place, participated 
in by the guests and visitors from abroad. Splendid, pure water 
is conveyed to the hotel and grounds, from a distance of three 
miles, affording an ample supply for use about the buildings, 
and for irrigating the grounds. 

In addition to the hotel, and situated on high ground, nicely 
terraced, are a series of cottages for families, or those who desire 
more privacy, or to live by themselves. 

The hotel faces the ocean, and has all modern improvements, 
with bath-rooms and water-closets on each floor. The lawn in 
front of the hotel is a natural slope, well laid out into walks 
and drives, and stocked with flowers. From the upper wmdows 
a most magnificent panoramic view is obtained. On one side 
you look upon the broad Pacific, whose restless waves make 
never-ending music as they surge upon the sandy beach chasing 
eaeh other in rapid succession. In the other direction is a suc- 
cession of changing hill, valley and mountain, whose sides are 
decked with flowers and capped with tall redwoods, were are to 
be found pleasant groves, woods, flowing, clear water and 
agreeable grounds. 

The beach at Aptos is hard and safe, and the footmg in the 
surf is of the securest kind. It is considered the very safest 
beach for bathing that there is anywhere. Every precaution is 
taken to insure thorough and complete security for the women 
and children who bathe there. It is level and shallow for a long 
way out, smooth and compact. On this beach people can walk 
or drive for miles. - , , 

In connection with the hotel is a livery stable, which is hand- 
somely kept, and is provided with some of the very best de- 
scriptions of horses, and where buggies, rockaways and four-in- 
hands, gotten up in elegant style, may always be obtained, and 
experienced drivers always at command. 

Take the whole place together, it is admirably adapted for the 
purposes intended, and Mr. Claus Spreckles is entitled to a vast 
amount of praise for the public enterprise evinced by him m 
providing so attractive and agreeable a place of resort. 

The hotel is under the management of Mr. F. Baehr, formerly 
State Treasurer, who does every thing within his power to render 
hls guests comfortable and satisfied. Aptos Hotel, under his 
care, combined with its natural resources, has become the most 
important seaside resort on this coast. 

Ltos is very easy of access. The cars of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company make daily trips connecting with the 
narrow-gauge road at Pajaro, which passes within a short dis- 
tance of the hotel. 



The twentv miles of narrow-guage railroad from the .Pajaro 
Valley to the Bay of Monterey at Santa Cruz, has been in 
operation about e^hteen mouthy j, and has ^^ U "^ 
ened the growth of the town. It connects with the Southern 
Pacific Railroad at Pajaro, and acts as a feeder to ^that bn* 
By means of this little railway, built in the teeth of much 
opposition, Santa Cruz reaches out for the trade of the valley 
and finds a market for her lumber, lime and leather in the 
great vallev of the Salinas beyond. The railroad, by giving 
the means "of rapid eommunication with San Francisco and all 
parts of the State and the Bast, has called attention to town 
and valley, and will cause an immigration of the best class of 
citizens. Nothing has done so much to call forth the latent 
resources of the county, and tend to increase her wealth and 
population, as the railroad. The upper portion of the county 
has been specially benefited. 


The Felton and S. C. R. R. was incorporated with a capital 
stock of $500,000. Its incorporators were J. S. Carter, J_P. 
Pierce C G. Harrison, G. H. Gorrell and W. D. Tisdal. The 
road extends from Santa Cruz up into the San Lorenzo Valley, 
eight miles to Felton, where it connects with a V flume, through 
which lumber is transported from the redwoods to the latter 
town, consigned to the wharves at Santa Cruz. It was opened 
for business in October, 1S75. 


The South Pacific Coast Railroad Company have constructed 
a road from Oakland to Santa Cruz. The route adopted carries 
it by a long tunnel at the summit near Mountain Charley's, 
out at the headwaters of the Zyante creek; thence down the 
Zyante valley until reaching the San Lorenzo river opposite the 
town of Felton; thence down the east bank of the San Lorenzo 
to Santa Cruz. This route is eight miles shorter than any other 
line discovered. This road passes through six tunnels in a dis- 
tance of twelve miles. From Oakland the road skirts the edge 
of the waters of the bay, and passes through tunnels and deep 
cuts and around sharp curves, making a romantic Tide. Over 
the mountain chain and down through the redwoods to^Santa 
Cruz cannot be surpassed by any other route in California, and 
it is- no stretch of the imagination to anticipate as a certainty, 
Ion" passenger trains crowded with visitors and pleasure seekers 
from the great mart of the Pacific Coast ascending to the moun- 
tain summit from the valley— thence descending by long 
sweeping curves and easy grades through the forests of gigantic 
redwoods— now in wild solitude— then made to resound and 
echo with the shrill whistle of the locomotive, and down the 
San Lorenzo canon, the high cliffs on either side, the lofty 
summits of which, shimmering in the sunlight, stand sentinels 
to greet the flying passengers, on their way to the Newport of 
the Pacific. 

Santa Cruz, with this quick and delightful commutation 
with the metropolis, is destined to become an important place 
of residence for people desirous of getting away from the city 
and locating in a convenient as well as pleasant locality. 




Date. Member of Assembly. 

1HCOJT R Per Lee*. 
L85I E B Kellogg*.. 
1852 C P Stevenson, 

1853 F M Kittredgt 

1854 W WStow... 
1*5.'. W WStow. 

















187 1 









Win Blackburn*. 

B II Miles* 

IC Willson*.... 

II A Imua* 

J L Halstead... 

Chas Ford 

Thos Eagar. 

I C Willson*.... 

A Devoe 

A Devoe 

Wm Anthony. . 
Wra Anthony. . 
George Pardee. 
George Pardee. 

F A Hihn 

F A Hihn 

G M Bockius. . . 
G M Bockius. . . 
C L Thomas. . . 

C L Thomas 

Henry Rice. . . . 
Henry Rice. . . . 
George Pace. 
George Pace. 

County Treasurer. 

1850'JL Majors*.. 
185l|j L Majors... 

1852 J L Majors... 

1853 Geo W Crane. 

1854 H F Parsons. 


H F Paraons. . 

N H Stockton. 

N H Stockton. 

N 11 Stockton. 
1 SCI) N II Stockton . 
1860JO K Stampley 
1861 K Stampley 



















A A Hecox 

A A Hecox . . . 

S W Field... 

S W Field... 

FE Bailey... 

FE Bailey... 

S A Bartlett. 

S A Bartlett 

S W Blakely 

S W Blakely 
A R Meserve 
A R Meserve 
A R Meserve 
A R Meserve 
George Otto.. 
George Otto- 
George Otto. 
George Otto 

(Jaunty Judge. 

Win Blackburn*. . 

TR Per Lee* 

PR Per Lee 

TRPer Lee 

Henry Rice 

Henry Rice 

Henry Rice 

Henrv Rice 

G M Bockius 

G M Bockius 

G M Bockius 

G M Buckius 

R F Peckham... 

R F Peckham.... 

AW Blair 

AW Blair 

A W Blair 

A W Blair 

Albert Hagau. . . 

Albert Hagan. . . 

Albert Hagau.. . 

Albert Hagan. . . 

E H Heacock. . . 

EH Heacock. .. 

E H Heacock. . . 

F J McCann .... 

A Craig 

A Craig 

A Craig 

A Craig 

District Attorney, 


Abram de Long*. . .'Frank Alzina 

Abram de Long Frank Alzina 

H Richardson Frank Al/.ina 

It F Peckham Frank Alzina 

RF Peckham LG Caldwell*.... 

R F Peckham L G Caldwell 

J H Coult* OK Stampley 

J H Coult !<> K Stampley 

.1 11 Skirm John T Porter 

J II ^kirm John T Porter. 

County Clerk. 

J P Stearns 

J P Stearns 

J P Stearns 

J P Stearns 

Edmund Pugh*. 
Edmund Pugh* , 

B F Bailey 

B F Bailey 

Julius Lee 

Julius Lee 

Julius Lee 

Julius Lee 

J H Logan 

J H Logan 

A Crai g 

A Craig 

J H Logan 

J H Logan 

J H Logan 

J H Logan . 

John T Porter.. . 
John T Porter... 

Chas Kemp* 

Chas Kemp 

A Calderwood. . . 
A Calderwood. . . 

Albert Jones 

Albert Jones. . . . 
C II Lincoln 
C PI Lincoln 
A L Rountree. . 
A L Rountree. . 
Robert Orton. .. 
Robert Orton . . . 
Robert Orton. . . 
Robert Orton. . . 
Robert Orton. . . 
Robert Orton . . . 
Robert Orton. . . 
[Robert Orton . 

Peter Tracy* 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

I C Willson*..., 

IC Willson 

JF J Bennett... 
J F J Bennett.. 
D J Hashim*... 
D J Haslam. . . . 

D J Haslam 

D J Haslam. . . . 
D J Haslam. . . . 

D J Haslam 

II H Hobbs.... 
HH Hobbs... 
Albert Brown. . 
Albert Brown. . 
Albert Brown. . 
Albert Brown . . 
H E Makinney 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 

Auditor and Becorder, 

Peter Tracy* 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

Peter Tracy 

1 C Wilson* 

I C Wilson 

J F J Bennett... 
JF J Bennett... 
D J Haslam* . . . 

D JPTaslam 

D J Haslam 

D J Haslam 

D J Haslam 

D J Haslam 

TT Tidball 


II H Hobbs 

II II Hobbs 

Albert Brown . . . 
Albert Brown . . , 
Albert Brown . . . 
Albert Brown . . . 
H E Makinney.. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
HE Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 































County Assessor. 

G Hammond* 

Thos Walker 

A P Sanford* 

A P Sanford 

N Gordon* 

T M Davis 

T M Davis 

T M Davis 

W T Flenderson 

OK Stamplev 

M V Bennett 

M V Bennett 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor. ... 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Nelson Taylor 

Chas R Hoff 

Chas R Ploff 

Chas R Hotf 

Chas R Hoff 

Chas R Hoff 

< :has R Hoff 

Chas R Hoff 

Chas R Hoff 

County Surveyor. 

E B Kellogg* 

I W Wright 

T W Wright 

1'W Wright 

TW Wright 

T W Wright 

T W Wright 

TW Wright 

T W Wright 

Benj Hames* 

Benj Hames 

Benj Hames 

Benj Hames 

Benj Hames 

A McPberson — 

A Mc-Pherson 

A McPherson — 

A McPherson 

S W Foreman. . . 

A McPherson. .. . 

M V Bennett 

M V Bennett.... 

P McPherson 

P McPherson 

P McPherson 

P McPherson.. . 
TW Wright.... 
TW Wright.... 
T W Wright 
T W Wright 

Public AdminiBtrator- 

R Cathcart*. 

R Cathcart*. 
R Cathcart*. 
A A Hecox... 
A A Hecox.. 
A A Hecox.. 
M Anderson. 
M Anderson. 
TT Tidball. 

Super'tendent Public Schools), 




Farnham. . . . 


Farnhain. . . . 
L Matthews. 
L Matthews. 
L Matthews. 
L Matthews. 

A C Peckham. . 

AC Peckham. . 

C O Cummings. 

C O Cummings. 

F E J Canney. , 

F E J Canney. . 





Henry Speel*. . . 
Henry Speel . . . 
Henry Speel . . . 
E S Penlield... 
E S Penfield... 

J Ronsdall 


Dr Lively 

RK Vestal 

RK Vestal 

J Grant 

I Grant , 

FE Bailey.... 

F E Bailey 

C Burrell 

C Burrell 

L Farnham. . . 

L Faruham. . . 

S S Simmons. . 

S S Simmons. . 

EC Cleveland* 

EC Cleveland* 

B P Kooser . . . 

B P Kooser... 

F E J Canney. 

FE J Canney.. 

BPFagen W H Hobbs. 

B P Fatien W H Hobbs 

BPFagen WH Hobbs 

BPFagen |W H Hobbs 

I C Willson .... 
I C Wilson*.... 
T W Wright... 
TW Wright... 
A Hathaway. .. 
A Hathaway. -. 

D J Haslam 

D J Haslam 

WC Bartlett... 

P Y Cool 

H P Stone 

H P Stone 

H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
H E Makinney. 
I-I E Makinney. 
W H Hobbs.... 
IW H Hobbs.... 
































A.Moore, *A. J. Elden 

1852 E. Anthony, J- Daubenbiss, Eli Moore, M. A. Meder- 

iMfifi H Williams. *G. Parsons, H.W. White 
857 J'd'nl.u', R. G. Hinckley, *Dauiel Sco t 

1858' John Daubenbiss, *George Parsons, Thomas Walker 

1859 John L. Cooper, John B. Parrott, John Hames 

860 Edmund Jones, John B. Parrott John Fames. . 

1863 8. A. Bartlett, John B. Parrott, *John Curtis 

1862 F. A 

1 863 F. A 

1864 F. A 

1X05 F, A 
1866 F. A 

[lilm, B. A. Barney, B. F. Porter.. 
Hihn, B. A. Barney, B. F. Porter . 
Hihn, B. A. Barney, J. W Towne. 
Hihn. B.A.Barney. J. W. Towne. 
Hihn, B. A. Barney. J. W. Towne. 

F A Hihn, T. W. Moore, Thos. Walker, J. Parsons, B A. Barney 

P. F. Dean, Jacob Parsons Thomas Walker 

P. F. Dean, Jacob Parsons ■ 

P. F. Dean, Jacob Parsons 

P. F. Dean, Jacob Parsons 

Dean, F. F. Porter 

F Dean F F. Porter 

K. Baldwin, O. Steinmetz, Jas. Waters, F.J. Porter. 
IC Baldwin, C. Steinmetz, Jas. Waters, F. i. loiter 
I! Bl n C. Steinmetz, D.M. Aldrieh, F.F. Porter 
K Baldwin, C. Steinmetz, D.M. Aldrieh, F.F Porter 
J F. Cunningham, L. K. Baldwin, C. Steinmetz, D. M. Aldnch 

F. F. Porter 

J. F. Cunningham, L. K. Baldwin 
S. F. Grover 

George Anthony 
George Anthony 
George Anthony 
George Anthony 
B. Pevton, P. F, 
B. Peyton, P. F. 
B. Peyton, L. K 
B. Peyton, L. K 
B. Beyton, L. K 
B. Pevton 


C. Steinmetz. D. M. Aldrieh 


'Thuso iiaiiiu/iinirltcJ with all aaturisk are now 



Santa Cruz has had its share of newspapers. There are six 
issued at tliis date. One, the Recorder, of Watsonville, is a 
daily. It cannot be doubted, whatever their imperfections may 
have been, that each has contributed something to the welfare 
and advancement of the county. The 


Having been the longest in the field, lias unquestionably earned 
the thanks of the people for the knowledge of the county it has 
Spread abroad, and therefore deserves first mention. 

It was first published in the town of Monterey, June 2d, 1855, 
the town of Monterey then being the seat of government of 
Monterey county, and the name of the paper was the Monterey 
Sentinel. Its founders were John McElroy, and Delos R. 
Ashley, subsequently State Treasurer. But Mr. Ashley was 
never known in connection with its ownership or management, 
renting his half at $25 per month till 1S65, when he sold his 
interest to B. P. Kooser for $600. 

B. P. Kooser was a pioneer printer of California; he issued in 
the fall of 1846 the first number of the Californian, which was 
printed on an inferior quality of paper used for tobacco wrap- 
pers. He was at that time a corporal in the United States 
Army. He set the type and worked off the first number of the 

When the Monterey Sentinel was first issued it was printed 
in the Curatel Library Rooms, corner California and Webster 
streets. At the end of volume 1, 1856, it was moved to Santa 
Cruz, and published under the head of the Pacific Sentinel, F. 
K. Krauth being one of its publishers for a few weeks. Sub- 
sequently, and at a later date the same year its publishers were 
A. M. Parry & Co., the "Co.," undoubtly representing Mr. 
MeElroy, who was absent at the time. In 1859 the firm name 
was McElroy & Grave; in I860, 1861, and 1862, J. McElroy 
and S. W. Blakely; in 1863, W. W. Boughton & J. F, Liston; 
1S64, J. F. Liston, J. D. Hyde and C. O. Cummings; at a later 
period the same year, Hyde, Cummings and 0. T. Heeox. This 
partnership continued but a short time, when Mr. Hyde bought 
out Messrs Hecox &. Cummings, each owning a sixth interest, 
and sold the half owned by the three to Duncan McPherson, 
Mr. Hyde renting the Ashley half, the firm being Hyde & 
McPherson. September 13, 1804, Mr. Hyde sold his lease and 
interest in the business to J. D. Allison, and the firm name 
became Allison & McPherson. This partnership continued 
till April 1, 18GG, when Allison was succeded by B. P. Kooser. 
Prior to this date the name of the paper had been changed to 
the Santa Cruz Sentinel, and the new proprietors distinguished 
their ownership by purchasing the material of the Californian, 
a journal published for a time at San Juan, Monterey County. 

They enlarged the Sentinel to 32-columns anil published it 
on paper 24x30 inches. April 1, 1870, Mr. McPherson sold out 
to F. P. Littlefield. For a few weeks the firm name was Kooser 
&• Littlefield, when it became Kooser, Littlefield & Co., this new 
partnership being brought about by the consolidation of the 
Sentinel and the Santa Cruz Co. Times, and the silent partner 
was C. R. Huff, in December of the same year Mr. Hoffsold 

out to Duncan McPherson. In 1873 Messrs. Littlefield and 
McPherson sold out to J. H. Hoadley, who immediately sold 
one-half of his purchase to H. G. Shaw. In 1874 Mr. Shaw sold 
nut, to B. P. Kooser, and the partnership of Kooser & Hoadley 
continued till 1876, when Mr. Kooser sold out to Messrs. Mc- 
Pherson and C. W. Waldron. The Partnership of McPherson, 
Hoadley & Waldron was dissolved May 27, 1879, by J. H. 
Hoadley withdrawing from the firm. All the gentlemen named 
in connection with the ownership of the Sentinel are alive, with 
the exception of Messrs. Ashley and Kooser. 

The first issue of the Sentinel was on paper 20x36 inches, 20 
columns; subscription, per annum $6. In 1850 the subscription 
price was reduced to $5, and in 1865 the Sentinel was enlarged 
to 32 columns and worked on paper 24x36 inches. In 1S70 the 
subscription price was reduced to S3 50 per annum; in 1873, to 
$3, and the paper enlarged to its present size, 36 columns, and 
worked on paper 2Sx42 inches. 

The Sentinel is now edited by Duncan McPherson. It is a 
Republican paper, and has been an able advocate of those prin- 
ciples, as well as an earnest champion of the interests of the 
county and of all its citizens. It is one^of the best papers issued 
in the interior towns, and is alike a credit to the publishers and 
a subject of pride to the citizens of the county. Its columns 
always contain able articles on the current news of the day ; it 
is indispensable to all who desire to keep posted on current 
local affairs. It has contributed much in its columns to the wel- 
fare and advancement of the county, by well written descriptive 
articles, which of themselves are a valuable history of the county. 
In connection with the Sentinel news department there is one 
of the finest job offices south of San Francisco. Of the four 
presses in use three are power presses. The 


Is the second oldest paper in the county, it was first published 
on the 5th of March, 1868, by J. A. Cottle, with C. O. Cum- 
mings as editor. A few months after, Mr. Cummings became 
associated with Mr. Cottle as proprietor, and under their joint 
management the paper attained a popularity with the people 
for its trenehent style and correct local reports, which it has 
ever since retained. In the spring of 1S59, owing to failing 
health, Mr. Cottle was forced to dispose of his interest, and C. 
O. Cummings became sole proprietor, which position he occu- 
pied until 1874, when W. D. Palmer purchased a half interest, 
Palmer sold out to Cummings a few months after, and no fui*- 
ther change of firm took place until October 1st, 1S76, when 
W. R. Radeliff became a half owner. The firm of Cummings 
& Radeliff still continues. They have worked assiduously for 
the best interests of Pajaro valley, and publish one of the most 
readable locals of the State. The Pajaronian has a good gen- 
eral circulation and possesses a large and remunerative adver- 
tising patronage. It is decidedly Republican in tone, and has 
ever been consistent in its faith. It is the aim of the publishers 
to give their readers an entertaining, truthful family journal 
and in such they succeed. At present the Pajaronian is the 
official paper of the town of Watsonville. Owing to its general 



circulation, situation, etc., it is an advantageous journal in 
which to advertise. Its rate of subscription is S3 per annum, 
Si 50 for six months. 


On the Uth of April, 1875, the Local Item first made its 
obeisance to the public, H. Coffin being then, as now, sole pro- 
prietor. It was the aim of the publisher to make the paper 
pre-eminently a local journal, hence the selection of the name. 
" Local Item." Its success was assured from the start, the line 
of policy mapped out for its future guidance seeming to have 
touched a popular chord, and the people gave it a hearty wel- 
come and generous support. It was bold and outspoken on all 
questions of public policy, having well denned political princi- 
ples and never shirked its duty of condemning wrongdoing in 
public or private life. In pursuing such a course it was not 
sfcrairge that it created animosities and made enemies, tor a 
year the even tenor of its way was undisturbed by any unto- 
ward event. Its subscription list steadily increased, and pros- 
perity smiled upon it. Universally acknowledged as the cham- 
pion of the people's rights, the fearless exposer of corruption 
and rascality, and the unswerving advocate of every just meas- 
ure it was respected by the entire moral element of the com- 
munity, and feared by the base and corrupt. It had made 
bitter enemies, and was a continual thorn in the sides of those 
who feared the exposure of their evil deeds. They set about to 
compass its downfall, and succeeded so far as to cause its sus- 
pension on the 19th of May, 1876. The material on which it 
was printed being rented, the expiration of the lease and the 
unexpected refusal to renew it left the publisher in a predica- 
ment that can be more easily imagined than described. How- 
ever temporarily defeated, but not dismayed, he at once made 
arrangements to resume publication, and though every imagin- 
able stumbling block was thrown in the way of the consum- 
mation of his plans, he had the proud satisfaction of overcoming 
all opposition; and on the 14th of July following, the Local 
Item made its reappearance, with a new office, better equipped 
than ever, and on a more solid foundation. Its reappearance 
was hailed with delight by its large circle of friends, and with 
the deepest chagrin by its enemies. Its career since that time 
has been serene and peaceful. Its previously large subscription 
list has been augmented by constant accessions, and its business 
has steadily increased, and it is second in influence tono paper 
in this section. So nattering did its prospects become that on 
November 7th, 1877, it enlarged from a folio 24x36 in size o 
a quarto 30x44. Its increased patronage has fully justffied the 
change, and it stands now the second newspaper in age in the 
city 'the third in the county, and the largest of them a 1. It is 
fully equipped for doing every description of job work, with 
new type of the latest styles, and the character of its work is 
equal to the best. 


The Courier was started in the spring of 1876, by H. C Patrick 
and Green Majors as proprietors, who had previous^ be- em- 
ployed on the teethe former as manager and the late 
s compositor. Both had been identified with the press o the 
coast before; Mr. Patrick being a veteran in the pro to 
while his future partner, with less experience, contributed to the 
coming firm the elements of determination and energy, lhc 
, •„„ ,;';, first saw daylight in Elys building, on the west side of 

the lower plaza, the identical spot where its luckless predecessor 
had succumbed to the fate of adverse circumstances. lne 
premises were not large enough, and in the second week they 
moved into Otto's Hall. There they remained until the 20th ot 
April 1878, even those capacious quarters bemg no longer ade- 
quate to the requirements for space and convenience, when they 
moved into the fireproof block on Pacific avenue, south of 
Locust street. The composing room and job department of the 
new Courier office is one of the finest occupied by any similar 
establishment in the State, being the entire second story ot the 
building in one apartment, thirty-five feet front on Pacific 
avenue, by seventy feet in depth, elaborately lighted, both by 
an abundance of windows and broad skylights. Adjouung 
these are business and editorial offices, with roomsfor the storage 
of newspaper and job stock, of which they are competed to 
keep a large quantity constantly on hand. In the center ot 
the main room of the establishment stands the new power 
press, which is from the celebrated manufactory of R. Hoe & 
Co of New York, whose inventions have for many years 
placed them in the front rank of the world's press makers Job 
printing, from a poster or show bill of the largest size to the 
most delicate cards; briefs and transcripts for the legal profes- 
sion, mercantile printing, and indeed everything that could be 
done in San Francisco, can as easily and more cheaply be ob- 
tained in this office. , 

In September, 1878, Mr. Patrick purchased the interest ot 
Mr. Majors, and is now the sole owner. His knowledge of what 
a newspaper should be has been used to place the Conner 
anions the first journals of this section. It is rapidly increas- 
ing in circulation since it came under his charge as editor and 
proprietor. It has been an able representative of the Demo- 
cratic party, and of all matters designed to benefit the citizens 
of the county generally. 

Its columns always contain local items aptly written. It 
exerts a good influence over the people by the character of its 
news items and editorials on current subjects. The agricul- 
tural mining, mechanical, and all other industries of the county 
have always found a friend in the Courier. Its columns have 
contained many able articles on the resources of Santa Cruz 
County, many of which we have transferred to these columns 
as contributions to the history of the county. 


The Transcript is an independent newspaper, published 
every Friday afternoon. It was established by Jones & Co., 
and the first number was issued on the 1st of July, 1876, as a 
Democratic sheet. S. A. Jones was editor and publisher and 
the publication was continued under him until the first ot 
April 1877, when Robert S. Forbes bought it. It was con- 
ducted by him for two weeks, when Wm. H. Wheeler, who 
was at the time a compositor on the Virginia ^City | A*Tpn<4 
bought it, taking possession April 18th, 1877. Mr. Whee er 
paid part of the purchase money down and gave his note tor 
the balance. He immediately made the paper independent, 
announcing that it would be the organ of no party, and gave 
his attention strictly to the improvement of its news columns 
Its financial success from that date has been such as few small 
country weeklies can boast. Out of its earnings the no es he 
had -iven for its purchase price were paid betore they fell due. 
The pap<* has been outspoken, and defended and beaten one 



libel suit at an expense of over $500, and the proprietor, who 
came here a poor compositor, now owns his office, with a large 
supply of new type and material, and a new dwelling house 
and lot on the most popular street in town, and other real 
estate, so that he may be said to have a permanent interest in 
the town. In political campaigns the paper is probably the 
most outspoken in the county. Neither his libel suit, nor the 
several personal encounters he has had with offended parties 
has led to the slightest change in the course of the paper. Its 
circulation has steadily increased. It calls itself the working- 
man's friend, as it did before the first move was made towards 
the organization of the workingmen's party, but it is entirely 
independent of the control of any political party. 

In March, 1878, the co-operative inside it had been using 
was discarded, and it was changed from a quarto to a folio, and 
the price reduced from S3.00 to $2.50 per year, strictly in ad- 
vance, and it is one of the few county papers of the State 
which adhere to this rule, and discontinue every copy at the 
expiration of the time paid for. 


The above named little paper was started in Watsonville on 
the 3d of March, 1870, by John A. Studabecker, who sold the 
paper at the end of the first month to Judd & Kusel, the latter 
of whom in turn purchased the interest of his partner, and re- 
tains it at the present time. 

The Recorder, although small, makes up in life and energy 
what it lacks in size. In proof of its outspokenness, the pro- 
prietors had two fights, and threatenings of more, before they 
had been a month in charge of it. But they have undauntedly 
kept on their way, regardless of the threats or enmity of any 
one; and every issue contains another lick, as hard as its prede- 
cessor, in the interest of the cause for which its editor is laboring. 
In politics it savors very decidedly of the sand lot, its editor 
and proprietor firmly believing, and stoutly maintaining, that 
the future welfare of the State wholly depends on the success 
of the movement inaugurated and led by Denis Kearney. 

Durinc the Constitutional fight the Recorder was of course 
in favor of the adoption of the new Constitution, and worked 
very hard and earnestly to assist the people in attaining that 
end. The morning after the election, viz: the 8th of May, it 
came out in the national colors, red, white and blue, being the 
only paper in the State that had the energy and enterprise to 
do so. As an additional proof of the enterprise of Mr. Kusel, 
we will mention that the red, white and blue paper, of the 8th 
of May, contained the full vote of the State, by towns and 
counties; telegrams being received up to the hour of going to 
press in the morning. 

The Recorder also has the honor of being the first and only 
daily ever published in the thriving little town of Watsonville, 
and ever since its inception, has been, and at the present time is 
the only daily in Santa Cruz county, and consequently is the 
finest advertising medium in the county. In addition to quite 
a u-eneral circulation among the farmers, it has quite an exten- 
sive circulation in the city of Santa Cruz. 

Its advertising rates are very low, being but ten dollars a 
month for a column, or one dollar an inch. For local lines, five 
cents a line for first insertion, or ten cents a line per week. Its 
subscription rates are but two dollars a year, in advance, being 
the cheapest daily on the coast 

All communications should lie addressed to I. N. Kusel, editor. 


On the 20th day of July, 1854, Father P. De Vos Society of 
Jesus, selected the spot destined for a temple suitable for exer- 
cising his holy ministry, also a spot destined for a cemetery 
near said church, all containing about ten acres of land donated 
by Messrs. William F. White and Eugene Kelley and located 
near a lake called Laguna Grande. Through the unceasing 
efforts the good Father De Vos and his kind friends, among 
whom was Mr. William F. White, the structure was completed. 

On the 25th of May, 1S56, Right llev. Thadeus Amat, Bishop 
of Monterey and Los Angeles, Very Rev. Father Gonzales, 
Vicar-General of the Diocese and Superior of the Franciscan 
Order, and Father Francis Mora, (now Bishop Mora) solemnly 
blessed and placed under the protection of the holy Mother of 
God the first church built in Pajaro Valley. 

After a few years it became necessary to enlarge it, through 
the great increase of its members. Father Benedict Capdevila, 
then Pastor of Santa Cruz and Pajaro, after a laborious task of 
years succeeded in enlarging and finishing the building. 

On the 11th day of March, 1860, he, Father Benedict Capde- 
vila, assisted by Rev. Fathers Cornelias, Russell and Mora, (now 
Bishop Mora) did bless aforesaid church under the invocation 
of the blessed Mother of God. Some years afterwards Right 
Rev. Thadeus Amat, then Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, 
conceived the idea of buiding an Orphan Asylum. After a 
mature deliberation, he came to the conclusion that Pajaro 
Valley was the most suitable place to locate such an institu- 
tion. He accordingly commenced the work immediately and 
succeeded, by the most strenuous efforts, in building a home 
for the poor and helpless orphan. 

Many a lonely and abandoned child has enjoyed the com- 
forts of a happy and peaceful home since it has been founded 
by that good and charitable man. May he enjoy eternal happi- 
ness and peace in the home of the blessed. It is now in a pros- 
perous condition, thanks to the good Franciscans and benefactors 
of the orphan. There are over seventy boys in the institution 
well provided with everything that is necessary and good for 
them, under the administration of the present director (Father 
Francis Codina) everything seems to prosper. 


Roach School-House will be found among our list of illus- 
trations. It is situated about three miles from Watsonville on a 
gentle rise, about half a milefrom the main road to Santa Cruz. 

In location and appurtenances for a county school, it has no 
equal in the county. The district was formed in 18G4; the lot 
containing one acre and a half, w r as donated by William Pat- 
terson, and the lumber by William Roach and L. B. Gardener. 
Obediah Mills and others built the house, the funds being fur- 
nished by subscription. 

School was opened by L. B. Gardener as teacher, with about 
25 pupils, steadily increasing, till now, with Miss Carie Pardee 
as teacher, it has 8S who draw money. 

The first Trustees appointed were B. A. Gardener, William 
Roach and Peter Zills. First school was taught by L. B. Gard- 
ener, followed by Miss Hill, Mr. D. Loyd, Mr. Shurcliff, Miss 
Mary Wright, followed by Messrs. Baum, Linscott, White and 
Ingeram, Miss Mary A. Tyus, Mr. Morton, Miss M. M, Cox, Miss 
Edith Z. Ward, Mr. Geo. W. Hursh, Miss Carrie T. Pardee. 

Personal Notices of Prominent Citizens of Santa Cruz. 

Levi K. Baldwin has a beautiful home, situated at the foot 
of the hill, and overlooking the city, the bay, and the country 
for miles in each direction. The residence is of a substantial 
character, of modern construction, and supplied with all needed 
conveniences. Everything about the place indicates the practi- 
cal thrifty farmer. *The yard is nicely laid out and filled with 
flowers and shrubbery, and everything about the place is indic- 
ative of neatness and care. 

L. K. Baldwin was born in Egremont, Berkshire County, 
Mass., Aug. 10th, 1820, where he resided until the age of thirty, 
when he came to California. His father was a farmer. The 
homestead of the Baldwin's, at the time of Ms birth, had been 
in the family possession for more than ninety years. We have 
represented this old New England home in the illustration of Mr. 
Baldwin's present residence. Mr. Baldwin descends from hon- 
orable ancestors, who were the first settlers of his native town m 
the year 1730. 

He came to California in the spring of 1858, by water. * When 
he decided to come he brought his wife with him; and he owes 
much of his success in the business of butter making to the aid 
of his wife She was also a native of Massachusetts. The next 
year after his arrival, he went into Marin County and resided 
on his ranch until he came to Santa Cruz. While there he was 
highly prospered in his business of dairying. 

Mr Baldwin served three years as Supervisor of his district 
in Marin County, being one of the three who composed the 
Board of Supervisors of that County. 

He is now serving his second term of six years as one of 
the Supervisors of Santa Cruz County. He looks unnaggmgly 
after the interests of the county. He is recorded among the 
heaviest tax payers of Santa Cruz, and takes an active part in 
matters relative to the welfare of the county and his neighbor- 
hood. He is considered one of the most energetic, reliable and 
honorable citizens of Santa Cruz. 

Charles Steinmetz was elected Supervisor in 1873, which 
position he fills with credit to himself and satisfaction to hie 
r,tituents For seven years he has been trustee of the pub- 
Zl "- which he takes great interest. To his efforts is 
Santa Cruz largely indebted for fine school buildings and coin- 
petent teachers. _ 

C Steinmetz was bom in Hanover, Germany, m 1S27, and 
served an apprenticeship to the cabmet-makmg busmess and 
"orkdatthrt trade nntilhelettforA„,erica;ontheloth of Sep- 
tember 1846, he enlisted in the regular army, Company B, Fust 
ArtiS-y Thewar with Mexico was then m progress. He 
Tlril Anril 2 1848, when he was discharged for disabri- 
r e He ttr ed 'to Germany, bnt in November, 1850, we 
find fata in the California mines, wherehe continued un U 1866, 
find tam m» lvan3a , and £ ra m there to the old coun- 

: r h ;iJr Tl e hT Lained one year, after which he came 
t,j agam^ ^ rf ^ entel . pnsmg , re pre- 

IX bull men of Santa Cru, and heartily joins every 

enterprise intended to aid and build up or beautify the city and 
county. He resides in the eastern part of the city, whore he 
has other houses and property. 

J. L. Grover and his son, D. W. Grover, have each fine resi- 
dences, adjoining, in the elevated residence part of Santa Cruz. 
These houses are of neat design, and highly ornamented in con- 
struction. The yards are full of flowers and shrubbery. The 
view from the higher portion of the town, where these residences 
are situated, looking towards the bay, is beautiful. A never- 
ending panorama of neat white houses, covered with trees ; the 
deep, blue waters of the bay ; the tireless breaking of the surf ; 
the passing steamers and sails, present a panorama of beauty 
seldom seen elsewhere. 

J. L. Grover was born in Bethel, Maine, and came to Cali- 
fornia in 1851, first settling in San Joaquin County, where he 
pursued the business of farming. He still owns a valuable 
ranch of 840 acres, ten miles from Stockton, and five miles 
from French Camp. 

D W Grover was born in San Joaquin, in 1852, and came 
to Santa Cruz with his father. He entered into the lumber 
business with J. L. and S. F. Grover, under the firm name 
of Grover Brothers. Their mill and business is desmbed else- 

HON F. A. Hihn has the finest residence in Santa Cruz 
County. It is not alone the pride, of the citizens, but a monu- 
ment to the taste and good judgment of the owner. Tins man- 
sion occupies an elevated situation on large grounds extending 
from street to street, and is a conspicuous and prominent feature 
of the city. The large grounds are tastefully laid out and 
amply stocked with choice flowers and fine trees. A wide 
paved drive extends from street to street, passing in front of the 

The residence is of the most modern construction. Its rooms 
are lar<re and well arranged, and the house is supplied with gas, 
hot and cold water, and all the accessories of a modern dwelling. 
Bav windows adorn the sides, and a lofty tower graces the 
front, from which the whole city and surroundings present a 
beautiful view. 

The residence is indeed handsome and convenient in all its 
parts- the comely dwelling of one who by his industry and fru- 
gality is entitled to its ownership and enjoyment. 
° Mr Hihn represented Santa Cruz County for the years 1870 
and 71 in the State Legislature with ability and success. He 
was a member of the Board of Supervisors for six years, from 
186? to 1SG7. He has always been active in all efforts to pro- 
mote the welfare of his town and county, giving aid to all pro- 
iects he considers for the best interest of Santa Cruz. He is 
''veil posted on all questions of general interest, and a man of 
decided convictions as well as of wonderful executive ability. 
For him to plan is to perform; there is no lagging in any enter- 
prise- when once star ed it is carried to a successful completion. 



Fbedebick Hagemann has a farm of 110 acres, adjoining 
Santa Cruz. It is admirably located, extending from the public 
road to the railroad, and is on a sort of peninsula formed by 
two lagoons which extend out from the bay. A winding av- 
enue, laid out by tin; edge of the ravine, and extending to the 
road, is lined with blue gums, which in a few years will be a 
magnificent drive. The house is surrounded by ornamental 
trees, shrubbery, and flowers. The outbuildings are large and 
well arranged. Water is raised by wind-mills and distributed 
about the premises for farm and domestic use. There are on 
the farm many of those grand old oak trees, whose boughs 
gracefully sweep down and reach the ground. These oaks have 
a great resemblance to the weeping willow or elm of the East. 
The fields look like an old park, as the trees are low-branched, 
wide-spreading, gnarled; they are magnificent in size; they 
must be hundreds of years old; they are disposed about the 
farm in most lovely groups, masses or single ones. Thus the 
farm obtains the name of " Live Oak Ranch." 

The farm is adapted to all kinds of produce, but wheat is the 
chief production; he carries on general farming, and keeps a 
stock of good cattle, horses, hogs and poultry. 

In the large view of this farm ■ the artist has overlooked 
the ranch sufficiently to show well the situation of the land 
which is divided into fields most convenient for use. In the 
distance 13 the bay, with the Monterey Mountains dimly seen. 
In the background will be noticed a train of cars, on the Santa 
Cruz Railroad, just passing over the bridge at one of the lagoons. 
From the residence veranda is obtained a charming view of dis- 
tant mountains and redwood forests on one side; on the other 
the bay and ocean, while in front is seen the city with its spires 
and prominent buildings. 

Mr. Hagemann was born in 1824, in Hanover, Germany. He 
came to California in 1853. In 1852 he landed in New York, 
where after six months' residence he went south. He left New 
Orleans on the 5th of May, 1852, aud visited various places in 
South America, and suffered shipwreck at Cape Horn. He was 
eleven months in making the trip to San Francisco, where he 
arrived in March, 1853, entirely without funds. The mines of 
Placerville were visited, where work was obtained at $5 per 
day. He invested his earnings in mines, which proved a total loss. 

He came soon after to San Francisco and opened a retail 
shoe store, under the firm name of Delger & Hagemann, for 
two years. This business was enlarged to a wholesale trade. 

In 1861 he returned to his native country and remained four 
years. After his return he, in 1866, bought C. Spreckles' in- 
terest in the Albany Brewery, in which business he remained 
for twelve years, and which was conducted under the firm name 
of Spreckles & Co. 

In 1878 he retired from this business, and is now living the 
happy, peaceful life of a farmer, with open doors to receive his 
large circle of friends, who have always admired his honorable 
dealing and energy in business. His successful efforts in thus 
advancing from poverty to competency, is deserving of com- 
mendation, and shows that what one has done others may do by 
nerseverence. From the time Mr. Hagemann quit mining 
speculations until the present he has been successful in all busi- 
ness undertakings. 

He married, in 1855, Minna Graef, a native of Strelitz, 
Mecklenburg, Germany. She died in 1876. In July, 1877, he 
married his second wife, Amelia Cassuben, a native of Holstein. 

William Ely was a native of Oneida county, New York, 
and came to California in 1850. He stopped in Sacramento 
some time, and in 1851 went to the mines near Downieville. 
The winter was a severe one, and the miners suffered many 
hardships and privations. In journeying through the snow, 
which was waist deep, four of the party were lost and frozen to 

Mr. Ely made some money in the mines, and intended to re- 
turn to New York; but, thinking he could add largely to his 
fortune, he went into the business of raising "spuds," near 
Petaluma. Potatoes had been selling at about fifteen cents a 
pound. But the year Mr. Ely went into the business was not 
the year for making fortunes in potato -raising. He paid $125 
per month for common laborers, and a large price for seed. At 
the end of the year he had sunk his $15,000, and was in debt. 
Everybody raised potatoes that year, and they could not be sold 
for the price of the sacks. 

In 1855 he returned to New York, having in the meantime 
accumulated several thousands. At this trip he married Miss 
Catherine Usher, of Ohio, in March, 1850', and returned to 
California. After living in several parts of the State, he came 
to Santa Cruz in 1870. His residence is in the suburbs of the 
city, where he has a good farm of 80 acres, and fine improve- 

J. S. Young was born in the town of Gilmanton, Belknap 
County, State of New Hampshire, Dec. 26th, 1835. 

At the age of eleven years his father died, and when four- 
teen years of age he left his'native town and sought employ- 
ment in the cotton mills at Lowell, Mass., where he remained 
seven years. Then, having become weary of factory life, and 
believing with Mr. Greeley that it was better for a young man 
to "go west," he came to California, via Panama, arriving in 
San Francisco, June 15th, 1857. 

His first work in California was harvesting grain, at which 
he continued about three months. From this he went to the 
mines. Not meeting with success, however, he soon returned 
to San Francisco, where he obtained a situation selling water 
and carrying the Morning Call paper. 

After engaging in this business for two years, he turned his 
attention to the dairying business at Punta Reyes, Marin 
County, where he remained for five years. He then returned 
to Pescadero, San Mateo County, and continued at the same 
business for nine years. 

In 1866, while on a visit East, he married Miss Jennie M. 
Clough, youngest daughter of Dea. Simon Clough, of Gilman- 
ton, New Hampshire. 

In 1868, owing to increase of business, he established 
another dairy in Salinas Valley, Monterey County. In the 
following year, having a good opportunity to dispose of his 
property there, he did so, and moved with his family to Santa 
Cruz, where he resided until 1872. At that time he closed 
out his business in California and returned to his native place, 
intending to permanently settle there, but after endurino- the 
severity of the New England climate for four years, he became 
so dissatisfied with its extremes of heat and cold that he deter- 
mined to again seek his home in the Golden State — hence his 
return to Santa Cruz, where he hopes to spend the remainder of 
his days. 



FREDERICK E4LLSWOBTH BAILEY, an old setter of Santa Cruz, 
was born in Ward wick, Caledonia County, Vermont, of hardy 
New England ancestry. The first twenty-one years of bis life 
were spent in assisting to cultivate his father's farm, and 
attending the excellent schools there, as he had opportunity- 
He then started, unassisted; to educate himself, and acquire the 
profession of his choice, which he accomplished by teaching 
winters, and hard study at all hours of the early morning, his 
favorite time for study. 

At one time, he was a student in Dartmouth College; after- 
wards he graduated from the Western Reserve Medical Col- 
lege, in 1857. The same year ;he married Mary Stuart, of 
Vermont, and commenced the practice of his profession in the 
then new State of Wisconsin. 

In 1852, in company with his wife and an older brother, he 
crossed the continent. After stopping a short time in several 
mining localities, he came from Nevada City to Santa Cruz in 
June, 1858, at which time there was only one practicing phy- 
sician in the county, Dr. Rawson, who was in declining health. 
Since that time he has seen Santa Cruz grow from a little 
hamlet to its present proportions. He has labored faithfully 
to relieve the afflicted, and the poor and unfortunate have 
always found a friend in him. At the present time he is 
county physician. 

Dr. F. M. Kittredge. In the death of Dr. Kittredge, which 
occurred February 13th, 1879, Santa Cruz lost one of its oldest 
and most respected citizens. The following lines in reference 
to his character and career we find in the Local Item: 

" He came to California in 1849, and to Santa Cruz in 1851; 
and since that time has been identified with, and taken an 
earnest part in, the welfare of the place, filling many offices of 
trust for the general government. He was a native of Little- 
ton Middlesex county, Mass., a graduate of Dartmouth Medical 
College, and practiced, medicine in Chelmsford and Lowell for 
twenty years belore coming to California, and although he did 
nut practice medicine here as a profession, his well known 
skill and ability made him a valuable consulting physician in 
all difficult eases, and his great kindness to the poor, whom he 
served gratuitously, and his friends who consulted him, occu- 
pied most of his time. He was a man of active habits, work- 
in- with zeal in anything he undertook. He possessed sound 
judgement, a genial disposition, was ready in conversation, and 
had°a large store of literary knowledge as well as general in- 
formation He took the side of the poor and the weak, and the 
blows he struck for the right against the wrong were bold 
and vigorous. He was a fearless speaker and writer, never 
pausin°to curry favor, and the sharpness of his words gave 
him a seeming severity which was not a part of his nature, as 
he possessed a truly tender heart, which can be most fittingly 
testified to by the large number of the poor and the afflicted 
whom he benefitted, who will miss his kindness and mourn 
his loss. 

W T Cope has a new. and stylish residence in Santa Cruz, 
constructed on modern plans. It is located upon a corner near 
the railroad mid street-car lines, and its handsome design and 
substantial appearance attracts the attention of passengers. It 
was erected in 1877. 

Mr. Cope is a native of California, and was born in San Jose, 
in November, L652. In 1868 he came to Santa Cruz, where he 
has since resided. 

In AuoTist, 1875, he opened a hardware business, in connec- 
tion with his brother, under the firm name of Cope Brothers. 
Since March, 1 879, the business has been conducted by W. T. 
Cope, who keeps an extensive stock of general hardware, as 
well as gas and water pipe. His place of business is in the 
Bernheim Block, on Pacific avenue. He is one of the energetic, 
wide-awake, business men of Santa Cruz. 

Wesley P. Young has a sightly residence, located on the 
bluff overlooking the rest of the town. This elevated table 
land affords many pleasant places for residence, but none have 
natural beauty of location equal to the grounds of W. P. Young. 
The sloping hillside is laid out in a very appropriate manner. 
The walks are so arranged as to make the elevation easy of 
access. The lawn is well kept. There is an abundance of 
flowers, fountains, croquet grounds, and everything desirable for 
a pleasant home. From its commanding elevation a magnifi- 
cent view is obtained of the city and surroundings. It is an 
unusually desirable location, on account of its closeness to the 
business portion of the city, and at the same time is away from 
the noise of business. 

W P. Young was born in Gilmantown, New Hampshire, in 
183s" He came to California in May, 1858. He resided in 
Marin County for six years, and in September, 1864, moved to 
San Mateo County, and made that his home until he came to 
Santa Cruz, in 1868. He is engaged in the business of butcher, 
in the firm of Dakin & Young, who carry on a large business 
in that line, extending to several other places in the county. 
At the election for School Trustee, in June, 1879, he was elected 
as one of the trustees of the city schools. 

S. F. Grover was among the first who entered the Yosemite 
Valley. A party of gold peekers, consisting of Messrs. Grover, 
Tudor Aitch, Sherman, Bahcock, Peabody and Rose, entered 
this valley May 28, 1S52. They were prospecting, when they 
were suddenly attacked by the Indians, who used bows and 
arrows. Sherman and Tudor were killed by arrows. The 
party partially secreted themselves under a projecting rock at 
the side of the majestic walls of that remarkable locality. There 
they remained, fighting the Indians until sundown, and at mid- 
night followed the base of the bluff', and finally reached the top 
at sunrise, where they could overlook the vaUey. Here they 
could see about 200 Indians around then camp-fires. This 
party, on their way to Yosemite, and also on their return, May 
30 1852 passed through the Mariposa Big Tree grove. These 
immense trees attracted their attention, and some of them were 
measured This was the first party of whites who visited this 
<n-ove Mr. Hogg, as late as 1855, visited this grove, and has 
heretofore received the credit of first discovery, as will be seen 
in article on " Big Trees." 

S F Grover was born in Bethel, Maine, in 1830, and came 
to California in December, 1850. He followed mining for some 
time, and lived a while in San Joaquin. He came to Santa 
Cruz in 1866, and is now engaged in the lumber busmess, near 
Soquel, at which place he resides. He is now one of the Board 
of Supervisors of the county. 



Glaus Spreckles has a magnificent property near the center 
of the county and along the edge of the bay of Monterey, on 
which is located the fine Aptos Hotel and surrounding build- 
ings. Tin- ranch is composed of 5,380 acres, about midway be- 
tween Watson ville and Santa Cruz. It fronts upon the bay for 
miles, and extends back into the foot hills of the coast range of 
mountains. The Santa Cruz railroad passes the entire length of 
the ranch. 

This is the notable farm of Santa Cruz county, and deserves a 
conspicuous place in the description of the county, as it has at- 
tained a wide reputation in the State. Its fame reaches back to 
the earliest settlement of whites upon this coast. In early days, 
thousands of Mexican cattle fed upon its sunny slopes, then all 
unenclosed, and with no other adornment than that nature had 
bestowed upon it. Even in the rude and uncultivated condition, 
the premises were remarkable for their beauty of landscape. 

Since it fell into possession of its present occupant, Claus 
Spreckles, he has been daily and yearly lending the aid of art 
and science to beautify, adorn and utilize. Here, now, nature 
and art blend their beauties and uses until they make up the 
most delightful of scenes. 

Mr. Spreckles in selecting a location for his residence made a 
happy choice of a beautiful spot while only a short distance 
from the station, is yet quiet and retired, and at the same time 
one of the most healthful and delightful spots in California. The 
ground slopes from the residence, giving perfect drainage, and 
rendering it a most desirable location. In the immediate front 
of the residence, and from which the sketch of this place was 
taken, is an elevated range of ground on which are beautiful 
California oaks, whose drooping branches reach nearly to the 
ground, festooned with hanging mosses. At the foot of this 
hill is a fine sheet of water, which adds- an additional charm to 
the view. 

At a convenient distance from the residence are various out- 
buildings. The barns and stables are large and roomy, and 
kept in the most neat and orderly manner and all painted white. 
All these buildings are of modern construction, and have been 
put up with a care to contribute to the general neatness and 
beauty of the place, as well as a m atter of comfort and convenience. 

The residence stands out in bold relief, surrounded on all sides 
by verandas, from which a great variety of views are obtained 
of the surrounding country. From the highway, a broad, paved, 
winding drive leads up to the residence, which is a large struct- 
ure, especially fitted up for a country residence. Pure fresh 
water is supplied from mountain springs, and is distributed 
about the place for farm and domestic use. 

Tall and graceful redwoods surround the place in the rear, 
and along the creek which flows through the grounds with its 
never failing water. In the far distance is the prominent moun- 
tain, Loma Prieta, with its dark brow shrouded in fog and clouds. 

Mr. Spreckles is a lover of fine horses, and takes delight in 
procuring the very best breeds. He has some of the finest stock 
in the State. Just back of the residence, and hid by the knoll 
which rises in the rear, is the private race track. Here the speed 
of various animals is tested by a spin around the smooth hard 
track after a fleet horse, and is highly enjoyable to a lover of 
a fast horse. 

The land is generally slightly rolling, and of a superior qual- 
ity. It is generally leased to tenants who raise chiefly wheat, 
hut almost all products are raised on the ranch. 

Substantial fences line the public road which passes through 
this property. Shade trees have been planted along the road 
side, and are growing with rapidity peculiar to the soil and cli- 
mate, and stand in marked contrast to the sturdy oaks or tow- 
ering redwoods adjoining. 

The further improvements and ornamentation of this place, 
now in contemplation, the increase and growth of new trees, 
flowers and shrubbery, will make it the most beautiful spot on 
the coast. 

Claus Spreckles is of the German race, well preserved and 
active in his habits. Large souled in all his numerous business 
operations. He exhibits a large mind, comprehending quickly 
and deciding with unerring judgment. He is a busy man. His 
farm, hotel, sugar refinery in San Francisco, and large sugar 
plantation in the Sandwich Islands keep him constantly em- 
ployed, yet he has always time for a kind word to all, whether 
rich or poor. 

R. M. Garratt has been Superintendent of the Santa Cruz 
and Felton railroad for some years, which position he has filled 
with ability and satisfaction to the company. He has chief 
charge of the fire department of Santa Cruz, which is well 
organized under his leadership. The department has a good 
engine house situated near the court house, and the usual supply 
of fire apparatus. 

Mr. Garratt resides near the beach in a neat cottage, 
to which is attached a beautiful conservatory filled with many 
rare and choice flowers. To an eastern visitor this out door 
collection of flowers in January would be a rare sight. The 
heliotrope in full bloom; the tuberose, the jessamine, the ver- 
bena; large fragrant roses, and many other flowers, would 
satisfy the visitor that Santa Cruz has a mild and uniform 
climate. The proprietor remarked to us, " I do not know the 
day in the whole year when I can not gather a boquet in 
my yard." The inhabitants of Santa Cruz seem to enjoy all 
the advantages of a tropical climate, with but few of its disad- 

John D. Chace has a pretty home on Front street, Santa 
Cruz. He is one of those who came to California soon after the 
discovery of gold. He was born amid the rugged hills of Ham- 
den, Deleware County, N. Y., March 29th, 1830. He set out 
for California, May 28, 1850, on the steamer Ohio for the Isth- 
mus, and reached San Francisco on the steamer Republic, Aug. 
25th, 1850. Like others on the trip at that exciting time, all 
started with high spirits, notwithstanding husbands were leaving 
their wives and children, young men their parents and all that 
was dear to them, to encounter the hardships of a long, tiresome 
journey to the "land of gold." Of the many that started with 
such bright hopes, some were not destined to reach the land 
wherein all then- aspirations had centered. Others that had en- 
dured the hardships of the trip never realized their expectations 

Mr. Chace, of course, went to the mines near Auburn, thence 
to Calaveras County, where he continued mining until the 
spring of 1851. He returned to San Francisco in 1853, follow- 
ing different pursuits until about 14 years ago, when he entered 
the butcher business in Santa Cruz, in which he still remains, 
owning and conducting the principal market in the city. 



Mrs. Martha Wilson erected a large residence on the high 
ground east of the city in 1877. It is of modern construction, and 
supplied with hot and cold water, and other modern appliances 
of first-class dwellings. In front of the house is a nicely laid out 
yard tilled with shrubs and flowers. From the veranda in 
front of the residence, is obtained a fine view of the grand old 
mountain, Loma Prieta, darkened by the forests of redwood on 
its sides. In every direction the view is grand. 

There are very few spots on the earth's surface more beauti- 
ful than this valley, especially in spring time. The magnificent 
mountain scenery, the rich verdure of grain fields, vineyards 
and orchard; the scattered oaks in foliage, and the cosy 
dwellings embossed in flowers and shrubbery, form a picture 
of surpassing loveliness, which thousands of travelers and tour- 
ists have already learned to appreciate. 

Mrs. Wilson came to Santa Cruz in 1871. She was a native 
of England, and came to New York in 1837, and to Illinois in 
1841 where she resided until coming to California. She mar- 
ried Jasper Wilson in April, 1849, in Troy, New York, and 
he died in Illinois in March, 1862. Mrs. Wilson came to Santa 
Cruz on account of her son's health, which has been completely 
restored. Several attempts had been made to live elsewhere, 
but resulted in returns to the uniform temperature and pure 
air of Santa Cruz. 

Thomas Houseworths, and Bradley & Rulofeons. In 1875 he 
became a charter member of the " Art Society of tne Pacific." 
At a competing exhibition of the photographers of the Pacific 
Coast, held July 2, 1876, Mi Hodson's productions were unan- 
imously decided as the best, thereby reflecting great credit toso 
young a member of the photographic fraternity. In 1876 he 
came to Santa Cruz, being in ill health, which bavin- been in- 
vigorated by this unparalleled climate, we find him one of the 
robust and healthy of the county. His sterling integrity and 
business ability has won for him the esteem and friendship of 
the entire community. 

C. B. Younger, Attorney at Law, lives on Laurel street, and 
is one of the prominent men in his profession. The yard and 
grounds of his residence contain the largest collection of choice 
flowers in the city. The yard is laid out in tasteful style and 
the many walks are lined with flowers. A fountain sends up 
its crystal spray in which the birds delight to bathe. In the 
base of the fountain are some choice varieties of water lilUes. A 
conservatory at the side of the residence is filled with a vast 
collection of rare plants. Arbors, vases, and statuary adorn the 
grounds. Mrs. Younger displays excellent taste in selecting 
varieties of flowers and skill in superintending their care and 
cultivation. The citizens are indebted to her for this collection 
and addition to the beauties of Santa Cruz. 

E Elliott has one of the beautiful residences of which 
Santa Cruz boasts so much. It is situated near the edge of the 
bay The place consists of eight acres. The residence is 
placed at sufficient distance from the street to give ample room 
for wide avenues and broad walks. These advantages have 
been wiselv improved, and a circular driveway gracefully 
sweeps from the street to the front of the house, as well as 
passing around in the rear. The yard is filled with trees and 
shrubbery He erected the house in 1856, and all the trees 
and shrubs have been set out since that time. Blue gums 
that were set out four inches in height, were in two years over 
thirty feet high. Acacia trees, two years old from the seed, 
were twelve feet high and five inches diameter. Among other 
trees that have grown rapidly are cypress, pepper, pine and 
palms. Adjoining this place, Mr. Elliott has laid out thirteen 
acres in park form from original designs of his own. This is 
intended for residence purposes, so that each owner may have 
the advantages of the improvements made on the ^olepart 

E Elliott was born in Greene County.. New York, in lMt, 
where his parents had resided. His father came from Albany 
County New York, and his ancestors from Scotland. He lived 
in New' York city until 1856, when he went to Wisconsin, and 
moved from ther'e to California in 1875. He purchased a farm 
of 170 acres in Scott's Valley, adapted to fruit and stock raising 
Of fruit he has every variety, including oranges, apricots, 
English walnuts, grapes, etc. _ _ 

He is at present engaged extensively in mining in Inyo 
County, California, near Panamint Valley, which investment 
promises to prove successful. 

J R HODSOS became a member of the National Photo- 
graphic Association in the year 1867, ^hen but 16 years of 
presiding then in Galena, Illinois. He came to Calrforn a 
in the year 1870, and has been employed m none but the 1 ad- 
ng Jablishments of the coast, such as Bayley &- Winters, 

Delos D. Wilder was born in West Hartland, Conn., Febru- 
ary 23 1826 His father died when he was 6 years of age, and 
he remained at home in charge of the old farm until eighteen 
years of age. His father's farm was 110 acres, and in that 
rigid clime 5 it required the closest economy and hard work to get 
through the year. In October, 1844, he hired out at farm work 
at $6 50 per month, and agreed to take half store pay at that. 
He remained there 6 years, and even at that low wages suc- 
ceeded in accumulating a little money. With that, he started 
in the book agency business in Ohio, but did not succeed in the 
business, so he bought a horse and saddle and set out for Connec- 
ticut with the thermometer 15 degrees below zero. His health 
failed before he reached his journey's end. After resting and 
recruiting with relatives in New York State, in the summer 
time, betook jobs of laying stone wall for fencing purposes 
The walls were three feet six inches thick on the bottom, 4} feet 
high, and tapered out to about one foot across the top For this 
labor he received 16| cents per rod, and could lay up about 6 rods 
per day and earn about one dollar a day. When the native 
Calif ornian, who has never seen an eastern stone fence will con- 
sider the immense number of small stones required to be handled 
he can form some idea of the amount of labor required. In 
these times the laborer wants easy work and large pay, it not 
he continues his search for work. 

Mr Wilder came to California in 1853, overland, taking 
some seven months to complete the journey. At Stockton he 
left the train and went to the Placer County mines, with var- 
ied success, but finally, in June, 1859, he came to Mann County 
with about S200 and started a chicken ranch and small dairy, 
which business he continued until November, 1867, with con- 
siderable success. October 13th, 1867, he married Mrs. Miranda 
Finch, late of Michigan. 

He leased land and carried on dairy business until he came 
to Santa Cruz, in 1871, and joined L. K. Baldwin in purchasmg 



a dairy ranch. He purchased his present residence near Santa 
Cruz city in 1874. This place consists of six acres. The home 
is nicely situated, with large yard laid out in walks bordered by 
flowers, which are cultivated with great care. All the build- 
ings and fences are neat and well painted, thus indicating the 
thrift and industry of its owner. 

Thefollowing notice of D. D. Wilder's great, great grandfather 
was published in the Hartford, Conn., Courant, January, 1796: 
"May 27th, 1795, in Hartland, in Litchfield County, in Con- 
necticut, now lives Mr. Jonas Wilder, aged 95 years and five 
months. He was one of the first settlers in that town ; he was 
then, hath ever been since, and still remains the oldest person 
ever living in said town. He is capable of cutting his 
own wood, and enjoys his health; he hath been married 
twice to two women of one name, both Christian and maiden; 
he has had fourteen children, and never lost one. In 1793 his 
living issue amounted to 215. He then had lost of grandchild- 
ren and great grandchildren, 17, which made his posterity in 
the whole to amount to 232. His eldest son is aged 73 years, 
and the youngest 46. Among his sons, though but twelve, is 
one colonel, two lieutenants, two sergeants, two justices of the 
peace, three deacons and two privates. He is, and ever has 
been, an example of remarkable temperance, and after years of 
moral honesty a stranger to superfluity and needless expense." 
He died in April, 1796; he was 96 years old when he died. 

Zacoc Karner was born in Egremont, Berkshire. Co., Massa- 
chusetts, October 19th, 1811. He came to Calif ornia in Novem- 
ber, 1851; settled in Placer County where he engaged in mining, 
in company with his brother. They also kept a hotel. 

In 1860 he removed to Olema, Marin Co., where he bought 
land and engaged in dairying, which business he continued in 
company with L. K. Baldwin until 1869, when he sold his in- 
terest in the property to Mr. Baldwin and went to Monterey 
County. He purchased a ranch near Castroville, at which place 
he now owns 3,000 acres of valuable land. 

He was married, September 20th, 1870, to Charlotte A. 
Brown of Sheffield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts. 

He came to Santa Cruz in May, 1871, at which time he pur- 
chased his present residence at Bay View, in the suburbs of 
Santa Cruz. The surroundings of this home, its flowers and 
trees, indicate the Eastern birth and taste of its owner. 

S J. Lynch was born April 25th, 1822, in Sandy Lake, 
Mercer' County, Pennsylvania. At the age of fifteen he was 
apprenticed to the house carpenter and joiner's trade with 
James D. Moore, in Mercer, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. After 
serving his apprenticeship, he worked at journeying and con- 
tracting until the spring of 1845. In March, he moved to Cin- 
cinnati and there worked as foreman a few months. He then 
contracted with a firm to go to Nashville, Tennessee, to build 
a flouring mill and distillery, after completing which, he did 
a general contracting business until July, 1849, when he started 
for California by the way of New Orleans, thence to Panama, 
where he was detained about four weeks on account of the 
scarety of steamers to carry immigration to California. There 
were about 6,000 Americans waiting for vessels to carry them 
away. During this time numbers died with fever. Finally the 
old steamer "Senator" came, and with some others he got passage 
on her to California. They arrived in San Francisco, October 
oth, 1 849. After that the " Senator " commenced to run on the 

Sacramento river, and Mr. Lynch went on board to keep her 
in repairs, as on some trips she would carry away part of both 
wheel houses and receive other damage. He carried all the 
letters to Sacramento in packages from San Francisco post- 
office, paying forty cents each for letters at Frisco, and re- 
ceiving one dollar and forty cents each in Sacramento. He 
left the steamer and went to work on some buildings for Frank 
Ward on Montgomery street, at twenty dollars per day, and 
from there he started to the mines, to Marysville by steamer, 
then packed on mules to Foster's Bar on the North Yuba river, 
thence he went alone over the snow six feet deep to where 
Downieville is now located at the fork of the North Yuba 
After he arrived at Downieville it commenced snowing and 
continued for fourteen days, making the snowfall eight feet. 
He had no shelter but brush, and came very near starving 
before the snow became hard enough to travel on. He opened 
a claim there and got two and a half pounds of gold per day. 
In June, 1850, he went to San Francisco and worked at his 
former business of general contracting and house building. 
He joined the Vigilance Committee in 1851. In the same 
year he went to Santa Cruz and commenced to burn lime. A 
year later he left that business to build a house in Oakland. 
He there built a planing mill— the first in Oakland. Shortly 
after, a number of hodlums or roughs went there and com- 
menced a work of destruction, tearing down houses and taking 
possession of others, and as that stopped all business in Oakland, 
he went with Von Shmidt surveying the base line from Mount 
Diablo through to the State line. He afterwards surveyed in 
the Colorado desert, where two of the party were killed by the 
Mohave Indians. 

In 1854 he went to Santa Cruz and built a wharf for Davis 
& Jordan, the first one built on the open coast of California. 
He afterwards did general contracting, building houses, mills, 
wharves, bridges and railroads in Santa Cruz, Monterey, San 
Louis Obispo and Santa Clara counties. He found a partner in 
George Gragg of Santa Cruz. They built a planing mill and 
did a general planing and lumber business, also started lumber 
yards at Los Angeles, Wilmington and Compton. They dis- 
solved partnership in 1870. He then went in partnership with 
J. M. Griffith, Los Angeles, built a planing mill and did 
general mill work, manufacturing sash, blinds and doors. He 
sold out to his partner in 1876 and moved to Santa Cruz where 
he is living at the present time. 

He was married on the 16th of February, 1858. His wife's 
name was Jane Doneyhue, a native of New Orleans. Thev 
have had eight children— five girls and three boys. There are 
five living at this time. 

Mr. Lynch has the finest located residence in Santa Cruz, 
located on the bluff overlooking the city on the one side, and 
the Bay and beach on the other. It is one of the best residences 
in Santa Cruz County, and is constructed in modern style, with 
all the conveniences of a pleasant home. A yard laid out in 
trees and shrubbery surrounds the residence. The house being 
situated on a rising ground gives opportunity for terracing, 
which has been wisely improved, and the yard laid out in walks 
which wind about among the trees, shrubbery and arbors, mak- 
ing a delightful residence, and one of the prettiest of Santa 
Cruz homes. From the veranda is obtained a view of the end- 
less panorama of passing sails and ocean steamers far out on 
the broad Pacific. 

Personal Notices of Prominent Citizens of Watsonville, and Descriptions of their Homes. 


In October 1877, the Watsonville Pajaronian commenced 
the publication of a series of short sketches of the Pioneers of 
Pajaro Valley. The first chosen was Hon. Edward Martin and 
thie facts W erepresentod:Hewa S borniuBedfordshue,En g ^ 

the home of John Bnnyan, in 1833, Ins father being Br. John 
Martin. He had good advantages for education untd he was 
thirteen years of age, when, his health failing, he wentto ^ 
Young Martin made several voyages to Canada, Boston, and 
Havana, was wrecked once, in the Bay of Fundy, and at leng h 
,„„„, on the bark - Fanny," for California, where he arrived m 
185 At this time he was but seventeen years old, and there 
were bnt few persons in the State so young. Battling for a few 

„ ,ths in thAurly-burly of California he engaged to work 
J Bryant Hill, who had rented one thousand acres in Pajaro 
Vah V and in November, 1351, started to ride from San Fran- 

,; to San^ Cruz, over the mountains, where there was onby 


. , n f +1,,. P^aro He continued farming foi Hul 
the rich valley of the JMjaio. no 

J^dTas continued ever snrce in^the same ^ now 

having the principal *— ^^J ^Zy Public, 
1858 Mr. Martin was appointed Postmaster ^fl J 
a nd for a numb, of years has been ^ o th mostly ^ 
useful men in the county .In «««^ com fortahle hou*3 
Emrnehne Risdon, of New \olk, and rn w and 

antly with him. He came to foremost 

and a shanty were the ^ ^^jT^! ££ and has 
anTong the 2,500 inhabrtante oi the ^^» ^^ ^ 

churches, and scnooi*. original 

Va.ions publication. ^^^^^JS- 
and vigorous, and through ins w g had & 

attracted to the Pajaro VaUey and th* jnnty. 
g ood deal to do m polities, ^ "™ e * talke , f for some 

tion, ^f^^^Jl^X, and would no doubt 
years past for State Mna ^ Constitutional 

be a valuable man m eithei po .tion _ ^ ^ 

Convention nominations were n £***^ man £ his 

h ""Tf t'oltt Folrrtc^iorll District. A Kepubli- 
3KSST- *- Non-Partisan ticket. Yet a young 

man, he has many years of usefulness before him, and all who 
know him cordially hope that the years to come may add to the 
honors he has received in the past as an honest, capable and 
genial man. 

Julius Lee, Attorney at Law, of Watsonville, was bom near 
Hartford, Conn., May 25th, 1829. His father having died in 
his early infancy, he with his mother, three brothers and an 
only sister, moved to Ohio, and settled near Cleveland where his 
early years were spent. Was educated, first in the district 
schools of the country, then at Louisburg Institute, Summit Co., 
Ohio where he remained several years as student and teacher, 
and where he was fitted for College. He then entered Alle- 
ghany College, Pennsylvania, where he graduated in the year 
1852, pronouncing the valedictory to his class of that year. 
From this last Institution he received the degrees of A B. 
and of "A ML," and here he also served for a time as tutor 
then returned and acted as principal assistant teacher in said 
Louisburg Institute: was then appointed Professor of Ancient 
Languages in Washington College, Miss., m which capacity he 
a^ one year, then taught as private tutor in the ; famdy of 
Dr. Cook near Vicksburg, Miss., for one year, when choosing to 
change his profession he entered the d Horn rhos. A 
Marshall in Vicksburg, Miss., where he was admitted to he ha, 
in 1858, practiced there for a short time, and came to California 
in 1859 On arriving in San Francisco, he served for a few 
months as clerk in the office of S. W. HaUiday Esq., City and 
County Attorney, waiting for his library to come around h 
Horn He then located in Monterey where he resided about 
two years serving the most of that time as District Attorney of 
Z c uniy, firsAy appointment of the Board of Supervisor, 
and then by an election by the people. In the spring of 1862 
ht located in Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal., where he 
ha sevt since resided, and where he has devoted himself exclu- 
1 in the m-actice of law. In the last named county he was 
K i:: ed ai^ seCdt. two successive terms as District Attorney. 
He was married in 1869 to Miss Morcelia Elmore, daughter 
f T O Elmore of Elmira, N. T, and has an only son aged , 
Iht years Has confined himself strictly to his profession, m 
E has been reasonably successful, his practice ending 
to several of the adjacent counties, and to the Supreme Court of 
fr, Has never engaged to any considerable extent in 
- S Ltnsrf any kind bnt what he has accumulated has been 
r^nS^egal J— Has never sought poht- 
ical or official preferment or distinction. 

AikxandeR Lewis is a native of Westphalia Prussia, hav- 
■ T^T in 1827 He came to America in 18+6, and re- 
ffXA ^ W York. Went from there to the 
o. ? f Virginia Georgia and Alabama incessantly. 
S TlS-I^ to California, and settled in Foitatown, 
Butte County, where he resided till 1866, when he came to Wat- 

S ° Mr" Lewis erected the elegant two-story brick block, 32 feet 


front by 150 feet in depth, on the corner of Second and Main 
streets, which adorns the place. 

The first floor is occupied by Mr. Lewis, in which he has an 
immense stock of dry goods, In connection with his mercan- 
tile business, he runs a large tailoring establishment, under the 
supervision of Mr. Walsh. He also deals largely in furniture 
and bedding, the whole upstairs of the block being devoted to 
that purpose. 

In his jewelry department may also be seen a most exten- 
sive stock, every article in this line being fully guaranteed. 
He also owns the Lewis Hotel, situated on Main street (see 
illustration). Besides this, he has a residence on Carr street, 
and one on Fourth street. Also several ranches. Liberal, 
generous and public-spirited, he takes an active interest in all 
local improvements, and is recognized as one of the useful men 
of the county ; he aims to better the condition of his employees 
and will have none other in his employ but sober and indus- 
trious men, many of whom, have been with him for years. 

He married Miss Mary Averett, of Putnam County, Georgia, 
in 1853; lias three children, two daughters and a son. 

Archibald McNeely, whose ranch is shown among our 
illustrations, was born on the *22d of November, 1829, in Rowan 
County, North Carolina; came west with his parents in 1833, 
and settled in Missouri, crossed the plains with an ox team to 
California in 1852, and located near Watsonville, Santa Cruz 
County, where he has since resided. His fine*ranch of 103 
acres is situated one mile north of Watsonville, and is devoted 
to the raising of wheat, barley, corn, and all kinds of fruit. 
The facilities for irrigation are first-class, from the fact that 
the Corralitos water Hume runs through his ranch. 

Mr. McNeely came to Watsonville with but little means, 
and by his industry and economy, has placed himself in his 
present position. He married Miss C. Williams, of Missouri ; 
has had six children — two living. 

John Thomas Porter. — The subject of this sketch was born 
in Duxbury, Massachusetts, in the year 1830, and is conse- 
quently at the present writing, 49 years old. In 1849 he 
came with the Argonauts to California, and after spending a 
few years in San Dores, came to Soquel in Santa Cruz County, 
where he engaged in farming operations until about the year 
1850, he was elected Sheriff of Santa Cruz County. This office 
he filled so acceptably to the people, that he was re-elected the 
second time in 1861. President Lincoln appointed him Col- 
lector of the port of Monterey, which district included the 
ports of Monterey, Santa Cruz and San Luis Obispo. He 
field this position until a change was made about 1803, abolish- 
ing the office of Collector, when he returned to Santa Cruz 
County, and engaged in a general trading business. Being a 
wide awake man in every respect, he saw that the rich and 
fertile lands of the famous Pajaro Valley must inevitably be- 
come valuable, compared to the then ruling prices, and in- 
vested in the valuable ranch owned in part by Gen. Vallejo. 
After years of litigation, during which time Mr. Porter had to 
contend with some of the richest and most unscrupulous land 
grabbers in the State, he at last succeeded in perfecting the 
title to his lands, and at once erected a fine residence and 
entered into the possession and enjoyment of his fine estate. 

He is now the owner of several fine farms in the Pajaro 
Valley, but is not content to confine himself to the exclusive 
management of his estate, but cheerfully enters into any enter- 
prise calculated to build up the community in which he has 
made his home. In 1859 he married Miss Fannie Cummings, 
and is now the father of two children, a son and daughter, 
both nearly grown. 

W. E. Peck is the owner of two blocks on Main street, 
Watsonville, extending through to Union street, and a fine 
residence on Union street. The grounds present a very attrac- 
tive appearance. He also owns two acres of land on First 
street. Mr. Peck was born in Buffalo, New York, in 1849. 
His parents came to California in 1853, and settled in Union 
Valley, Plumas County, but soon after went to Marysville, 
where they remained till 1861, when they removed to San 
Francisco. In 1872 he came to Watsonville, where he now 
resides. He was married in 1872 to Miss Sarah Lively, and 
has two children, both girls. 

Adam Bouie, whose place of business and residence is rep- 
resented in our selection of views, has a bakery on Main street, 

Mr. Bouie was born in Montrose, Forfarshire, Scotland, May 
13th, 1822. He emigrated to America in 1842, and located in 
Montreal, Canada, where he remained till 1852. He then 
went to New York, remaining till 1859, when he started for 
the Golden State. He was married in 1851 to Miss Margaret 
Campbell, of Montreal, by whom he had one child, who died 
in 1873. Having lost his wife, he married Miss Mary Maloney, 
of New York. 

Mr. Bouie served a regular apprenticeship at his trade in 
Scotland, and has by close attention to his business, strict in- 
tegrity in his dealings, patient, untiring industry, acquired a 
competence, and has gained an enviable name among the busi- 
ness men of his town. 

Otto Stoesser, a pioneer merchant of Watsonville, was born 
near Baden Baden, Germany. He came to the United States 
in 184G. and arrived in San Francisco in 1850, making the voy- 
age around Cape Horn in the ship " Zenobia." He went to the 
mines but did not realize his golden expectations, and returned 
to San Francisco where he worked till 1853. He then started 
for the town of Santa Cruz, taking passage on the old Steamer 
11 Major. Tompkins," taking with him a lot of goods, with Uie 
intention of starting in business in the new town of Watsonville. 
When he arrived here there were but seven houses in the place, 
but he with his keen foresight saw bright prospects for the 
future. He commenced trade in a small way, and has continued 
the business entirely in his own name, except for the space of 
three months, during which time he was in partnership. 

He has a fine brick block on Main St., known as Stoesser's 
Block, finely fitted up with stores, one of which he occupies. In 
the second story there is a fine hall, occupied by Pajaro Lodge, 
1. 0. O. F., the remaining portion being divided into offices: 
he also has one of the finest farms in the valley situated one mile 
south of town. 

Mr. Stoesser has built 20 houses in this town and vicinity, 
and lias given employment to many. He has never sought 
political preferment, but contrary to his wishes was elected 



Treasurer of the town of Watsonville twelve terms. He mar- 
ried Miss E. Doran of Westford Co., Ireland, in 1862, and has 
two children. 

Dr JAMES Enos Martin, of Watsonville, is of Irish and Ger- 
man ancestry, was born March 13, 1821, at Louisville, Ivy. He 
was educated in Kentucky and Ohio, and graduated Nomine 
Ohio Medical College, and from the Eclectic Medica 
[nstitute at Cincinnati, January 23, 184-3. He settled in 1843 
at Indianopolis, where he remained four years, at the end oi 
which he went to Brazil; Clay County, Ind., removing to Waverly, 
Ind fourteen miles below Indianopolis, from where, m 1852, he 
went to California, settling first in Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co., 
next in Ukiah City, Mendocino County, where, in l&rfO, he 
built and established a Hospital upon the latest and most 
approved plan, which he conducted, both with credit and profit 
to his patients and self. The accompanying illustration of his 
dwemr ? g is nearly a facsimile of said Hospital that was burned 
Oct loth, 1873 ; when he finally located in Watsonvdle Santa 
Cruz County. In the course of his practice in surgery, he has 
amputated legs and anus to the number of forty-three; trephined 
the skulls of seven persons, of whom five died ; performed craniot- 
omy nine times without the loss of a patient. He was a member 
of the State Medical Society of California from its organization 
in 1870, until April 1878. He was County Fhyisaan of Mendo- 
cino and Monterey Counties, and has been Examining Physician 
oTa good many Life Insurance Companies. Has been mam d 
three times; the last time in Sept. 1866, and has five children 
by his last wife. 

Samuel Mokeland, deceased, was born in Donegal County, 
Ireland, in 1333; eontinned a resident of the Green Isle nntdh 
™, 13 years of age; in the Summer of 1846 he emrgrated wrth 
hi! parents to America, and settled in Green Bay, Wis He 
eonttaed to live in Green Bay nntil the Spring of 1857, dunng 
moTS which time he was employed as an engmeer; came to 
ctufomia in 1857 and settled in Santa Cruz County, where he 
"ted Arming, and through his thrift, industry, and busi- 
ng Integrity managed to leave his family m mdependen 
: u ; s tatcel He left a ranch in Monterey County va^d at 
SJS0 000 and also a fine residence on Rodenguez St T» atson 
vnle (see illustration), worth $3,000. Was married to fe 
Margaret Cecilia Loftus, of Clare County, Ireland, m 180b; has 
had three children, one girl living. 

Thomas Kennedy, whose place of business is shown among 
on" tL, resides on the comer of Roderiguez and First 

^Kennedy was born in the County Sligo, Ireland, in the 

Y In 184S he went to England, and remamed there eigh year. 
From there he emigrated to the United States, and lived in New 
Yo" one year. Started for the Golden State in 18o7 and 
]£LZfL Jose, where he lived for five years ; removed rom 
there to Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, where he has since 

" WhL he first came to Santa Cruz County he was worth 
about .100, but to-day, with hard labor and good «£* 
he owns a handsome property, conning of a one half mtercst 

in the block and lot, called the Eclipse Livery Stable, of which 
he owns the entire stuck of horses, buggies and carriages, all of 
which are first class in every respect. He also owns a block on 
Main street, residence on Roderiguez street, hotel, blacksmith 
shop and hay yard on the comer of Front and Main streets. 
Has been married about ten years, and has two children, 

both boys. . 

Mr Kennedy has been particularly unfortunate since residing 
in Watsonville. from the fact that $8,000 of his hard earnings 
was swept away in one night by the fire fiend. 

In view of these reverses, he is an example of what a man 
may become by patient industry and economy. 

Patrick McAllister is a native of County Derry, Ireland. 
He came to the United States at the age of 19, and located at 
Mineral Point, Wisconsin. He lived there 9 years; crossed the 
plains for California in 1850. He worked in the Placerville 
mines a short time, and in 1851 went to Oregon, where he en- 
gaged in mining; returned to California and worked in Mad 
Mule Canyon till 1852. He then crossed the plains to meet his 
wife and child, and returned with them by way of MarysviUe, 
arriving at Shasta the same year, crossed the Sacramento River 
and settled in Churntown. 

Mrs. McAllister was the first white woman who resided m 

th He P kept a trading post at that place, and shortly after 
removed to Pitt River and engaged in the same business. 

la 1853, he went to Monterey County and purchased the 
Balso San Keetano Ranch. This ranch contains 389 acres of 
fine land, which is well watered. 

Mr McAllister resided there for 18 years, and then came to 
Pajaro Valley, where he has since lived. The farm where he 
now resides contains 45 acres of the rich bottom land of this 

fertile valley. , _ T , .„ 

Mr McAllister owns two houses and five lots m Watsonville, 

house and lot in Salinas City, hotel and large stable at Castro- 

ville Is also a stockholder in the Watsonville Bank. _ 

He married at the age of 18 Miss Margaret Carngan of 

County Tyrone, Ireland. They had four children, one of which 
still living, who is the wife of P. J. Kelly, Esq., of this valley. 

Charles Kuhlitz was born in Germany in 1827. In 1849 
took passage for the United States in a Norway brig, having 
a very perilous voyage. 

He arrived in New York and engaged to work for a dairy- 
man at S6 per month, but soon after obtained employment at 
his trade, that of a cooper. He was married in 1I80I to _Miss 
Walters, a native of Germany, by whom he had three children. 
Came to California in 1855, accompanied by his wife and one 
child After stopping in San Francisco he went to Siskiyou 
County, where he worked in the mines, but was soon stricken 
down with rheumatism. 

After he recovered he hired out chopping wood, but fortu- 
nately Mr. Thomas, of Rock River Valley, hearing that he was 
a practical cooper, engaged him at S100 per -nth. He re- 
mained there but a short time, and then went to Eureka, Cal„ 
where he bought into a small business 

He returned to Germany to see his parents m 8.9 and 
while absent his partner sold art and absconded. On his return 



he remained long enough to settle up his business, and then 
came to Watsonville, •where he bought an interest in the Wat- 
sonville Brewery. 

He was married again in 1866 to Caroline Bambauer, and 
has six children living. He now owns a handsome property, 
consisting of two blocks on Main street, Watsonville Brewery 
on Fourth street, residence (see illustration) corner of Fourth 
and Carr streets, and a fine ranch three miles from Watsonville 
on the San Jose mountain road. 

Mr. Kuhlitz is an example of what a man may become by 
hard work and economy. 

Alex. P. Roache, who has a very fine farm about three miles 
from Watsonville, was born in Carmello Valley, California, 
in 1853, where his parents remained till 1854 when they 
removed to the old town of Monterey. In 1856 they came to 
Watsonville and located where the son now resides. 

In 1876 Mr. Roache took unto himself as"a partner for life 
Miss Edith I. Ward of Aurora, Illinois. They have one little 

His farm consists of 200 acres of land, and the improvements, 
as will be seen by illustration, are in good condition. Mr. Roach 
for a young man, has a fine start in life, and surrounded by his 
pleasant family, looks forward to many years of prosperity and 

Timothy McCarthy has a fine farm of 200 acres located 
about 2 miles east of Watsonville. His farm is principally 
devoted to the raising of grain. He has a large orchard in which 
may be found choice varieties of peaches, plums, apples, &e. 

Mr. McCarthy was born in County Waterford, Ireland, in 
1837 ; emigrated to America in 1S56, locating in Massachusetts 
remaining two years. He then came to California, stopping in 
Alameda County till 1864, and then to Santa Cruz County, 
taking up his residence in Pajaro Valley. 

He was married in 1861 to Margaret Minning, and has a fine 
family of four children. 

His place has become quite a pleasure resort, parties from 
town often holding picnics there. See illustration. 

J. D. Bagnall lives in Green Valley, six miles from Watson- 
ville and eighteen miles from Santa Cruz. 

Has five hundred acres of fine land and is so situated that he 
can raise nearly everything that belongs to the temperate and 
tropical regions; oranges, lemons, &c, flourish finely. 

Mr. Bagnall is of an old Virginian family. His father 
removed from Richmond to Washington, D. C, in 1800, and 
worked on the first newspaper published in that city after it 
became the capital of the nation. Mr. Bagnall was born in 
Washino-ton in 1824, came to California in 1849, and on account 
of ill health went to South America, remaining till 1854, engaged 
in the business of a mill-wright. 

He was married in 1857 to Miss Phoebe Peckham of Brooklyn 
New York, and has 9 children living. He has resided in Santa 
Cruz County twenty-five years, has been a life-long democrat, 
and is one of the prominent men of the County. 

Gustave de St. Paul has a store on Main Street, Watson- 
ville Santa Cruz County, where he" carries on quite an extensive 

business in the liquor trade, dealing in foreign wines and liquors, 
and jobbing in tobacco and cigars. Mr. St. Paul is a native of 
Isny near Paris; born in 1852, and came to this country in 
April 1873 in company with Mr. C. Bilhagne of San Jose 1 , an 
old California Pioneer.- He went to France in 1873 for a short 

Mr. St. Paul located in Watsonville in 1875, and has by close 
attention to business been successful. 

Hans Christian Struve was one of the first Danes who 
came to California. He was born in Schleswig in 1834. 

He left home at the age of 19, going on board of a Danish 
man of war, and was absent one year. He then went to Lon- 
don and shipped on a Chilian vessel for Cardiff, then went to 
the Sandwich Islands, remaining in Honolula a short time. 

He went from there to China, stopping at Hong Kong, 
Amoy and other places and thence to San Francisco where he 
arrived in May 1855. He first went to San Mateo County, 
and from there to the Placer County mines, where he remained 
till 1858, when he came to Santa Cruz County. 

He returned to his native town in 1863, where he married 
Cecilia Maria Storm, and returned to Watsonville in 1864. 
They have six children. Has been engaged in merchandising 
and farming. 

He has a fine ranch of 300 acres with abundance of water 
and timber. Raises large quantities of wheat, barley and beans; 
also a large amount of stock for market. Mr. Struve owns a 
block on Main Streeet, also a fine residence on Third Street^-for 
view of which see illustration, also view of his ranch. 

He is one of the representative men of this section. 

John A. Burton, a view of whose residence may be seen in 
this work, was born in Portland, Maine, 1819. He left home 
at a very early age, and shipped on board a vessel for Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. On his return he went to Baltimore, thence to 
Bremen, and from there to England. While there he wit- 
nessed the coronation of Queen Victoria. He then visited 
France and Germany, from whence he took passage for his 
native land, and arrived in New Orleans in 1840. He made 
several trips up the Mississippi River to St. Louis. He next 
went to Florida, being there during the Seminole war, and 
was an eye-witness of the surrender of the famous chief, Tiger 

While coasting along the shores of Florida, they fell short of 
provisions, and he, in company with a Mr. Balitz, were ordered 
on shore to seek aid. They lost their way, and traveled 
through swamps and marshes, eighty miles, Mr. Burton walk- 
ing the entire distance in less than twenty-four hours. Mr. 
Balitz separated from Burton, thinking that he could find a 
shorter route back, but died on the way from exhaustion. 

Mr. Burti.-n returned to New Orleans, thence to Illinois, and 
thence to Wisconsin, where he remained several years in farm- 
ing. In the spring of 1850 he came to California, where he 
lived three years, when he visited the east, seeing his relatives 
for the first time in twenty-eight years. 

He soon after returned to Wisconsin, living there till 1862, 
when he went to Minnesota, to aid in defending the inhabit- 
ants against the hostile Sioux, He was placed in command 
of a platoon to assist in burying the settlers who had lost their 



After the close of this trouble, they were ordered to Yicks- 
burg, where Mr. Burton was discharged on account of ill 
health. He returned to Wisconsin and removed to the Golden 
State, arriving here in 1863, and engaged in farming near 

In 18G9 he again visited the Atlantic States, and on his 
return went to San Francisco, where he lived four years. He 
soon after came to Watsonville, where he has since resided. 
In 1861 he married Miss Mary Meder, of St. Louis. 

He owns a fine ranch of 105 acres near Stockton, devoted 
principally to raising grain. On the property he has a large 
fit* orchard *and vineyard. His residence is on Walker street, 
being plainly seen from the cars of the Santa Cruz railroad. 

MICHAEL GagnoN, a California pioneer, was horn at St. 
Roche, Canada, in 1824. He early evinced a desire for travel. 
He went to Ireland in 1844, thence to England, and from 
there to Spain. Sailed from there to the coast of Peru, but 
soon after returned to England, and then visited his native 
place, remaining a short time ; he returned to England, thence 
to Constantinople. He soon after went to the East Indies. 
On the voyage he visited the islands of Malta and St. Helena j 
Gibralter and Egypt, where he chiseled his name on the famous 
Pompey's Pillar. After his return he went to China, and shortly 
afterwards came to California, arriving i n San Francisco Septem- 
ber 6th, 1849. The next year he went to Nevada, where he 
worked in the mines two years, and then removed to Watson- 
ville, where he has since lived. 

While in the mines he visited his old home, leaving his 
business in charge of a partner, who sold the mine for $5U,000 ) 
and pocketed the proceeds. He married Miss E. Smiley in 


By hard labor, industry and good management, he ranks 
among the best farmers of Santa Cruz County. His fine ranch 
is one° mile north of Watsonville, and is well watered. He 
produces large quantities of wheat, barley and fruit. He also 
deals largely in blooded stock, having fourteen head of Clydes- 
dale horses on his farm at the present time. 

Daniel Drussell, pioneer, was born in Prussia in the year 
1S34, emigrated with his parents to America in 1843, lived in 
Baltimore* Maryland, six years ; sailed around the Horn to 
California at an early day, and settled in Oakland ; remained 
there a short time— went from there to Tuolumne County . 
run the old Columbia Market in connection with Charles 
Williams and George Wilson. After a time he severed his 
connection with the firm, and worked for Nathan Tolman, of 
Jacksonville ; thence to Whisky Creek, five miles north of 
Shasta; thence to Bannock City, Idaho ; from there to Black- 
foot Montana ; thence to Hamilton, White Pine County, Ne- 
vada ; thence to Colfax, Placer County, California; removed 
from there to Watsonville, where he is now engaged in business. 

Mr. Drussell is a pioneer, and many interesting incidents are 
related by him, in connection with his trouble with the In- 

Married Miss Julia Bonnett, of France, daughter of Andrew 
Bonnett, in 1858; has four children, three boys and a girl. 

Mr. Bonnett introduced quite a novelty on the Pacific Coast 
in 1849. He had seven iron houses manufactured in France, 
which are now doing good service on Dupont street, San Fran- 

cisco. Mr. Drussell was worth about §1200 when he first came 
to California. To-day he owns a ranch of 400 acres in Mon- 
terey County, five miles from Watsonvil'e, which he devotes 
to raising stock and grain. He also owns a fine residence on 
Roderiguez street (see illustration), and a first-class meat mar- 
ket on Main street, and a large slaughter house with all the 
modern appliances. With hard labur and good management, 
he is to-day one of the successful business men of Santa Cruz 
County. His property is valued at 330,000. 

William Birlem, a view of whose residence is shown among 
our illustrations, was born in Germany in 1839, came to 
America in 1840, and settled in Bangor, Maine, remaining till 
1856, when he came to California and engaged in mining in 
Tuolumne County. He remained there twelve years, a part 
of the time being employed engineering, Mr. Birlem being a 
practical engineer. He removed to Santa Cruz County in 
18G6, and is now engaged as engineer for the Watsonville Mill 
and Lumber Company. 

• He married Miss Mary Hummell in 1862, and has a family 
of two boys and one girl. His residence is on Third street, 
near the Santa Cruz Railroad Depot, and its attractive appear- 
ance claims the attention of travelers on the road. 

Richmond Bradley lives in Green Valley, seven miles north 
of Watsonville, and has 106£ acres of land, well watered and 
timbered. He makes a specialty of raising grain, and has an 
abundance of fruit. His residence is in good condition, and he 
also has a good hall on his premises, which is used for Sunday 
school and other purposes. 

Mr. Bradley was born in Howard County, Missouri, in 1822, 
came to California in 1859, and engaged in farming in Napa 
Valley. Went to Oregon in 1864 ; returned to California in 
1866, and located where he now resides. 

He was married in 1842 to Susanah March. They have had 
three boys and three girls— boys still living. 

Peter A. Schmidt, who is engaged in business in Freedom, a 
small town two miles west of Watsonville, was born in Schleswig 
Holstien, in Germany, 1845. He came to America in 1871, 
and at once settled in Watsonville. 

He was married in 1876 to Miss Kate E. Johnson. They 
have no children, having lost two. 

He owns a block in Freedom (see illustration) in which is a 
grocery store, butcher shop and salooon, he superintending the 
whole." He is an industrious man, and has by hard work gained 
a footing in his adopted country. 

Charles Ground was born in Germany in 1822. Left 
home when young and went to Switzerland. From there to 
France, thence to England, thence to South America, from 
there to the United States; located in Boston. Came to Cali- 
fornia in 1853, and settled in Sacramento. Removed to Wat- 
sonville, -where he has since resided. His place of business is 
corner of Front and Main streets. 

Francisco Arano, a pioneer farmer, was born in Spain in 
1829. Emigrated to Mexico in 1844; came to California in 
1849, and has lived in Santa Cruz County 23 years. 



Was married to Mies Celedonia Amesta in 1851; has ten 
children, five girls and five boys. Mr. Arano's fine ranch is 
situated three miles north of Watsonville. His farm consists of 
150 acres. He is one among the oldest settlers of Santa Cruz 
County, who elearly remembers when the beautiful land was an 
unbroken waste, inhabited by roving bands of Indians, with 
here and there an occasional adventurous pioneer. 

Frank Aldiudge was born in the State of Kentucky, April 
20th, 1826, and is at the writing of this sketch in his 53d year. 
His father, Elijah Aldridge, was from North Carolina, and was 
married to Miss Jane White of Kentucky, in 1812. Frank 
was the sixth child, having three younger brothers and three 
younger sisters, and three older brothers and two older sisters. 
When the subject of our sketch was two years old his parent.! 
emigrated from Kentucky to Indiana. His education was 
that of the pioneer boy, attending school three months in the 
winter and working on the farm the remaining nine months. 
The only sciences taught were reading, writing, spelling and 
arithmetic. While his education from books was limited, that 
education which makes a strong character, viz., overcoming 
difficulties., self reliance, was very full. Hence the strong will, 
great energy and courage, which are his leading traits of char- 
acter. At the age of twenty he was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Young, of his immediate neighborhood. For five years after 
marriage he remained in Indiana, farming and teaching the 
common Bchools. In the spring of 1849 he took his family 
and emigrated to Illinois Here he farmed and taught school, 
the time being about equally divided between the two. In 
1850 he removed to Boone County, Iowa. Here he farmed 
taught school, and served the people as Township Clerk and 
Justice of the Peace for the space of three years. In the spring 
of 1853 he removed from there to California by way of the 
plains, with an ox team. He landed in Suisun Valley in the 
September of 1853. Here he spent his time farming with 

In 1859 he united with the Christian Church at the State 
meeting in Napa Valley camp meeting. Being a constant and 
close student of the Bible, he was ordained a minister of the 
Gospel in 1862, by the church at Vacaville, Solano County, and 
preached there and in other parts of the State with success. 
Mr. Aldridge's preaching is marked by originality of thought, 
force and boldness, while he lacks an easy flow of language. 
His sermons are filled with thought, and he does not fail to 
impress his hearers with the truths he presents, and his sin- 
cerity in presenting them. He has continued to preach at 
intervals ever since, and should he give preaching all his time 
and energy would stand high as a man of thought. His mind 
is strong and clear, seeking for the causes and reason of things. 
A man that makes warm friends and bitter enemies. He 
scorns a mean act, and dares to speak his mind; condemn the 
wrong' and approve the right. He is liberal to every good 
work; generous, kind of heart, bears no malice, frank as his 
name'; so is his character. He also has fine business sense. 

On December 31st, 1862, his wife died at Vacaville, Solano 
County. She bore him seven children, six girls and one boy, 
all living at this time. 

In March 12th, 1864, he was married to his second wife, 
Miss Sarah Jane Bradley, in Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 

She bore him three children, two girls and one boy, all living 
at home at this time. 

He moved from there to Pajaro Valley in November 1809. 

In November, 1869, his second wife died in Corralitos. In 
February, 18th, 1871, he was married to his present wife, Miss 
Anna Margaret Frarler, in Iowa, by whom he has three boys, 

one dead. . 

He bought an interest of Messrs. Herel & Sanborn in the 
Corralitos Flouring Mills. He continued to manage the busi- 
ness of said mill until July, 1878, at which time he became a 
half owner in the mill, since which time he has continued to 
manage the business and live in Watsonville. 

George Casaday.— The subject of this sketch was born in 
Quincy, Illinois, in 1840, and resided there until the year 1853. 
The tide of emigration to the west was large, and he deter- 
mined to have property of his own. His worldly possessions 
at this time were not very extensive, and in the spring of 18o3 
he came overland to California, and settled in Amador County ; 
worked in the mines till 1854, then removed to Contra Costa 
County, where he lived until 1862, when he came to Watson- 
ville, Santa Cruz County, where he has since resided. 

His fine farm of 106 acres is situated in and near the village 
of Corralitos, seven miles north of Watsonville, and one-half 
mile from the school-house and post-office. The farm is well 
watered and timbered, and is very productive. The orchard 
consists of 150 trees, in which he grows apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, apricots, nectarines, also small fruits of all kinds. 

The Corralitos Flour Mill is adjacent to his farm, which 
makes a handy market for his grain. There are also four saw- 
mills in a radius of a few miles. 

The buildings are substantial (see illustration). Mr. Casaday 
is noted for his untiring energy and unswerving integrity. 
His first wife died in 1876 ; was married again in '77, to Miss 
Catherine Davis; has one boy living. 

L. S. Hutchings' residence may be seen among our illustra- 
tions. He is one of the most noted strawberry producers of this 
section. In 1869 he purchased 70 acres of land, but has been 
adding to this until his present farm consists of 195 acres, of 
which a large part is used for general farming. 

The strawberry patch consists of three acres of bearing 
vines. He has also a very choice variety of plums, cherries, 
apricots, peaches, nectarines, pears, soft-shelled almonds, quinces, 


The farm is in one of those picturesque places in the foot- 
hills on the east side of Pajaro River, sheltered from cold 
winds, and where frost rarely comes. 

Mr. Hutchings assures us that since his location on the 
place, there has not been a frost sufficient to injure the earliest 

The view from his residence" of the valley and surrounding 
mountains, is very fine. 

Mr. Hutchings is a native of Ohio, born in 1828. His 
father moved from there to Illinois, and thence to Iowa. 
Started for California in 1849; remained at Salt Lake City 
some months, but early in 1850 arrived in California. Tt is 
amusing to hear Mr. Hutchings relate his experience, how he 
started bon voyage, fording rivers; doubling teams, through 



swamps and highways, and guessing the road in sparsely set- \ 
tied localities, guide boards being few and far between, an idea j 
may be had of the difficulties in the way of the emigrant 
when it is stated that in a distance of forty miles there is not 
a drop of water. This was in en route through the desert, and j 
it was no uncommon occurrence to see whole trains decimated 
in crossing this barren tract of sand. 

He was married in 1854 to Mary Rigby, and is blessed with 
eleven children. Coming to California as poor as the poorest, 
he is steadily going onward and upward. 

John Ford was a native of the County of Mayo, Ireland. He 
came to the United States when a boy, in the year 1856. He 
has always been a resident of this State, and has lived in the 
Pajaro Valley for about ten years, and in every position he has 
held he commanded the respect of those with whom he came in 
contact, for his manly qualities as well as for his unbounded 
liberality and kindness. Judge Ford, as he is familiarly called, 
is a public-spirited man, full of patriotism for the land of his 
adoption, and also retaining kind memories for the land of his 
birth. His word is as good as his bond, and he is sure to ad- 
vance every day in the esteem of his fellow man, for he has 
every man as his friend, as he justly deserves. 

He deserves great credit, as he may be justly styled self- 
made, which in California is a great tribute for a man. He is a 
kind father to his children, and will spare no pains to raise them 
intelligent and useful members of society, and Judge Ford to- 
day, in himself and his surroundings, is quite an acquisition to 
the Pajaro Valley, as he is one of those energetic persons who is 
bound to promote the interest of any place where he may reside, 
and add value to any enterprise by which a place might be en- 

He is in independent circumstances, and may he always be 
prosperous as he is worthy of it. 

JAMES H arkins came to the United States when a boy, from 
his native County Donegal, Ireland . He landed in San Francisco 
in 1850, and visiting the mines for a short time without the success 
he anticipated, he returned to San Francisco and took the position 
of steward on one of the P. M. S. S. Co.'s boats, where he remained 
until the Company began to run their steamers to China. After 
much persuasion he consented to act, and was on the Great Re- 
public on her first trip. As second mate he continued on that 
route until 1876. In the meantime he was constantly investing 
his money in San Francisco property. Being one of the so- 
called " lucky ones," he accumulated a fortune. 

Harkins was never married. One sister is married and has a 
large family. The other one has no children. He seems to like 
the first-named best, and does all that a brother can for a sister. 

His country residence in Pajaro, Monterey County, is a present 
to his sister's children. 

He is a man of broad mind, and shrewd in business, always 
making secure investments. 

Marcus M. Stewart's residence is represented in our selection 
of views ; he lives in Green Valley, seven miles from Watsonville, 
and eighteen from Santa Cruz. 

He was born in Richland County, Ohio, in 1828, where he re- 
mained until 1836, when he moved with his parents to Bond 
County, Illinois, thence to Dane County Wisconsin, and engaged 

in farming till 1852, when he came to California, and settled in 
Santa Cruz County, where he has since resided. When lie came 
to the valley he immediately set to work clearing, and breaking 
and making improvements for a home, in common with the first 
settlers of a new country. He has taken an active part in the 
early enterprises of the town, particularly in schools, of which 
he is a trustee at this writing. All through his life he has been 
a useful and influential citizen. 

He married Marcia H. Orook, of Vermont, in 1851, and is 
blessed with seven children. 

His farm consists of 135 acres of land, well watered and 
timbered; he makes a specialty of raising grain, and has an 
abundance of fruit. 

He has acquired a liberal education, and is one of the most 
advanced farmers in this section of the State. 


This edifice is not only the largest and most commodious, 
but also the best finished and most costly of the churches of 
the above-named town. Its foundation was laid on the 17th 
day of March, 1864, by the Eight Reverend Thaddeus Amat, 
D. D., Catholic Bishop of the diocese of Monterey and Los An- 
geles, assisted by Rev. Appolinarius Roussell, Catholic pastor 
of the congregation. This church measures in length 114 feet, 
and in width 53 feet. Its foundation is of brick work to the 
usual height, and the superstructure is of frame work of the 
best material. Towards the end of 1864, the skeleton of the 
church was completed, and this, with the necessary pews and 
other requirements, was erected at a cost of about S7,250 00, 
all under the supervision of James Waters, Esq., of Watson- 
ville. At this time materials and workmanship commanded a 
high figure, and the pastor, Rev. A. Roussell, received from the 
people some subscriptions, so as to diminish the indebtedness 
to $6,000 in July, 1866. At this date he was obliged to con- 
tract a loan from the Hibernia Bank of San Francisco, for the 
amount of the S6,000, and to secure said loan, the Catholic 
Church and its property in Pajaro Valley, was mortgaged. 
This loan was given under the following tt mis, viz., at two 
per cent, per month interest, and if not paid as it became 
due monthly, then the whole amount of said unpaid interest 
was to be compounded ; also the principal and interest was to 
be paid in monthly installments of $117.30, each installment 
corresponding with a consecutive month, and the payment of 
the whole to take place six years from July, 1866. As the 
congregation was mainly made up of farmers, this contract 
could not be met monthly, and as a result the debt increased 
from accumulated interest, so that this, together with insur- 
ance money advanced yearly by the bank, embarrassed very 
much the Catholic Church of Watsonville. Nevertheless, the 
pastor and his people struggled under the burthen, and from 
1866 to 1868 redeemed about twelve notes. 

In September, 1867, the Rev. M. W. Mahoney, the present 
pastor, was transferred by Episcopal mandate, from Santa 
Ciuz, to exert his zeal both for the spiritual welfare of the 
people of Pajaro, and to use his most assiduous efforts to save 
their church from being sold. It was an uphill task, as every 



just Catholic will admit, and being buffeted on one wide by 
having to attend to the small-pox patients in the pest house 
and elsewhere, for tiny were many that year, and on tin- 
other, by an enormous debt, relief was only expected from the 
liberality of our Catholics, who are never behind. This was 
not a vain expectation, and by continual and annual subscrip- 
tions, the church of St. Patrick was freed from debt in October, 
1873, after a hard struggle for five years, by payment of over 
875,000. But it then required to be finished on the inside, as 
Catholics are not contented with serving God in an unfinished 
church, when then can help otherwise, and so to raise the then 
skeleton to the dignity of a temple, and so change the manger 
into a church, a contract was signed in November, 1874, with 
James Waters, Esq., for the effecting of the same. This con- 
tract was to cost in lumber and workmanship, and the painting 
anew of the outside, about So, 400. This contract was finished 
in April, 1875, and the church was solemnly blessed on May 
9th of the same year, by Right Rev. Francis Moya, D. D„ of 
Los Angeles, assisted by the pastor, Rev. M. "YV. Mahoney, and 
the Catholic clergy of Santa Cruz, Gilroy, Castroville and else- 
where. On the loth day of January, 1875, the church was 
mortgaged, so as to raise the amount of §3,350. 

In June, 1879, the Catholic church was still in debt an 
amount of $2,050. The congregation is mixed, being composed 
of English speaking people, and also of Spanish dialect. The 
former are Irish and Irish-Americans, and are mostly inde- 
pendent in circumstances, being the result of the untiring 
energy of the Celt, and the latter are nearly all poor, having 
lost all they had in being unprogressive in labor, etc. The 
gospel is preached every Sunday and holy day, in both English 
and Spanish, as each nationality have their respective hours of 
service. It is earnestly expected that the Catholics of Watson- 
ville who have done so much in the past, will renew their 
energy, and contribute ere long a sufticient amount to liqui- 
date the balance debt on their beautiful church, so that every 
one may see that they have given of their substance for the 
"lorv of God, and that they expect in a better world, the re- 
ward of their charity. The congregation is in a flourishing 
condition, and their church is already possessed of an organ 
second to none in the county, and the furniture of the church 
is of the most costly kind. The condition of the congregation 
will yet be improved, for hopes are sincerely entertained that 
some who are not practical in their belief, will become so, and 
that thus they will endeavor to serve God, spirit and truth, as 
is their duty, and that thus uniting with their brethren in 
practice, they may also glorify God as does the church-, and 
merit for themselves a recompense. 


The following interesting account of old settlers we clip 
from the Samta Cruz Courier: "On the Laguna ( 'alebero 
ranch, in this county, there is living, at the present time, an old 
Californian named Jose Maria Amador, who was born in San 
Jose in tin' year A. D. 1778, and is consequently 100 years old 
in 1878. He has been married five times, has had 40 children, 
80 grandchildren and 20 great grandchildren. In his youth 
he entered the Mexican army, and on account of the brilliancy 
of his uniform and his skill with tin.' riata, rose to be a Brigadier 
General. Returning to California, he founded the Pueblo of 

Sonoma, and became possessor of the beautiful Amador ranch. 
The old gentleman is now living with his fifth wife, is erect and 
sprightly in his gait, and laughs at his grey-haired sons of 70 
and upwards. Judging from present appearances, Mr. Amador 
must have been a high-toned cabellero in his day." 

Marino Hablitas, died at the close of the year 1S7G. His 
birth was coeval with that of the nation. He was an Indian, 
named Marino Hablitas, of Jesus. In the registers of baptisms 
in the Catholic Church the following entry appears : 

" On the 25th of April, 1792, in the Church of the Mission of 
Santa Cruz, I baptized a boy about sixteen years old, called in 
his gentility Telos, son of Cholmo and Ninpen, of a ranch 
nanved Chaloctaca, to whom I gave the name and surname of 
Mariana Hablitos. His godfather was Ramon Linary, a soldier. 

Fr. Tidro Salazar." 

Thus it will be seen that Mariano died at the ripe age of one 
hundred years. For twenty-five years prior to his death, Win. 
F. Cooper provided for all the humble -wants of Mariano, and at 
his death, had him decently interred. In fact, the few Indians 
now remaining of the once powerful tribe who inhabited Santa 
Cruz, look upon Mr. Cooper as their friend and protector, be- 
cause of his many acts of kindness to them. 


The county has a good class of inhabitants, and in habits of 
thrift and industry are far ahead of many other counties in the 
State. Santa Cruz County has a law-abiding set of inhabit- 
ants, equal to those of any other county. In early times society 
was disorganized, and disagreements among settlers were com- 
mon, but of late years peace and quietness have been the rule. 

Since the organization of the county, the population has 
slowly but steadily increased. That part of the county near 
Santa Cruz has grown more rapidly in population and in in- 
creased value of property. Society is however somewhat divided 
into groups, caused by the great mixture of nations and habits 
of life. In early times people were more united and harmo- 
nious in their associations. The early settlers well remember 
the long trip taken to visit a friend. 

Many of the first settlers recollect the carts used in early 
days by the Californians. They usually traveled from place to 
place on horseback, but when the family desired to visit a 
neighbor or go to town, the family coach was called into use. 
That vehicle consisted of two immense wooden wheels, cut or 
sawed off a log, with holes as near the ceuter as convenient for 
the axletree, with a tongue lashed to the axle with rawhide 
thongs. Upon this a frame as wide as the wheels would permit, 
and from seven to twelve feet in length, was placed, upon which 
was securely fastened one or two rawhides with the flesh side 
down, and a rude frame over the top, upon which to stretch an 
awning, with rawhide thongs wove around the sides to keep the 
children from tumbling out. The female portion of the family, 
with the small children, would seat themselves in the cart, to 
which was attached a pair of tin; best traveling oxen on the 
ranch. An Indian would drive, or rather lead the oxen, (for he 
usually walked ahead of them). In this simple, rude contri- 
vance the family would travel twenty or thirty miles in a day 
with as much comfort, apparently, as people now take in 
riding in our modern vehicles. Sometimes several families 
would ride in a single cart, and visit their friends, go to town 
for the purpose of shopping, or to attend church, etc. 





In 1776 the presidio and mission of San Francisco were 
founded, on the extreme border of California civilization; the 
presidio being a kind of frontier command, with jurisdiction ex- 
tending to the northern limit of Spanish discovery, San Fran- 
cisco was founded on September 17, 1776. 

„n October, 1775, Bodega Bay bad been discovered by a 
Spanish voyager, and named in honor of its discoverer. The 
very month that San Francisco was founded, Capt. Quiros made 
the first boat voyage up the intricate windings of what is now 
Petaluma Creek, and proved that there was no communication 
in this direction between the bays of Bodega and San Francisco, 
as had hitherto been supposed In 1793 much alarm was caused 
by a report of the Indians that English vessels were anchored in 
Bodega Bay. The Viceroy of Mexico ordered Gov. Arrillaga to 
taketmmediate steps for the protection of Spanish rights. One 
of the measures adopted was the opening of a road for the trans- 

bue all possible aid; but at the same time complained that Cos- 
koff had been for five years in occupation of Spanish territory. 
Kotzebue sent for Coskoff to come to San Francisco for a con- 
ference on the subject. Don Gervasio Arguello was the bearer 
of the message, and brought back the first definite report of the 
new settlement, which consisted of twenty-five Russians and 
eighty Kodiac Indians. The conference between Arguello, Kot- 
zebue and Coskoff took place on board the Ru rick, on October 
28th, the Russian chief having made the voyage from Ross in a 
baidarka, or skin boat. Jose Maria Estudillo, grandfather of 
our present State Treasurer, and Louis Antonio Arguello, after- 
wards Governor of California, were present, while the natural- 
ist, Chamlsso, served as interpreter. Nothing resulted from the 
interview, since Coskoff claimed to be acting under orders of the 
government of Sitka. Subsequent communications on the sub- 
ject were not satisfactory in then results, since the Russians long 
remained in possession of the lands they had so arbitrarily ap- 
propriated to themselves. 

As soon as the presence of the Russians at Bodega was re- 
ported by the Indians, Sergeant Jose Sanchez and Corporal Her- 

■n'-.i'iTitr-"',-.-;- . 'liffiiSji 

Gen. Vallejo's House, Sonoma, 
portationof supplies by land. A battery was constructed and 
four cannons planted at Bodega, as I have heard my father and 
his contemporaries relate, but the small garrison was withdrawn 
after a little, and the guns were taken to Monterey. 

Bodega and Ross, now within the limits of Sonoma County, 
were occupied by the Russians in May, 1812. As the new- 
comers came without permission from the Spanish Government, 
they may be termed the pioneer "squatters of Caliioi-ma. 
Alexander Coscotf, who had a wooden leg, and was by us called 
" Pie de Palo," was in command of the foreigners, whose arrival 
waS first known to the California authorities in 1813. Governor 
Arguello sent dispatches of the Viceroy Revilla Gigedo, ordering 
tlJlWnsaway; the only reply was a verba *W*£ 
effect that the Viceroy's orders had been forwarded to St. Peteis 
burs fur the action of the Emperor. 

In 1816 there arrived at San Francisco the Russian brig 
Rurick, under command of Otto von Kotzebue, in charge of a 
scientific expedition. Gov. Sola, in accordance wih oi te^ 
the Spanish Government, went to San Francrsco to oftei lvotze 

1848.— "Barracks.— Mission Church. 

rera, disguised as Indians, reconnoitered the Russian establish- 
ments. On their return a band of horses were taken across the 
Bay bein" forced to swim behind canoes, to what is now Lime 
Pobrt called " playita de los Caballos" by the Californians, from 
this circumstance. Padre Altimira and his party left Lime 
Point on June 25th; passed, during the following day, the Punta 
de los Esteras, called by the Indians Chocuali. where Petaluma 
now stands, and encamped at night on the Arroyo Lema, where 
my old adobe afterwards stood. June 27th he reached the 
Lacuna de Tolay, on the hills just back of Donahue. The expe- 
dition went on toward the northeast, and arrived at the present 
valley of Sonoma, so called, according to Padre Altimira, by for- 
mer Indian residents. The party encamped on the little Arroyo 
of Pulpula. Here a guard of soldiers was detailed, and the sup- 
ply train made ready, and Padre Altimira, after writing to ask 
license and a blessing from Padre Sarria, President of the Mis- 
sions, started on August 23d for Sonoma, where he arrived on 
the 25th. The Padre narrates his movements as follows: 

'< We chose a site and began work. In four days we have cut 
100 redwood beams with which to build a granary. A ditch 



has been dug, and running water brought to the place where 
we are living (now Mr. Pickett's vineyard;; we are making a 
corral to which, by the grace of Gob, our cattle will be brought 
to-morrow. We are all highly pleased with the site, and all 
agree that it offers more advantages than any other between here 
and San Diego." These words are taken from a letter to Gov. 
Arguello, dated near San Francisco, August 31, 1823. 

Three years after the events I have just related, the Indians 
fell upon the new Mission and destroyed it. Fortunately, Padre 
Altmira escaped with his life; but as he could not agree with 
his superiors, he went down to Santa Barbara, and in company 
with Padre Antonio Ripoli, embarked on an American vessel, 
commanded by Captain Joseph Steele, and bade a final adieu to 
the country. In 1827 San Francisco Solano sprang up anew 
from its ashes, in charge of the virtuous and active Padre For- 
tuni, and under the protection of the Presidio at the Golden 
Gate. Padre Fortuni remained in charge of the Mission until 
1830, when the work of rebuilding in more permanent form was 

In June, 1834, Gov. Figueroa, learning that many colonists 
with their families, were coming from Mexico to settle in Cali- 
fornia, and deeming it wise to make some preparations in ad- 
vance for the establishment of the colony, personally undertook 
an expedition to the northern frontier, extending his survey as 
far as the Russian Presidio of Ross. After exploring the coun- 
try, he chose a site for the colony marked off the plaza and 
dwelling-lots which were to constitute the new pueblo, and 
named that " City of the Future," in honor of the Mexican 
President and "Vice-President, Santa Ana y Farias. The site 
selected was in Santa Rosa Valley, on the banks of the arroyo 
of Potiquiyomi, now known as Mark West Creek. 

In 1S35 I had been directed by my Government to advance 
our colony northwestward. After the advance of the Russians, 
continual disputes arose between our colonists and theirs, and as 
my settlers were ready for a quarrel, and were not sparing of 
those " energetic " words well known in the English idiom, our 
neighbors gradually retired towards Ross, and left the country in 
possession of their rivals, who, like good Anglo-Saxons, knew how 
to maintain their rights. Matters constantly became more and 
more complicated until 1840, when Col. Kupreanoff, Governor 
of Sitka, came to San Francisco, and many official communica- 
tions passed between him and myself, as military commander of 
California. The result was that the Russians prepared to aban- 
don their California property, and proposed to sell me their 
property. I was obliged to decline, because they insisted on 
selling the land, which was already the property of my Govern- 
ment Finding that I would not yield the point, they applied 
to Governor Alvarado, at Monterey, and received from him a 
similar reply; then they applied to John A. Sutter, who made 
the purchase. I will not stop to consider the conduct of Sutter in 
this matter; suffice it to say that California was at last, in 1841, 
freed from guests who had always been regarded by- us as in- 
truders. Yet, it is but just to say, that in all mercantile trans- 
actioas the Russians are notable for strict honesty, as in social 
intercourse for hospitality and affability of manner towards our 
people. They took immense number of otter, beaver and seal 
skins during their stay, and left the country almost without 
fur-beaiing animals. 

-Sutter at once began to transfer ah movable property to New 

Helvetia. While he was thus engaged in 1843, Capt. Stephen 
Smith arrived at Bodega, in the "George Henry," bringing with 
him the first steam engine ever seen in California* Captain 
Smith had a grant of land at Bodega from Gov. Micheltorena, 
and with his partner and brother-in-law, D. Manuel Torres, 
bought some of the Russian buildings from Sutter, establishing 
a steam saw mill near the port, Thus Sonoma County had the 
honor of introducing this element of wealth and progress. 

On the day when the engine began to work, Captain Smith 
sent invitations to all the Sonoma settlers, and I, with my brother 
Salvador, was one of the first to arrive. I distinctly remember 
having predicted on that occasion, that before many years there 
would* be more steam engines than soldiers in California. My 
readers can bear witness that I was no false prophet. The suc- 
cessors of Smith have not only proved the truth of my words, 
but have almost verified the remark of my compatriot, Gen. 
Jose Castro, at Monterey, that "the North Americans were so 
enterprising a people, that if it were proposed, they were quite 
capable of changing the color of the stars." 

A little before dawn on June 14, 1846, a party of hunters 
and trappers, with some foreign settlers, under command of 
Capt. Merrit, Dr. Semple and William B. Ide, surrounding my 
residence at Sonoma, and without firing a shot, made prisoners 
of myself, then commander of the Northern frontier, of Lieut. 
Col. Victor Prudon, Captain Salvador Vallejo, and Jacob P. 
Leese. I should here state that down to October, 1845, 1 had 
maintained at my own expense, a respectable garrison at Sonoma, 
which often in union with the settlers, did good service in cam- 
paigns against the Indians; but at last, tired of spending money, 
which the Mexican Government never refunded me, I disbanded 
the force, and most of the soldiers who had constituted it left 

Years before I had urgently represented to the Government 
of Mexico the necessity of stationing a sufficient force on the 
frontier, else Sonoma would be lost, which would be equivalent 
to leaving the rest of the country an easy prey to the invader. 
What think you, my friends, were the instructions sent me in 
reply to my repeated demands for means to fortify the country/ 
These instructions were, that I should at once force the immi- 
grants to recross the Sierra Nevada, and depart from the terri- 
tory of the Republic. To say nothing of the inhumanity of 
these orders, their execution was physically impossible. First, 
because I had no military force; and second, because the immi- 
grants came in autumn, when snow covered the Sierra so quickly 
as to render return impracticable. I can assure you that the 
American immigrants never had cause to complain. 

The " Bear Flag " party carried us as prisoners to Sacra- 
mento, and kept us in a calaboose for sixty days or more, until 
the authority of the United States made itself respected, and 
the honorable and humane Commodore Stockton returned us to 
our hearths. I have alluded to this episode of my life rather as 
an event connected with history than from a desire to speak of 
myself, since at times like the present, individuality disappears 
before the magnitude of the subject which claims our attention. 
I will simply remark, that I retain no sentiment of hostility 
either against those who attacked my honor and my liberty, or 
against those who endangered my life, disturbed the peace of 
my family, and took possession of my property. 

College or Lettees, ITniteksitt of California, Beekeley 

The University of California, established in 1859, is now per- 
manently fixed at Berkeley, a neighborhood in the Township of 
Oakland, in Alameda County. The commencement .boom 
were held here July 16th, 1873, and the instruction of the classes 
betran on the 24th of the following September. During the time 
between the dates above given, the University occupied certain 
buildings in the city of Oakland, a part of which were previously 
used by the College of California, a private corporation which 
was merged in the University. 

The first meeting of the Board of Regents was held on the 9th 
day of June, 1868,^ »■ constituted as follows: The , Governor 
n f the State the Lieutenant-Governor, the Speaker of the As 
H for^ho time being, the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion L President of the State Agricultural Society, the Presi- 
Zi7l e Mechanics' Institute of the city of San Francisco 
and tfie President of the University are all ex-officio members of 
the Board K*t members for the State at large were apposed 
wt Gove nor, who, together with the foregoing ex-officio 
pLel elected eight others, making the entire number twenty- 
fh^the appointed and elected members held terms varying 

X%°n« n /^I' Berkeley is situated about four miles 

J£ fountains , at - ^^STST^ 
^dte eight hundred and eleven ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^^o^lhtc^^ulh!— wnL Strawberry 

,-,.,, \ The surface of the track has a charmingly varied topog- 
raphy affording excellent locations for the buildings, and for the 
cultivation of trees, shrubs and otherplants, as well as for experi- 
ments in apiculture and horticulture, the study of botany, and 
instruction through practical illustration in the field, in the vari- 
ous departments of surveying and engineering^ Its natural 
beauties and its fine outlook toward die Bay of San Francisco 
and the Golden Gate, through which on a clear day may be seen 
the ocean and the Farallones Islands. 

In an oration delivered by the Hon. John B. Felton, the situa- 
tion is thus described: "It would be risking little to say that 
nowhere in the world could a place be found more lovely or 
more exquisitely adapted to its purpose. Sheltered by the moun- 
tains from the winds of the ocean, the student will drink m 
health and strength from a climate more beautiful and an air 
more pure than that which attracts to Italy the death-shunning 
invalid Copious streams that shah hereafter be classic, descend 
from ravines in the mountains, and long lines of majestic trees 
stand like sentinels on the banks. At a short distance stretehes 
the great harbor of San Francisco, whose broad breast can bear 
the navies of the world; and on its other side is that restless and 
agitated city which, having known no infancy but leaping into 
existence as Minerva sprang from the brain of Jove, fully armed 
and matured, seems to crave the healthful and calming mfluems. 
of a great University. In full view towards the ocean, beyond 
where the fort of Alcatraz points its threatening guns the Golden 
Sate lies lapped in the glorious light that gave it ^prophetic 
nate AndVe last glance of the future student of California, 
"he leaves his native shore-his first returning glance as he 
welcomes home-shall fall on the spires of his own M™ .£**. 

The two edifices, constructed by the liberality of the State, at 
Berkeley are now oo^l?^*^^^ 

well adapted to the purposes of the institution.,^, 
students now receiving instruction within its walls > over three 
hunLd, and as the proportion of scholars in the — ^ 
are in these latter days in excess of those pursuing cWcal and 



literary courses as [under the old collegiate curriculum, and re- 
quire more room for chemical, metallurgical, mechanical and 
similar studies than the other classes, more buildings are already 
needed; moreover, the students in the various special subjects are 
divided into so many different groups that the separation of them 
into classes as in recitations simply is out of the question. 

The length of the north building is one hundred and sixty-six 
feet; its average width, sixty feet; and its height, sixty-four feet. 
It has four stories, and is divided into thirty-two compartments, 
the principal of which are as follows: One large assembly room; 
forty-three by fifty-eight feet, and one philosophical lecture-room 
of the same dimensions. Two class-rooms for industrial and 
free-hand drawing. Five mathematical class-rooms. Two for 
ancient languages and history. Four for modern languages, and 
one for political economy and geography. Two rooms for his- 
tory and English literature. Two rooms for civil engineering 
and ' industrial mechanics. One study-room for young ladies, 
and one also for young men when not in recitations. Faculty- 
rooms. One room for the armory. One room for the printing 
office; and the remainder rre used for class purposes in general. 
The South Hall is a brick building. Its dimensions are 
as follows: Length one hundred and fifty-two feet; average 
width, fifty-six feet. There are four stories, and thirty- 
four rooms in the building, six of them being thirty-two 
by forty-eight feet, and several of the others wenty by 
twenty-six feet. The corner-stone was laid in August, 
1872, with public ceremonies; the corner-stone of the north 
building was laid in the spring of 1873, in the presence of 
the officers and students of the University. The south hall con- 
tains the chemical la-oratories, with their accessory store-rooms, 
balance-rooms, etc.; lecture-room, for scientific lectures by the 
Professors, and is supplied with all the requisite conveniences for 
experiments, etc.; lecture-room, study, and laboratory of the col- 
lege of agriculture; this is also well equipped; library occupying 
two rooms; museum and museum laboratory, occupying five 
rooms; Secretary's office, and ante-rooms to same, and sundry 
smaller rooms used as study-rooms and sitting-room for young 
lady students while awaiting recitations. 

Two propagating houses have been constructed, and were 
ready for use in the latter part of August, 1874, and a commo- 
dious and convenient building for work-rooms, with suitable 
benches for potting and handling plants constructed; with storage 
arrangements for prepared soil, pots, tools, etc., and a suitable 
office for gardener, and sleeping-room for watchman. The propa- 
gating houses are of the dimensions respectively of thirty by 
twenty feet, and sixty-four by fifteen feet, and in the rear of the 
laboratory pertaining to said houses, sixty-four feet in length by 
twelve feet in width; these buildings are arranged so as to facili- 
tate the work, and so conveniently placed that the whole is 
easily supervised by the gardener. A well-designed and conven- 
ient bam, thirty-six by forty-four feet, and a story and a half in 
height has been built, and the principal road which traverses 
the farming grounds has been marked out and partly 
graded, to facilitate the farm work. The propagating-houses 
were ready for use on the 22d of August, 1874, since 
which date 10,000 plants of twenty species of eucalyptus, 
5,000 acacias of twenty-five species, 200 species of native 
and foreign coniferse, also numerous rare forms peculiar to 
Australasia, south and central America, and elsewhere, 
and many species of textile, medicinal, and other economic 

plants have been produced. We may mention 112 varieties 
of roses, thirteen ofazaleas, twelve of camelias, and six of 
magnolias, for ornamental purposes. Forty acres of the Uni- 
versity grounds are dedicated to agricultural purposes, including 
fruit culture, experiments in deep and shallow plowing, and with 
different fertilizers, etc., as well as the propogation of plants of 
all kinds, and the entire domain of two hundred acres furnishes 
means for illustrating botany, forestry, landscape gardening, etc. 
There are two propagating houses and a commodious working- 
house connected with the same, a large and convenient barn, and 
the establishment is well supplied with farming and gardening 
implements. A great amount of work has been done here within 
the last two years, as well as in the general improvement of the 
grounds. The gardener has turned out thousands of trees, shrubs 
and plants from the propagating houses. The planting of a 
standard orchard, for the purpose of correcting the nomenclature 
of the fruits already in cultivation, and for furnishing hereafter 
cions and plants for distribution through the State, as above has 
received proper consideration. 

The general reference library of the University is now placed 
on the main floor of the south hall. This is regarded as only a 
temporary arrangement until a proper building can be con- 
structed. The reason for the selection of this room was its 
accessibility, its light and cheerful character, and the fire-proof 
construction of the building. The library is arranged by subjects 
in alcoves and in cases. The number of volumes is about 12,000. 
The support of the library is derived from an appropriation by 
the Regents, of $5,000, made several years ago, and expended 
chiefly under the direction of The Library Committee. The 
library remains quite small, but is an excellent nucleus for a col- 
lege library especially in English and French books. There are 
but few in other languages. The legislature of the State, in 
1873, made a special appropriation of the sum of S4.800 for the 
increase of the library, and with this amount large accessions 
have been made. 

The museum, though deficient in organic forms, is neverthe- 
less large and particularly rich in the possession of several large 
collections of minerals, ores and fossils, the gifts of several public- 
spirited and generous citizens. It includes as well the large 
collections of the late Geological Survey of this State, the mag- 
nificent Hanks collection, 'the gift of James R. Keene, Esq.; the 
valuable Voy collection, the gift of D. O. Mills, Esq.; the smaller 
but important collection of the late F. L. A. Pioche, and other 
smaller collections, the whole forming together with the Ward 
series of casts of extinct forms of animal life, a most interestino- 


and valuable adjunctto the University, and a most entertairiino- 
study to the transient visitor. In addition to the additional 
courses of study in Agriculture and Letters which were com- 
menced in 1S69, a course in Engineering was begun in 1S71. 
Since then the courses in Mechanics, Mining and Chemistry have 
been established, and the course in Letters has been separated, 
into a classical and literary course. In accordance with the 
phraseology of the laws of the State, these courses are commonly 
spoken of as " colleges." At the head of each of these seven de- 
partments of instruction is a professor, who acts under the Pres- 
inent and Faculty as the director of the studies of the course. 
The seven courses are as follows: 
Agriculture, Mechanics, Mining, 

CHEansTRY, Engineering, Classics, 



This large and flourishing institution is located in the beautiful 
city of Oakland, California, on the corner of Twelfth and Castro 
streets, and is owned and controlled by an association whose stock- 
holders may be found in California, Oregon, Washington Territory, 
Nevada, and many of the States east of the Rocky Mountains. 

The association owns 100 feet of land facing Twelfth street- and 
140 feet facing Castro street, and for business purposes has two large 
buildings — one fronting Castro street, built in the form of a Greek 
cross, the main portion 26x66, the transverse section 26x44, two 
stories high with basement and attic. 

This building contains, in the basement, a large stock of paper for 
book and news printing, imported direct from mills in the East; 
on the first floor, a commodious counting-room, a book and general 
sales and shipping room, and rooms for casting and finishing type, and 
a well equipped machine shop. On the second floor is a reception par- 

by Ives Scoville, of Oakland. Adjoining this is a three-story frame 
building, 14x24. The first story is occupied by a complete stereo- 
type and electrotype foundry, the second and third for batli and 
lodging rooms. Over all is a 5000 gallon water tank which is supplied 
from a well by a steam pump, and furnishes water for the entire in- 
stitution and some neighboring dwellings. 

The association also owns the large two-story double dwellings in 
the delta of the two business houses. The increasing prosperity of 
this institution indicates that in the near future this will give place 
to a building for business purposes. 

The whole investment, including stock on hand, is about £80,000. 
The number of hands employed is about fifty-five. 

There are two papers published by this institution. The Signs of 
tlie Times, an 8-page weekly, devoted to religion, the home circle, and 
a condensed summary of the news of the day, both secular and 

lor and book bindery. The attic is divided into five appartments, and 
is used for storage and lodging purposes. The whole is surmounted 
by a neat and commodious observatory which gives a fine view of the 
cities of Oakland and San Francisco, the Bay and the surrounding 

The other building, fronting on Twelfth street, was erected during 
the summer of 1878, is 30x84 feet, two stories and an attic. It is 
connected with the other buildings in the rear, which it is finished 
to match. 

The first floor contains two cylinder and four job presses, and the 
best equipped job printing office in Oakland. The second story is 
used for newspaper and book type-setting, and engraving. The attic, 
lighted by double dormer windows, is use* for storage and lodging 

In the rear of the main building is a brick engine room, contain- 
ing a twelve horse-power horizontal engine and boiler, manufactured 

religious. It has a circulation of nearly 10,000, a good proportion of 
which goes east of the Rock Mountains, Price, §2.00 a year. The 
Pacific Press is a monthly, of which two editions are printed, 5000 
for Oakland and 5000 for San Francisco, and is becoming one of the 
best advertising mediums on the Coast. 

The facilities of this house for job, book and newspaper printing 
are unsurpassed, and although located several blocks from the center 
of trade, yet by a careful attention to business and the interests of its 
customers, it is able to gain and keep the better class of Oakland pat- 
ronage. One feature of this house is its country patronage, to which 
it gives special and careful attention. Estimates are furnished on 
application, and satisfaction guaranteed. 

The type foundry is yet in its infancy, but printers can rest assured 
that the same care and attention which has rendered the other 
branches of its business a success will soon present them with «• 
specimen sheet which it will be for their interest to examine. 

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Authentic Table of Property Statistics of California. 

Assessed Valok of Property for 1877- 

Alameda - - - - - 



Butte - 


Colusa - 

Contra Costa - - - 
Del Norte - - - - 
El Dorado - - - - 
Fresno ----- - 




Luke ■ 

Lassen - - - - 
L^s Angeles - - 
Marin - - - - 
Mariposa - - - 
Mendocino - - - 
Merced - - - - 
Modoc - - - - 


Monterey - - - 
Napa ------ 

Nevada - - - - 

Placer - - - - - 


Sacramento - - 

San Bernardino 

San Benito - - 

San Diego - - - 

San Francisco - 

San Joaquin - - 

San Luis Obispo 

San Mateo - - - 

Santa Barbara - 

Santa Clara - - 

Santa Cruz - - 

Shasta - - - - 

Sierra - - - - - 

Siskiyou - - - ■ 

Solano - - - 

Sonoma - - - 

Stanislaus - - 

Sutter - - - - 

Tehama - - - 


Tulare - - - 
Tuolumne - - 
Ventura - - - 




1,267, 17u| 

2 662,628 



29 50 
3 22 
2 62 

13 28 
2 28 
7 92 

11 51 

2 95 
2 62 
2 79 
4 18 

1 89 
6 14 

2 60 
4 79 

15 24 

2 93 

1 34 
194 05 

10 92 

2 45 
16 28 

1 62 
23 41 
14 2 

3 39 

3 10 

2 82 
12 92 
10 53 

4 49 

6 96 

3 41 

7 94 
2 47 
2 56 

4 43 
10 84 

4 64 





Authentic Table of Acres and Productions of California, 

son Yeah 1877. 


Alameda - - 


Amador - - - 

Butte ■ 

Calaveras - - 
Colusa - - - 
Contra Costa 
Del Norte - 
El Dorado - 
Fresno - - - 
Humboldt - 



Los Angeles - - - 
Marin ------ 



Merced - - - - - 


Mono - 



Nevada - - 

Placer - ----- - 

Plumas - 

Sacramento - - - 
San Benito - - - - 
San Bernardino - 

San Diego 

San Francisco - - 

San Joaquin 

San Louis Obispo 

San Mateo 

Santa Barbara - 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz - - - 
Shasta - 

Sierra - - 

Siskiyou ---'-- 


Sonoma - - - - - 
Stanislaus - - - - 

Sutter ■ 


Trinity • 

Tulare ------ 

Tuolumne - - - - 


Yolo - 



















Totals $24,812,560 































































































































































2,425,429 36,952,222 709,630 14,100,561 

- 360 





































































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